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1.
Rev Med Virol ; : e2284, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543489

RESUMO

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major health problem. A better understanding of the geographical and temporal dynamics of RSV circulation will assist in tracking resistance against therapeutics currently under development. Since 2015, the field of RSV molecular epidemiology has evolved rapidly with around 20-30 published articles per year. The objective of this systematic review is to identify knowledge gaps in recent RSV genetic literature to guide global molecular epidemiology research. We included 78 studies published between 2015 and 2020 describing 12,998 RSV sequences of which 8,233 (63%) have been uploaded to GenBank. Seventeen (22%) studies were performed in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and seven (9%) studies sequenced whole-genomes. Although most reported polymorphisms for monoclonal antibodies in clinical development (nirsevimab, MK-1654) have not been tested for resistance in neutralisation essays, known resistance was detected at low levels for the nirsevimab and palivizumab binding site. High resistance was found for the suptavumab binding site. We present the first literature review of an enormous amount of RSV genetic data. The need for global monitoring of RSV molecular epidemiology becomes increasingly important in evaluating the effectiveness of monoclonal antibody candidates as they reach their final stages of clinical development. We have identified the following three knowledge gaps: whole-genome data to study global RSV evolution, data from LMICs and data from global surveillance programs.

2.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 14: 100259, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, China implemented strict restrictions on cross-border travel to prevent disease importation. Yunnan, a Chinese province that borders dengue-endemic countries in Southeast Asia, experienced unprecedented reduction in dengue, from 6840 recorded cases in 2019 to 260 in 2020. METHODS: Using a combination of epidemiological and virus genomic data, collected from 2013 to 2020 in Yunnan and neighbouring countries, we conduct a series of analyses to characterise the role of virus importation in driving dengue dynamics in Yunnan and assess the association between recent international travel restrictions and the decline in dengue reported in Yunnan in 2020. FINDINGS: We find strong evidence that dengue incidence between 2013-2019 in Yunnan was closely linked with international importation of cases. A 0-2 month lag in incidence not explained by seasonal differences, absence of local transmission in the winter, effective reproductive numbers < 1 (as estimated independently using genetic data) and diverse cosmopolitan dengue virus phylogenies all suggest dengue is non-endemic in Yunnan. Using a multivariate statistical model we show that the substantial decline in dengue incidence observed in Yunnan in 2020 but not in neighbouring countries is closely associated with the timing of international travel restrictions, even after accounting for other environmental drivers of dengue incidence. INTERPRETATION: We conclude that Yunnan is a regional sink for DENV lineage movement and that border restrictions may have substantially reduced dengue burden in 2020, potentially averting thousands of cases. Targeted testing and surveillance of travelers returning from high-risk areas could help to inform public health strategies to minimise or even eliminate dengue outbreaks in non-endemic settings like southern China. FUNDING: Funding for this study was provided by National Key Research and Development Program of China, Beijing Science and Technology Planning Project (Z201100005420010); Beijing Natural Science Foundation (JQ18025); Beijing Advanced Innovation Program for Land Surface Science; National Natural Science Foundation of China (82073616); Young Elite Scientist Sponsorship Program by CAST (YESS) (2018QNRC001); H.T., O.P.G. and M.U.G.K. acknowledge support from the Oxford Martin School. O.J.B was supported by a Wellcome Trust Sir Henry Wellcome Fellowship (206471/Z/17/Z). Chinese translation of the abstract (Appendix 2).

3.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578423

RESUMO

Recent years have witnessed the discovery of several new viruses belonging to the family Arteriviridae, expanding the known diversity and host range of this group of complex RNA viruses. Although the pathological relevance of these new viruses is not always clear, several well-studied members of the family Arteriviridae are known to be important animal pathogens. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of four new arterivirus variants, belonging to two putative novel species. These new arteriviruses were discovered in African rodents and were given the names Lopma virus and Praja virus. Their genomes follow the characteristic genome organization of all known arteriviruses, even though they are only distantly related to currently known rodent-borne arteriviruses. Phylogenetic analysis shows that Lopma virus clusters in the subfamily Variarterivirinae, while Praja virus clusters near members of the subfamily Heroarterivirinae: the yet undescribed forest pouched giant rat arterivirus and hedgehog arterivirus 1. A co-divergence analysis of rodent-borne arteriviruses confirms that they share similar phylogenetic patterns with their hosts, with only very few cases of host shifting events throughout their evolutionary history. Overall, the genomes described here and their unique clustering with other arteriviruses further illustrate the existence of multiple rodent-borne arterivirus lineages, expanding our knowledge of the evolutionary origin of these viruses.

