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1.
Eur J Nutr ; 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103319

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Validated biomarkers of food intake (BFIs) have recently been suggested as a useful tool to assess adherence to dietary guidelines or compliance in human dietary interventions. Although many new candidate biomarkers have emerged in the last decades for different foods from metabolic profiling studies, the number of comprehensively validated biomarkers of food intake is limited. Apples are among the most frequently consumed fruits and a rich source of polyphenols and fibers, an important mediator for their health-protective properties. METHODS: Using an untargeted metabolomics approach, we aimed to identify biomarkers of long-term apple intake and explore how apples impact on the human plasma and urine metabolite profiles. Forty mildly hypercholesterolemic volunteers consumed two whole apples or a sugar and energy-matched control beverage, daily for 8 weeks in a randomized, controlled, crossover intervention study. The metabolome in plasma and urine samples was analyzed via untargeted metabolomics. RESULTS: We found 61 urine and 9 plasma metabolites being statistically significant after the whole apple intake compared to the control beverage, including several polyphenol metabolites that could be used as BFIs. Furthermore, we identified several endogenous indole and phenylacetyl-glutamine microbial metabolites significantly increasing in urine after apple consumption. The multiomic dataset allowed exploration of the correlations between metabolites modulated significantly by the dietary intervention and fecal microbiota species at genus level, showing interesting interactions between Granulicatella genus and phenyl-acetic acid metabolites. Phloretin glucuronide and phloretin glucuronide sulfate appeared promising biomarkers of apple intake; however, robustness, reliability and stability data are needed for full BFI validation. CONCLUSION: The identified apple BFIs can be used in future studies to assess compliance and to explore their health effects after apple intake. Moreover, the identification of polyphenol microbial metabolites suggests that apple consumption mediates significant gut microbial metabolic activity which should be further explored.

2.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(2): 283-291, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650197

RESUMO

Metabolic changes occurring in white lupine grain were investigated in response to Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) root inoculation under field condition. We precisely targeted lipids and phenolics changes occurring in white lupine grain in response to Pseudomonas brenneri LJ215 and/or Paenibacillus glycanilyticus LJ121 inoculation. Lipids and phenolic composition were analyzed using an Ultra High-Performance Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry Methods. As compared to grain of un-inoculated control plant, Paenibacillus glycaniliticus inoculation highly increased the total lipids content (from 232.55 in seeds of un-inoculated control plant to 944.95 mg/kg) and the relative percentage of several fatty acid such as oleic acid (+20.95%) and linoleic acid (+14.28%) and decreased the relative percentage of glycerophospholipids (- 13.11%), sterol (- 0.2% and - 0.34% for stigmasterol and campesterol, respectively) and prenol (- 17.45%) class. Paenibacillus glycaniliticus inoculation did not affect total phenolic content, while it modulated content of individual phenolic compounds and induced the accumulation of "new" phenolics compounds such as kaempferol. Paenibacillus glycanilyticus LJ121 can be a useful bio-fertilizer to enhance nutritional quality of white lupine grain.


Assuntos
Lupinus/microbiologia , Valor Nutritivo , Paenibacillus/fisiologia , Sementes/química , Endófitos/fisiologia , Lupinus/química , Fenóis/análise , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/microbiologia
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(24)2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861147

RESUMO

The reduction of synthetic chemistry use in modern viticulture relies on either the biological control of microorganisms or the induction of pathogenesis-related proteins. In the present study, the effects of hydro-alcoholic plant extracts (PEs) (i.e., by-products of Vitis vinifera L., leaves of Olea europaea L. and Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle) were tested on purified enzymes activity involved in plant-pathogen interactions. The polyphenolic composition was assayed and analyzed to characterize the extract profiles. In addition, suspension cell cultures of grapevine were treated with PEs to study their modulation of chitinase activity. Application of grape marc's PE enhanced chitinase activity at 4 g L-1. Additionally, foliar treatment of grape marc's PE at two doses (4 g L-1 and 800 g L-1) on grapevine cuttings induced a concentration-dependent stimulation of chitinase activity. The obtained results showed that the application of bioactive compounds based on PEs, rich in phenolic compounds, was effective both at in vitro and ex/in vivo level. The overall effects of PEs on plant-pathogen interaction were further discussed by applying a multi-criteria decision analysis, showing that grape marc was the most effective extract.


