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1.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371873

RESUMO

Menopause, probably the most important natural change in a woman's life and a major component of female senescence, is characterized, inter alia, by cessation of ovarian estrogen and progesterone production, resulting in a gradual deterioration of the female immune system. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is used in postmenopausal women to relieve some of the peri- and postmenopausal symptoms, while there is also evidence that the therapy may additionally partially reverse menopausal immune senescence. Flavonoids, and especially isoflavones, are widely used for the treatment of menopausal symptoms, although it is not at present clear whether they can reverse or alleviate other menopausal changes. HRT reverses the menopausal CD4/CD8 ratio and also limits the general peri- and postmenopausal inflammatory state. Moreover, the increased levels of interleukins (IL)-1ß, IL-6, and IL-8, as well as of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) are decreased after the initiation of HRT. However, some reports show no effect of HRT on IL-4, IL-10, and IL-12. It is thus evident that the molecular pathways connecting HRT and female immune senescence need to be clarified. Interestingly, recent studies have suggested that the anti-inflammatory properties of isoflavones possibly interact with inflammatory cytokines when applied in menopause treatments, thereby potentially reversing immune senescence. This narrative review presents the latest data on the effect of menopausal therapies, including administration of flavonoid-rich products, on age-associated immune senescence reversal with the aim of revealing possible directions for future research and treatment development.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunossenescência/efeitos dos fármacos , Menopausa/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoestrógenos/uso terapêutico , Fatores Etários , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Flavonoides/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Menopausa/imunologia , Menopausa/metabolismo , Fitoestrógenos/efeitos adversos , Fatores Sexuais
2.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371934

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA), a ubiquitous endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC), is increasingly hypothesized to be a factor contributing to changes in fetal growth velocity. BPA exposure may be environmental, occupational, and/or dietary, with canned foods and plastic bottles contributing significantly. Our systematic review aims to evaluate the current literature and to investigate the role of BPA in abnormal fetal growth patterns. A search was conducted in the PubMed and Cochrane databases. A total of 25 articles met the eligibility criteria and were included in this systematic review. Eleven of them failed to show a clear relationship between BPA and abnormal fetal growth. The majority of the remaining studies (9/14) found an inverse association of BPA with indicators of fetal growth, whereas three studies suggested increased fetal growth, and two studies produced contradictory findings. Of note, both of the studies that collected a sample (amniotic fluid) directly reflecting BPA concentration in the fetus during the first half of pregnancy revealed an inverse association with birth weight. In conclusion, there is mounting evidence that combined exposure to BPA from dietary and non-dietary sources during pregnancy may contribute to abnormal fetal growth; a tendency towards fetal growth restriction was shown, especially when exposure occurs during the first half.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/induzido quimicamente , Fenóis/efeitos adversos , Animais , Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/fisiopatologia , Contaminação de Alimentos , Embalagem de Alimentos , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
3.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-14, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467971

RESUMO

Fetuses that have not achieved their full growth potential are associated with adverse perinatal and long-term outcomes; thus, it is essential to identify environmental factors that can potentially impair normal intrauterine development. Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), substances capable of altering the homeostasis of the endocrine system, are thought to play a role in restriction of growth velocity, with phthalates being among the most common EDCs to which pregnant women are exposed. Such exposure can potentially lead to changes to the epigenome, placental structure, and hormone function and trigger oxidative stress. Given that these pathways have been linked to fetal growth restriction, we reviewed the literature on the relationship between phthalates and fetal growth. The majority of the studies, which used birth weight as an indicator of intrauterine development, showed contradictory results, the main reason being the EDCs' rapid metabolism. However, we can draw more consistent conclusions when phthalates are quantified at more than one time point during pregnancy. In this narrative review, we present current data indicating the role of phthalates, and especially di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), in abnormal fetal growth velocity.

4.
Front Pediatr ; 8: 588738, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33194922

RESUMO

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a common cause of respiratory illness in preterm newborns with high morbidity and mortality rates. At present, there are no early prognostic biomarkers that can be used in clinical practice to predict the development of BPD. In this review, we critically appraise evidence regarding the use of serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) levels as a biomarker for BPD in neonates. Furthermore, we summarize studies assessing the feasibility of urinary NTproBNP levels as a non-invasive method to predict BPD in preterm infants. Multiple studies reported a strong association between NTproBNP serum levels and the onset of BPD. For urinary NTproBNP there is scarce evidence showing an association with BPD. Given the promising data obtained by preliminary studies, further assessment of this biomarker in both serum and urine is needed. Standardized reference values should be defined before conducting any further clinical studies.

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