4.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207490

RESUMO

The spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) resulted in an extraordinary global public health crisis. In early 2020, Cyprus, among other European countries, was affected by the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic and adopted lockdown measures in March 2020 to limit the initial outbreak on the island. In this study, we performed a comprehensive retrospective molecular epidemiological analysis (genetic, phylogenetic, phylodynamic and phylogeographic analyses) of SARS-CoV-2 isolates in Cyprus from April 2020 to January 2021, covering the first ten months of the SARS-CoV-2 infection epidemic on the island. The primary aim of this study was to assess the transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 lineages in Cyprus. Whole SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequences were generated from 596 clinical samples (nasopharyngeal swabs) obtained from community-based diagnostic testing centers and hospitalized patients. The phylogenetic analyses revealed a total of 34 different lineages in Cyprus, with B.1.258, B.1.1.29, B.1.177, B.1.2, B.1 and B.1.1.7 (designated a Variant of Concern 202012/01, VOC) being the most prevalent lineages on the island during the study period. Phylodynamic analysis showed a highly dynamic epidemic of SARS-CoV-2 infection, with three consecutive surges characterized by specific lineages (B.1.1.29 from April to June 2020; B.1.258 from September 2020 to January 2021; and B.1.1.7 from December 2020 to January 2021). Genetic analysis of whole SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequences of the aforementioned lineages revealed the presence of mutations within the S protein (L18F, ΔH69/V70, S898F, ΔY144, S162G, A222V, N439K, N501Y, A570D, D614G, P681H, S982A and D1118H) that confer higher transmissibility and/or antibody escape (immune evasion) upon the virus. Phylogeographic analysis indicated that the majority of imports and exports were to and from the United Kingdom (UK), although many other regions/countries were identified (southeastern Asia, southern Europe, eastern Europe, Germany, Italy, Brazil, Chile, the USA, Denmark, the Czech Republic, Slovenia, Finland, Switzerland and Pakistan). Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the SARS-CoV-2 infection epidemic in Cyprus is being maintained by a continuous influx of lineages from many countries, resulting in the establishment of an ever-evolving and polyphyletic virus on the island.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Genoma Viral , Filogenia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , COVID-19/transmissão , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Chipre/epidemiologia , Evolução Molecular , Humanos , Mutação , Nasofaringe/virologia , Filogeografia , RNA Viral/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/classificação , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
5.
Virus Evol ; 7(1): veab036, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34221451

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus (HCV; genus Hepacivirus) represents a major public health problem, infecting about three per cent of the human population. Because no animal reservoir carrying closely related hepaciviruses has been identified, the zoonotic origins of HCV still remain unresolved. Motivated by recent findings of divergent hepaciviruses in rodents and a plausible African origin of HCV genotypes, we have screened a large collection of small mammals samples from seven sub-Saharan African countries. Out of 4,303 samples screened, eighty were found positive for the presence of hepaciviruses in twenty-nine different host species. We, here, report fifty-six novel genomes that considerably increase the diversity of three divergent rodent hepacivirus lineages. Furthermore, we provide strong evidence for hepacivirus co-infections in rodents, which were exclusively found in four sampled species of brush-furred mice. We also detect evidence of recombination within specific host lineages. Our study expands the available hepacivirus genomic data and contributes insights into the relatively deep evolutionary history of these pathogens in rodents. Overall, our results emphasize the importance of rodents as a potential hepacivirus reservoir and as models for investigating HCV infection dynamics.