Assuntos
Quitinases/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Polifenóis/análise , Vitis/metabolismo , Ailanthus/química , Células Cultivadas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Olea/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Vitis/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Molecules ; 25(1)2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861325

RESUMO

To differentiate extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) according to the origin of purchase, such as monocultivar Italian EVOO with protected denomination of origin (PDO) and commercially-blended EVOO purchased in supermarkets, a number of samples was subjected to the analysis of various lipid species by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS, LC-ESI-IT-MS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance analysis (1H-NMR). Many putative chemical markers were extracted as differentiators by uni- and multivariate statistical analysis. Commercially-blended EVOO contained higher concentrations of the majority of minor lipids, including free fatty acids, their alkyl (methyl and ethyl) esters, monoglycerides, and diglycerides, which may be indicative of a higher degree of triglyceride lipolysis in these than in monocultivar PDO EVOO. Triterpenoids and particular TAG species were also found in higher proportions in the samples from the commercially-blended EVOO class, suggesting a possible influence of factors such as the cultivar and geographical origin. The largest differences between the classes were determined for the concentrations of uvaol and oleanolic acid. The results of the analysis by isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) were reasonably consistent with the information about the geographical origin declared on the labels of the investigated EVOOs, showing considerable variability, which possibly also contributed to the differences in lipid composition observed between the two investigated classes of EVOO.


Assuntos
Isótopos/análise , Lipídeos/análise , Azeite de Oliva/análise , Azeite de Oliva/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Triglicerídeos/química
5.
ACS Omega ; 4(14): 15966-15974, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592467

RESUMO

The increasing popularity of "Mirto" liqueur, produced from Myrtus communis berries, has led to the planting of domesticated cultivars, expanding myrtle berry production. To promote the use of cultivated berries, the content in the nutraceutical compounds ellagitannins has been investigated both in spontaneous and cultivated fruits. Oenothein B and eugeniflorin D2, characterized by 1H and 13C NMR, were isolated and quantified using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-MS/MS). The antifungal and anti-inflammatory activities of oenothein B were assayed in vitro. Large amounts of oenothein B and eugeniflorin D2 were detected in seeds (12 ± 2.4 and 5.8 ± 1.2 mg/g). The oenothein B concentration in liqueurs was 194 ± 22 mg/L. This macrocyclic ellagitannin dimer showed anti-Candida (minimal inhibitory concentration <8-64 µg/mL) and anti-inflammatory properties. Cultivated myrtle berries are a source of nutraceutical compounds. The high concentration of oenothein B in liqueur suggests a possible contribution to the organoleptic and biological properties of the beverage.

6.
Molecules ; 24(18)2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500198

RESUMO

Glycosides are ubiquitous plant secondary metabolites consisting of a non-sugar component called an aglycone, attached to one or more sugars. One of the most interesting aglycones in grapes and wine is methyl salicylate (MeSA), an organic ester naturally produced by many plants, particularly wintergreens. To date, nine different MeSA glycosides from plants have been reported, mainly spread over the genera Gaultheria, Camellia, Polygala, Filipendula, and Passiflora. From a sensorial point of view, MeSA has a balsamic-sweet odor, known as Wintergreen. MeSA was found in Vitis riparia grapes, in Vitis vinifera sp. and in the Frontenac interspecific hybrid. We found that the MeSA glycosides content in Verdicchio wines and in some genetically related varieties (Trebbiano di Soave and Trebbiano di Lugana) was very high. In order to understand which glycosides were present in wine, the methanolic extract of Verdicchio wine was injected into a UPLC-Q-TOF-HDMS and compared to the extracts of different plants rich in such glycosides. Using pure standards, we confirmed the existence of two glycosides in wine: MeSA 2-O--d-glucoside and MeSA 2-O--d-xylopyranosyl (1-6) -d-glucopyranoside (gaultherin). For the first time, we also tentatively identified other diglycosides in wine: MeSA 2-O--l-arabinopyranosyl (1-6)--d-glucopyranoside (violutoside) and MeSA 2-O--d-apiofuranosyl (1-6)--d-glucopyranoside (canthoside A), MeSA 2-O--d-glucopyranosyl (1-6)-O--d-glucopyranoside (gentiobioside) and MeSA 2-O--l-rhamnopyranosyl (1-6)--d-glucopyranoside (rutinoside). Some of these glycosides have been isolated from Gaultheria procumbens leaves by preparative liquid chromatography and structurally annotated by 1H- and 13C-NMR analysis. Two of the peaks isolated from Gaultheria procumbens leaves, namely MeSA sambubioside and MeSA sophoroside, were herein observed for the first time. Six MeSA glycosides were quantified in 64 Italian white wines, highlighting the peculiar content and pattern in Verdicchio wines and related cultivars. The total concentration in bound and free MeSA in Verdicchio wines varied in the range of 456-9796 g/L and 5.5-143 g/L, respectively, while in the other wines the bound and free MeSA was below 363 g/L and 12 g/L, respectively. As this compound's olfactory threshold is between 50 and 100 g/L, our data support the hypothesis that methyl salicylate can contribute to the balsamic scent, especially in old Verdicchio wines.


Assuntos
Glicosídeos/química , Salicilatos/química , Vitis/química , Vinho/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Dissacarídeos/química , Dissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos/classificação , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Salicilatos/classificação , Salicilatos/isolamento & purificação
7.
Food Res Int ; 125: 108556, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554044

RESUMO

Lipids are important constituents of plant and animal cells, being essential due to their biological functions. Despite the significant role of these compounds in grape berries, knowledge of grape lipid composition is still limited. This study addresses the free fatty acid composition and other lipids in skins and seeds of several Vitis vinifera grape cultivars using LC-MS/MS. A different profile of free fatty acids was determined in the grape tissues, showing a higher proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in seeds (ca. 60%). Lignoceric acid was one of the main free saturated fatty acids found in grape skins, together with palmitic and stearic acids. Berry skins showed similar ranges of C18-unsaturated fatty acids, whereas linoleic acid was predominant in the seed fatty acid composition. Higher content of glycerophospholipids was determined in grape seeds. Uvaol and oleanolic acid were only quantified in skins (1.5-3.9 and 38.6-57.6 mg/kg fresh weight, respectively). These preliminary results suggest a certain diversity in grape lipids according to their location in the berry tissues and cultivar, providing useful information for the fermentation process due to their role in wine sensory profile and yeast growth.

8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(36): 10273-10284, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418566

RESUMO

Shiraz wine volatomes from two Australian geographical indications (GIs), that is, Orange and Riverina, were compared using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Shiraz wines were made in triplicate from grapes harvested at two harvest dates from six vineyards in the two GIs. A total of 133 compounds showed a significant trend between wines from the cooler Orange GI and warmer Riverina. Compounds associated with wines from the cooler climate were grape-derived volatiles, such as monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, green leaf volatiles, and some norisoprenoids. Fermentation-derived compounds, such as esters and S-containing compounds, showed no specific trend related to grape origin. In addition, wines could be also clearly separated according to the harvest date, irrespective of the climate, with C6 compounds, higher alcohol acetates, and other esters contributing utmost to the differentiation of samples, whereas terpenoids and norisoprenoids did not have an influence. This study demonstrated the plasticity of wine volatome related to grape origin and also the maturity level (harvest date), irrespective of climate.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Vitis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Vinho/análise , Austrália , Clima , Análise Discriminante , Frutas/química , Odorantes/análise , Terpenos/química
9.
Molecules ; 24(16)2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404955