6.
mBio ; 12(4): e0074521, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253060

RESUMO

The ectodomain of matrix protein 2 (M2e) of influenza A viruses is a universal influenza A vaccine candidate. Here, we report potential evasion strategies of influenza A viruses under in vivo passive anti-M2e IgG immune selection pressure in severe combined immune-deficient (SCID) mice. A/Puerto Rico/8/34-infected SCID mice were treated with the M2e-specific mouse IgG monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) MAb 65 (IgG2a) or MAb 37 (IgG1), which recognize amino acids 5 to 15 in M2e, or with MAb 148 (IgG1), which binds to the invariant N terminus of M2e. Treatment of challenged SCID mice with any of these MAbs significantly prolonged survival compared to isotype control IgG treatment. Furthermore, M2e-specific IgG2a protected significantly better than IgG1, and even resulted in virus clearance in some of the SCID mice. Deep sequencing analysis of viral RNA isolated at different time points after treatment revealed that the sequence variation in M2e was limited to P10H/L and/or I11T in anti-M2e MAb-treated mice. Remarkably, in half of the samples isolated from moribund MAb 37-treated mice and in all MAb 148-treated mice, virus was isolated with a wild-type M2 sequence but with nonsynonymous mutations in the polymerases and/or the hemagglutinin genes. Some of these mutations were associated with delayed M2 and other viral gene expression and with increased resistance to anti-M2e MAb treatment of SCID mice. Treatment with M2e-specific MAbs thus selects for viruses with limited variation in M2e. Importantly, influenza A viruses may also undergo an alternative escape route by acquiring mutations that result in delayed wild-type M2 expression. IMPORTANCE Broadly protective influenza vaccine candidates may have a higher barrier to immune evasion compared to conventional influenza vaccines. We used Illumina MiSeq deep sequence analysis to study the mutational patterns in A/Puerto Rico/8/34 viruses that evolve in chronically infected SCID mice that were treated with different M2e-specific MAbs. We show that under these circumstances, viruses emerged in vivo with mutations in M2e that were limited to positions 10 and 11. Moreover, we discovered an alternative route for anti-M2e antibody immune escape, in which a virus is selected with wild-type M2e but with mutations in other gene segments that result in delayed M2 and other viral protein expression. Delayed expression of the viral antigen that is targeted by a protective antibody thus represents an influenza virus immune escape mechanism that does not involve epitope alterations.

7.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(5): e1009571, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015049

RESUMO

During the first phase of the COVID-19 epidemic, New York City rapidly became the epicenter of the pandemic in the United States. While molecular phylogenetic analyses have previously highlighted multiple introductions and a period of cryptic community transmission within New York City, little is known about the circulation of SARS-CoV-2 within and among its boroughs. We here perform phylogeographic investigations to gain insights into the circulation of viral lineages during the first months of the New York City outbreak. Our analyses describe the dispersal dynamics of viral lineages at the state and city levels, illustrating that peripheral samples likely correspond to distinct dispersal events originating from the main metropolitan city areas. In line with the high prevalence recorded in this area, our results highlight the relatively important role of the borough of Queens as a transmission hub associated with higher local circulation and dispersal of viral lineages toward the surrounding boroughs.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2/classificação , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
8.
Elife ; 102021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588989

RESUMO

Influenza virus has a high mutation rate, such that within one host different viral variants can emerge. Evidence suggests that influenza virus variants are more prevalent in pregnant and/or obese individuals due to their impaired interferon response. We have recently shown that the non-allergic, paucigranulocytic subtype of asthma is associated with impaired type I interferon production. Here, we seek to address if this is associated with an increased emergence of influenza virus variants. Compared to controls, mice with paucigranulocytic asthma had increased disease severity and an increased emergence of influenza virus variants. Specifically, PB1 mutations exclusively detected in asthmatic mice were associated with increased polymerase activity. Furthermore, asthmatic host-derived virus led to increased disease severity in wild-type mice. Taken together, these data suggest that at least a subset of patients with asthma may be more susceptible to severe influenza and may be a possible source of new influenza virus variants.

9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(7): e2018-e2025, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evolutionary analyses of well-annotated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) sequence data can provide insights into viral transmission patterns and associated factors. Here, we explored the transmission dynamics of the HIV-1 subtype B epidemic across the San Diego (US) and Tijuana (Mexico) border region to identify factors that could help guide public health policy. METHODS: HIV pol sequences were collected from people with HIV in San Diego County and Tijuana between 1996-2018. A multistep phylogenetic approach was used to characterize the dynamics of spread. The contributions of geospatial factors and HIV risk group to the local dynamics were evaluated. RESULTS: Phylogeographic analyses of the 2034 sequences revealed an important contribution of local transmission in sustaining the epidemic, as well as a complex viral migration network across the region. Geospatial viral dispersal between San Diego communities occurred predominantly among men who have sex with men, with central San Diego being the main source (34.9%) and recipient (39.5%) of migration events. HIV migration was more frequent from San Diego county towards Tijuana than vice versa. Migrations were best explained by the driving time between locations. CONCLUSIONS: The US-Mexico border may not be a major barrier to the spread of HIV, which may stimulate coordinated transnational intervention approaches. Whereas a focus on central San Diego has the potential to avert most spread, the substantial viral migration independent of central San Diego shows that county-wide efforts will be more effective. Combined, this work shows that epidemiological information gleaned from pathogen genomes can uncover mechanisms that underlie sustained spread and, in turn, can be a building block of public health decision-making.

10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5620, 2020 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159066

RESUMO

Computational analyses of pathogen genomes are increasingly used to unravel the dispersal history and transmission dynamics of epidemics. Here, we show how to go beyond historical reconstructions and use spatially-explicit phylogeographic and phylodynamic approaches to formally test epidemiological hypotheses. We illustrate our approach by focusing on the West Nile virus (WNV) spread in North America that has substantially impacted public, veterinary, and wildlife health. We apply an analytical workflow to a comprehensive WNV genome collection to test the impact of environmental factors on the dispersal of viral lineages and on viral population genetic diversity through time. We find that WNV lineages tend to disperse faster in areas with higher temperatures and we identify temporal variation in temperature as a main predictor of viral genetic diversity through time. By contrasting inference with simulation, we find no evidence for viral lineages to preferentially circulate within the same migratory bird flyway, suggesting a substantial role for non-migratory birds or mosquito dispersal along the longitudinal gradient.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/epidemiologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/veterinária , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/genética , Animais , Doenças das Aves/virologia , Ecossistema , Meio Ambiente , Variação Genética , Genoma Viral , Humanos , América do Norte , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/virologia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/classificação , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/isolamento & purificação
11.
J Virol ; 94(23)2020 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938762

RESUMO

The HIV epidemic in China accounts for 3% of the global HIV incidence. We compared the patterns and determinants of interprovincial spread of the five most prevalent circulating types. HIV pol sequences sampled across China were used to identify relevant transmission networks of the five most relevant HIV-1 types (B and circulating recombinant forms [CRFs] CRF01_AE, CRF07_BC, CRF08_BC, and CRF55_01B) in China. From these, the dispersal history across provinces was inferred. A generalized linear model (GLM) was used to test the association between migration rates among provinces and several measures of human mobility. A total of 10,707 sequences were collected between 2004 and 2017 across 26 provinces, among which 1,962 are newly reported here. A mean of 18 (minimum and maximum, 1 and 54) independent transmission networks involving up to 17 provinces were identified. Discrete phylogeographic analysis largely recapitulates the documented spread of the HIV types, which in turn, mirrors within-China population migration flows to a large extent. In line with the different spatiotemporal spread dynamics, the identified drivers thereof were also heterogeneous but are consistent with a central role of human mobility. The comparative analysis of the dispersal dynamics of the five main HIV types circulating in China suggests a key role of large population centers and developed transportation infrastructures as hubs of HIV dispersal. This advocates for coordinated public health efforts in addition to local targeted interventions.IMPORTANCE While traditional epidemiological studies are of great interest in describing the dynamics of epidemics, they struggle to fully capture the geospatial dynamics and factors driving the dispersal of pathogens like HIV as they have difficulties capturing linkages between infections. To overcome this, we used a discrete phylogeographic approach coupled to a generalized linear model extension to characterize the dynamics and drivers of the across-province spread of the five main HIV types circulating in China. Our results indicate that large urbanized areas with dense populations and developed transportation infrastructures are facilitators of HIV dispersal throughout China and highlight the need to consider harmonized country-wide public policies to control local HIV epidemics.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/classificação , China/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , HIV-1/genética , Humanos , Epidemiologia Molecular , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Saúde Pública
12.
Science ; 368(6497): 1367-1370, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554594