RESUMO

In order to differentiate the extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) of different origin of purchase, such as monovarietal Italian EVOO with protected denomination of origin (PDO) and commercial-blended EVOO purchased in supermarkets, a number of samples was subjected to the analysis of volatile aroma compounds by both targeted gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and untargeted profiling by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOF-MS), analysis of phenols by targeted high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS), and quantitative descriptive sensory analysis. Monovarietal PDO EVOOs were characterized by notably higher amounts of positive LOX-derived C6 and C5 volatile compounds, which corresponded to the higher intensities of all the assessed positive fruity and green odor sensory attributes. Commercial-blended EVOOs had larger quantities of generally undesirable esters, alcohols, acids, and aldehydes, which coincided with the occurrence of sensory defects in many samples. Many minor volatile compounds that were identified by GC×GC-TOF-MS were found to differentiate each of the two investigated groups. The differences between the groups with respect to phenols and taste characteristics were evident, but less pronounced. The results that were obtained in this study have undoubtedly confirmed the existence of the large heterogeneity of oils that are sold declared as EVOO. It was shown that GC-MS, GC×GC-TOF-MS, and HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS analyses have complementary outputs, and that their use in combination has advantages in supporting the results of sensory analysis and objectively differentiating these groups of EVOO.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos , Metabolômica , Azeite de Oliva/química , Fenóis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(28): 7942-7953, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264861

RESUMO

Tryptophan, phenylalanine, and tyrosine play an important role as nitrogen sources in yeast metabolism. They regulate biomass production and fermentation rate, and their catabolites contribute to wine health benefits and sensorial character through the yeast biotransformation of grape juice constitutes into biologically active and flavor-impacting components. A UHPLC-MS/MS method was applied to monitor 37 tryptophan/phenylalanine/tyrosine yeast metabolites both in extra- and intracellular extracts produced by the fermentation of two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and one Torulaspora delbrueckii. The results shed light on the intra- and extra-cellular metabolomic dynamics, by combining metabolic needs, stimuli, and signals. Among others, the results indicated (a) the production of 2-aminoacetophenone by yeasts, mainly by the two Saccharomyces cerevisiae; (b) the deactivation and/or detoxification of tryptophol via sulfonation reaction; and (c) the deacetylation of N-acetyl tryptophan ethyl ester and N-acetyl tyrosine ethyl ester by producing the corresponding ethyl esters.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Torulaspora/metabolismo , Aminoácidos Aromáticos/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Torulaspora/química
11.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219354, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306452

RESUMO

Fruits are nowadays considered important suppliers of anti-oxidant molecules. Apples are particularly rich in phenolic compounds, non-nutritional phytochemicals that play active roles in controlling severe chronic diseases. In this work, 19 phenolic compounds were investigated in both skin and pulp tissues of seven apple accessions across the Malus genus collected at two stages: during fruit development and at harvest. The primary difference in phenolic concentration between wild and domesticated accessions, especially in the pulp, could be explained by the larger growth rate of the domesticated varieties. The proposed dilution effect was also confirmed through the observation of the increased content of procyanidin B2+B4 and phloridzin in russet-skinned apples, known to have higher concentrations of these compounds. The metabolite screening was also accompanied by the expression analysis of 16 polyphenolic genes showing, for nine elements, a higher expression at harvest than during fruit development. Finally, a polyphenolic comparison with red-fleshed apples was also carried out, underlying a larger amount of procyanidins and quercetin-3rhamnoside in the white-fleshed accessions. The results presented and discussed in this work suggest that specific white-fleshed apples, especially with russeted-skin, may play an important role in ameliorating the nutraceutical potential of apple fruit.

12.
Food Chem ; 300: 125251, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357018

RESUMO

Targeted ultra-performance liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometric (UPLC-QqQ-MS/MS) profiling of phenolic compounds was utilised for varietal differentiation of 173 wines made from four red and six white grape varieties. Among 58 identified phenols many were found relevant as exclusive or partial discriminators between wines. Successful differentiation models were built by linear discriminant analysis with the percentage of correct classification higher than 95% in all cases, with peonidin 3-(6″-acetyl)-glucoside and taxifolin as the most potent differentiators between red, and cis-piceid between white monovarietal wines. Diverse typical colour attributes among the monovarietal wines were tentatively ascribed to the variations in the composition of monomeric anthocyanins. Plavac mali red wine exhibited the most specific composition, and its most typical samples were distinguished by the abundance in trans-fertaric acid, isorhapontin, phlorizin, quercetin 3-rhamnoside, and myricitrin. Despite positive correlations with particular astringent flavonols, the typical astringency of Plavac mali wine remained unresolved.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Fenóis/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Vinho/análise , Adulto , Cor , Análise Discriminante , Feminino , Flavonóis/análise , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paladar , Vitis/química
13.
Food Chem ; 296: 150-159, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202299

RESUMO

Sea fennel is an herbaceous aromatic and edible halophyte, naturally occurring in coastal areas of the Mediterranean basin. Besides its scientific interest as a salt-tolerant species it exhibits considerable nutritional value and economical potential. As sea fennel is distributed in maritime areas, where natural iodine is available in high concentrations, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether sea fennel has the potential to accumulate elevated iodine concentrations under cultivation. A biofortification experiment in a hydroponic system applying two forms of iodine, KI and KIO3 in different concentrations was set up and monitored using sophisticated targeted elementary and metabolite analysis. The biofortification potential and possible effects on nutritional value were investigated. This study revealed that both iodine forms increased the iodine content of sea fennel tissues. Nutritional and health promoting components, biomass production but also antioxidant potential were stable or even improved under the iodine treatments.


Assuntos
Apiaceae/metabolismo , Hidroponia/métodos , Iodo/química , Valor Nutritivo , Apiaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biofortificação , Biomassa , Carotenoides/análise , Carotenoides/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Plântula/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
14.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 173: 1-17, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100508

RESUMO

An ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method (UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed for the determination of 41 target and 8 additional bile acids isomers (BAs) in biological fluids. BAs were analysed by solid-phase extraction on 50 µL biofluid-aliquots, followed by a properly optimised 27 min-chromatographic run. The method provided high sensitivity (limits of detection 0.0002-0.03 µM, limits of quantitation 0.0007-0.11 µM), linearity (R2>0.99) and precision (relative standard deviations ≤16%). A strategy of scheduled/ unscheduled injections of real samples together with neutral loss (80 Da and 176 Da) scans allowed us to find additional bile acid isomers not a priori included in the method, while high resolution full scan and MS/MS fragmentation analysis confirmed their structural adherence to the bile acid family. Moreover this is the first study quantifying four sulfate glycine conjugated-dihydroxy bile acid isomers, independently of the diet and postprandial time. Application to a dietary intervention kinetic study confirmed the existence of possible metabotypes amongst the study population (n = 20). A trend differentiating males from females was observed suggesting that serum samples from women contained smaller amounts of certain bile acids.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares/sangue , Glucuronídeos/sangue , Glicina/sangue , Técnica de Diluição de Radioisótopos , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/química , Radioisótopos de Carbono , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Glucuronídeos/química , Glicina/química , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Masculino , Período Pós-Prandial , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Sexuais , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
15.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 234, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894868