RESUMO

Many infectious diseases are thought to have emerged in humans after the Neolithic revolution. Although it is broadly accepted that this also applies to measles, the exact date of emergence for this disease is controversial. We sequenced the genome of a 1912 measles virus and used selection-aware molecular clock modeling to determine the divergence date of measles virus and rinderpest virus. This divergence date represents the earliest possible date for the establishment of measles in human populations. Our analyses show that the measles virus potentially arose as early as the sixth century BCE, possibly coinciding with the rise of large cities.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/história , Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Vírus do Sarampo/genética , Sarampo/história , Cidades/história , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , História Antiga , Humanos , Sarampo/virologia , Vírus da Peste Bovina/genética
13.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(6): 1084-1090, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32441631

RESUMO

During 2015-2016, Cape Verde, an island nation off the coast of West Africa, experienced a Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak involving 7,580 suspected Zika cases and 18 microcephaly cases. Analysis of the complete genomes of 3 ZIKV isolates from the outbreak indicated the strain was of the Asian (not African) lineage. The Cape Verde ZIKV sequences formed a distinct monophylogenetic group and possessed 1-2 (T659A, I756V) unique amino acid changes in the envelope protein. Phylogeographic and serologic evidence support earlier introduction of this lineage into Cape Verde, possibly from northeast Brazil, between June 2014 and August 2015, suggesting cryptic circulation of the virus before the initial wave of cases were detected in October 2015. These findings underscore the utility of genomic-scale epidemiology for outbreak investigations.


Assuntos
Microcefalia , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , África Ocidental , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cabo Verde , Surtos de Doenças , Genômica , Humanos , Microcefalia/epidemiologia , Zika virus/genética , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0008117, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130210

RESUMO

Ebolaviruses pose a substantial threat to wildlife populations and to public health in Africa. Evolutionary analyses of virus genome sequences can contribute significantly to elucidate the origin of new outbreaks, which can help guide surveillance efforts. The reconstructed between-outbreak evolutionary history of Zaire ebolavirus so far has been highly consistent. By removing the confounding impact of population growth bursts during local outbreaks on the free mixing assumption that underlies coalescent-based demographic reconstructions, we find-contrary to what previous results indicated-that the circulation dynamics of Ebola virus in its animal reservoir are highly uncertain. Our findings also accentuate the need for a more fine-grained picture of the Ebola virus diversity in its reservoir to reliably infer the reservoir origin of outbreak lineages. In addition, the recent appearance of slower-evolving variants is in line with latency as a survival mechanism and with bats as the natural reservoir host.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Ebolavirus/isolamento & purificação , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/veterinária , África , Doenças dos Animais/virologia , Animais , Ebolavirus/classificação , Ebolavirus/genética , Genótipo , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Humanos , Filogenia
15.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 75(5): 1311-1320, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Validated biomarkers to evaluate HIV-1 cure strategies are currently lacking, therefore requiring analytical treatment interruption (ATI) in study participants. Little is known about the safety of ATI and its long-term impact on patient health. OBJECTIVES: ATI safety was assessed and potential biomarkers predicting viral rebound were evaluated. METHODS: PBMCs, plasma and CSF were collected from 11 HIV-1-positive individuals at four different timepoints during ATI (NCT02641756). Total and integrated HIV-1 DNA, cell-associated (CA) HIV-1 RNA transcripts and restriction factor (RF) expression were measured by PCR-based assays. Markers of neuroinflammation and neuronal injury [neurofilament light chain (NFL) and YKL-40 protein] were measured in CSF. Additionally, neopterin, tryptophan and kynurenine were measured, both in plasma and CSF, as markers of immune activation. RESULTS: Total HIV-1 DNA, integrated HIV-1 DNA and CA viral RNA transcripts did not differ pre- and post-ATI. Similarly, no significant NFL or YKL-40 increases in CSF were observed between baseline and viral rebound. Furthermore, markers of immune activation did not increase during ATI. Interestingly, the RFs SLFN11 and APOBEC3G increased after ATI before viral rebound. Similarly, Tat-Rev transcripts were increased preceding viral rebound after interruption. CONCLUSIONS: ATI did not increase viral reservoir size and it did not reveal signs of increased neuronal injury or inflammation, suggesting that these well-monitored ATIs are safe. Elevation of Tat-Rev transcription and induced expression of the RFs SLFN11 and APOBEC3G after ATI, prior to viral rebound, indicates that these factors could be used as potential biomarkers predicting viral rebound.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Desaminase APOBEC-3G , Biomarcadores , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/genética , Humanos , Proteínas Nucleares , RNA Viral , Carga Viral
16.
Viruses ; 12(2)2020 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033422