RESUMO

The development of new resistant varieties to the oomycete Plasmopara viticola (Berk.& Curt) is a promising way to combat downy mildew (DM), one of the major diseases threatening the cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). Taking advantage of a segregating population derived from "Merzling" (a mid-resistant hybrid) and "Teroldego" (a susceptible landrace), 136 F1 individuals were characterized by combining genetic, phenotypic, and gene expression data to elucidate the genetic basis of DM resistance and polyphenol biosynthesis upon P. viticola infection. An improved consensus linkage map was obtained by scoring 192 microsatellite markers. The progeny were screened for DM resistance and production of 42 polyphenols. QTL mapping showed that DM resistance is associated with the herein named Rpv3-3 specific haplotype and it identified 46 novel metabolic QTLs linked to 30 phenolics-related parameters. A list of the 95 most relevant candidate genes was generated by specifically exploring the stilbenoid-associated QTLs. Expression analysis of 11 genes in Rpv3-3 +/- genotypes displaying disparity in DM resistance level and stilbenoid accumulation revealed significant new candidates for the genetic control of stilbenoid biosynthesis and oligomerization. These overall findings emphasized that DM resistance is likely mediated by the major Rpv3-3 haplotype and stilbenoid induction.

16.
Food Chem ; 277: 753-765, 2019 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30502213

RESUMO

The influence of grape maturity on wine volatome was investigated using HS-SPME-GC × GC-TOFMS. Shiraz wines were made from grapes harvested from four different vineyards from two berry maturity levels. A total of 1276 putative compounds were detected in at least one of the wine samples and 175 showed significant trends related to grape maturity. The first two dimensions of the Principal component analysis accounted for 57% of the variation and separated the samples according to the harvest date. Wines from the first harvest date were characterised by an abundance of lipoxygenase derived compounds, norisoprenoids and sulfur-containing compounds whereas a significant increase in some acetate esters was observed in wines produced from the more mature grapes. This study demonstrated a common evolution of grape volatiles for Shiraz inside the same mesoclimate. During the late ripening stage of the grape, a direct nexus between sugar concentration and wine volatile evolution was not observed.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Vitis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Vinho/análise , Norisoprenoides/análise , Norisoprenoides/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Componente Principal , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Terpenos/análise , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação , Vitis/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
17.
Food Chem ; 270: 403-414, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30174064

RESUMO

Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOF-MS) was combined with conventional mono-dimensional GC-MS to differentiate Croatian virgin olive oils (VOO) according to variety and geographical origin, based on the profile of volatile aroma compounds isolated by HS-SPME. More than 1000 compounds were detected after untargeted profiling and 256 were identified or tentatively identified, providing one of the most detailed profiles of volatile aroma compounds in VOO up to date. Among them, 131 volatile compounds were significantly different across monovarietal VOOs, while 60 were found useful for the discrimination according to geographical origin. Many major lipoxygenase and minor non-lipoxygenase-generated compounds were shown to have discriminating ability with respect to both factors. Multivariate statistical analysis extracted twenty-one volatile markers with the highest discriminant power for varietal differentiation. The approach reported may have practical application in better understanding, defining, managing, and communicating the varietal or geographical typicity of monovarietal VOOs.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Azeite de Oliva/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Lipoxigenase , Odorantes , Azeite de Oliva/classificação
18.
Eur J Nutr ; 58(1): 63-81, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29124388

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Olive pomace is a major waste product of olive oil production but remains rich in polyphenols and fibres. We measured the potential of an olive pomace-enriched biscuit formulation delivering 17.1 ± 4.01 mg/100 g of hydroxytyrosol and its derivatives, to modulate the composition and metabolic activity of the human gut microbiota. METHODS: In a double-blind, controlled parallel dietary intervention 62 otherwise healthy hypercholesterolemic (total plasma cholesterol 180-240 mg/dl) subjects were randomly assigned to eat 90 g of olive pomace-enriched biscuit (olive-enriched product, OEP) or an isoenergetic control (CTRL) for 8 weeks. Fasted blood samples, 24-h urine and faecal samples were collected before and after dietary intervention for measurement of microbiota, metabolites and clinical parameters. RESULTS: Consumption of OEP biscuits did not impact on the diversity of the faecal microbiota and there was no statistically significant effect on CVD markers. A trend towards reduced oxidized LDL cholesterol following OEP ingestion was observed. At the genus level lactobacilli and Ruminococcus were reduced in OEP compared to CTRL biscuits. A trend towards increased bifidobacteria abundance was observed after OEP ingestion in 16S rRNA profiles, by fluorescent in situ hybridization and by qPCR. Targeted LC-MS revealed significant increases phenolic acid concentrations in 24-h urine following OEP ingestion and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid, derivatives of hydroxytyrosol, were elevated in blood. A sex effect was apparent in urine small phenolic acid concentrations, and this sex effect was mirrored by statistically significant differences in relative abundances of faecal bacteria between men and women. CONCLUSION: Ingestion of OEP biscuits led to a significant increase in the metabolic output of the gut microbiota with an apparent sex effect possibly linked to differences in microbiota makeup. Increased levels of homovanillic acid and DOPAC, thought to be involved in reducing oxidative LDL cholesterol, were observed upon OEP ingestion. However, OEP did not induce statistically significant changes in either ox-LDL or urinary isoprostane in this study.


Assuntos
Pão , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipercolesterolemia/metabolismo , Olea/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Adulto , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Fatores Sexuais
19.
Food Res Int ; 112: 78-89, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30131161

RESUMO

To investigate if the anecdotal varietal typicity concepts for two monovarietal virgin olive oils (VOO) can be scientifically supported and explained, VOO samples were sorted according to typicity grade and related to sensory and compositional data for volatiles and phenols. Clear inter-varietal, as well as intra-varietal boundaries between more and less typical samples were established by univariate and multivariate statistics. A variety-typical complex odor was related to a complex VOO volatile composition with relatively high amounts of lipoxygenase-derived compounds, accompanied by hydrocarbons, terpenes, and benzenoids. A simpler odor, described mostly as green and typical for the other monovarietal VOO, coincided with the lower amounts of the same volatiles. The intensity of bitterness and pungency was mostly in correlation with the amount of major phenols. Two monovarietal VOOs were clearly distinguished with respect to their variety-typical expression of pungency: the one described as gradually increasing was tentatively related to pinoresinol, while the other, described as immediately strong and burning, was assumed to originate mainly from p-HPEA-EDA. Intra-varietal typicity grades correlated with hedonic liking, as well as with general VOO positive sensory attributes related to key volatiles and phenols.


Assuntos
Odorantes/análise , Azeite de Oliva/química , Fenóis/análise , Olfato , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Humanos , Percepção Olfatória , Azeite de Oliva/classificação , Percepção Gustatória
20.
Pharmacol Res ; 134: 145-155, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29928974

RESUMO

Gastritis is a widely spread inflammatory disease, mostly caused by Helicobacter pylori infection. Release of IL-8 by the stomach epithelium is a hallmark of gastritis and contributes to the amplification of the inflammatory state. Pharmacological modulation of IL-8 release is a strategy to relieve gastric inflammation and prevent more severe clinical outcomes. In search of nutraceuticals with potential anti-gastritis properties we used a bio-guided approach based on IL-8 secretion by gastric cells to characterize extracts from the fruits of different chestnut varieties. We found that the ability to inhibit IL-8 secretion correlated with the amount of proanthocyanidins and was associated to the not edible parts of chestnut in all the tested varieties. We also found that the anti-inflammatory activity is preserved upon mild thermal treatment and after in vitro simulated gastric digestion. By combining a robust bio-guided approach with a comprehensive analysis of the tannin fraction of chestnut extracts, we provide evidence for the potential use of chestnut-based nutraceuticals in human gastritis. The bioactive components of chestnut fruits inhibit IL-8 secretion by impairing NF-κB signaling and by other mechanisms, thus opening new applications of proanthocyanidins for inflammation-based diseases.


Assuntos
Aesculus/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Bioensaio/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Gastrite/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Frutas , Mucosa Gástrica/imunologia , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Gastrite/imunologia , Gastrite/metabolismo , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Proantocianidinas/isolamento & purificação , Via Secretória
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