RESUMO

Infections with HIV-1 group M subtype B viruses account for the majority of the HIV epidemic in the Western world. Phylogeographic studies have placed the introduction of subtype B in the United States in New York around 1970, where it grew into a major source of spread. Currently, it is estimated that over one million people are living with HIV in the US and that most are infected with subtype B variants. Here, we aim to identify the drivers of HIV-1 subtype B dispersal in the United States by analyzing a collection of 23,588 pol sequences, collected for drug resistance testing from 45 states during 2004-2011. To this end, we introduce a workflow to reduce this large collection of data to more computationally-manageable sample sizes and apply the BEAST framework to test which covariates associate with the spread of HIV-1 across state borders. Our results show that we are able to consistently identify certain predictors of spread under reasonable run times across datasets of up to 10,000 sequences. However, the general lack of phylogenetic structure and the high uncertainty associated with HIV trees make it difficult to interpret the epidemiological relevance of the drivers of spread we are able to identify. While the workflow we present here could be applied to other virus datasets of a similar scale, the characteristic star-like shape of HIV-1 phylogenies poses a serious obstacle to reconstructing a detailed evolutionary and spatial history for HIV-1 subtype B in the US.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Soropositividade para HIV/epidemiologia , HIV-1/classificação , Teorema de Bayes , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Soropositividade para HIV/virologia , HIV-1/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
J Clin Invest ; 130(4): 1699-1712, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910162

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDUnderstanding HIV dynamics across the human body is important for cure efforts. This goal has been hampered by technical difficulties and the challenge of obtaining fresh tissues.METHODSThis observational study evaluated 6 individuals with HIV (n = 4 with viral suppression using antiretroviral [ART] therapy; n = 2 with rebound viremia after stopping ART), who provided serial blood samples before death and their bodies for rapid autopsy. HIV reservoirs were characterized by digital droplet PCR, single-genome amplification, and sequencing of full-length (FL) envelope HIV. Phylogeographic methods were used to reconstruct HIV spread, and generalized linear models were tested for viral factors associated with dispersal.RESULTSAcross participants, HIV DNA levels varied from approximately 0 to 659 copies/106 cells (IQR: 22.9-126.5). A total of 605 intact FL env sequences were recovered in antemortem blood cells and across 28 tissues (IQR: 5-9). Sequence analysis showed (a) the emergence of large, identical, intact HIV RNA populations in blood after cessation of therapy, which repopulated tissues throughout the body; (b) that multiple sites acted as hubs for HIV dissemination but that blood and lymphoid tissues were the main source; (c) that viral exchanges occurred within brain areas and across the blood-brain barrier; and (d) that migration was associated with low HIV divergence between sites and greater diversity at the recipient site.CONCLUSIONHIV reservoirs persisted in all deep tissues, and blood was the main source of dispersal. This may explain why eliminating HIV susceptibility in circulating T cells via bone marrow transplants allowed some individuals with HIV to experience therapy-free remission, even though deeper tissue reservoirs were not targeted.TRIAL REGISTRATIONNot applicable.FUNDINGNIH grants P01 AI31385, P30 AI036214, AI131971-01, AI120009AI036214, HD094646, AI027763, AI134295, and AI68636.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/administração & dosagem , DNA Viral , Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , RNA Viral , Carga Viral , Idoso , DNA Viral/genética , DNA Viral/metabolismo , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Especificidade de Órgãos , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo
18.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 1734-1746, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797751

RESUMO

By infecting mice with the yellow fever virus vaccine strain 17D (YFV-17D; Stamaril®), the dose dependence and evolutionary consequences of neurotropic yellow fever infection was assessed. Highly susceptible AG129 mice were used to allow for a maximal/unlimited expansion of the viral populations. Infected mice uniformly developed neurotropic disease; the virus was isolated from their brains, plaque purified and sequenced. Viral RNA populations were overall rather homogenous [Shannon entropies 0-0.15]. The remaining, yet limited intra-host population diversity (0-11 nucleotide exchanges per genome) appeared to be a consequence of pre-existing clonal heterogeneities (quasispecies) of Stamaril®. In parallel, mice were infected with a molecular clone of YFV-17D which was in vivo launched from a plasmid. Such plasmid-launched YFV-17D had a further reduced and almost clonal evolution. The limited intra-host evolution during unrestricted expansion in a highly susceptible host is relevant for vaccine and drug development against flaviviruses in general. Firstly, a propensity for limited evolution even upon infection with a (very) low inoculum suggests that fractional dosing as implemented in current YF-outbreak control may pose only a limited risk of reversion to pathogenic vaccine-derived virus variants. Secondly, it also largely lowers the chance of antigenic drift and development of resistance to antivirals.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Febre Amarela/virologia , Vírus da Febre Amarela/genética , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/virologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos , Plasmídeos/genética , Vacina contra Febre Amarela
19.
Virus Evol ; 5(2): vez036, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720009

RESUMO

The need to estimate divergence times in evolutionary histories in the presence of various sources of substitution rate variation has stimulated a rich development of relaxed molecular clock models. Viral evolutionary studies frequently adopt an uncorrelated clock model as a generic relaxed molecular clock process, but this may impose considerable estimation bias if discrete rate variation exists among clades or lineages. For HIV-1 group M, rate variation among subtypes has been shown to result in inconsistencies in time to the most recent common ancestor estimation. Although this calls into question the adequacy of available molecular dating methods, no solution to this problem has been offered so far. Here, we investigate the use of mixed effects molecular clock models, which combine both fixed and random effects in the evolutionary rate, to estimate divergence times. Using simulation, we demonstrate that this model outperforms existing molecular clock models in a Bayesian framework for estimating time-measured phylogenies in the presence of mixed sources of rate variation, while also maintaining good performance in simpler scenarios. By analysing a comprehensive HIV-1 group M complete genome data set we confirm considerable rate variation among subtypes that is not adequately modelled by uncorrelated relaxed clock models. The mixed effects clock model can accommodate this rate variation and results in a time to the most recent common ancestor of HIV-1 group M of 1920 (1915-25), which is only slightly earlier than the uncorrelated relaxed clock estimate for the same data set. The use of complete genome data appears to have a more profound impact than the molecular clock model because it reduces the credible intervals by 50 per cent relative to similar estimates based on short envelope gene sequences.

20.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5310, 2019 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757953

RESUMO

The role of Africa in the dynamics of the global spread of a zoonotic and economically-important virus, such as the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5Nx of the Gs/GD lineage, remains unexplored. Here we characterise the spatiotemporal patterns of virus diffusion during three HPAI H5Nx intercontinental epidemic waves and demonstrate that Africa mainly acted as an ecological sink of the HPAI H5Nx viruses. A joint analysis of host dynamics and continuous spatial diffusion indicates that poultry trade as well as wild bird migrations have contributed to the virus spreading into Africa, with West Africa acting as a crucial hotspot for virus introduction and dissemination into the continent. We demonstrate varying paths of avian influenza incursions into Africa as well as virus spread within Africa over time, which reveal that virus expansion is a complex phenomenon, shaped by an intricate interplay between avian host ecology, virus characteristics and environmental variables.


Assuntos
Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , África , África Ocidental , Animais , Humanos , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N8/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Aviária/economia , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Influenza Humana/economia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Filogenia , Aves Domésticas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/economia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia
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