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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444904

RESUMO

The development of problem behavior in children is associated with exposure to environmental factors, including the maternal environment. Both are influenced by genetic factors, which may also be correlated, that is, environmental risk and problem behavior in children might be influenced by partly the same genetic factors. In addition, environmental and genetic factors could interact with each other increasing the risk of problem behavior in children. To date, limited research investigated these mechanisms in a genome-wide approach. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate the association between genetic risk for psychiatric and related traits, as indicated by polygenetic risk scores (PRSs), exposure to previously identified maternal risk factors, and problem behavior in a sample of 1,154 children from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study at ages 5-6 and 11-12 years old. The PRSs were derived from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) on schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, neuroticism, and wellbeing. Regression analysis showed that the PRSs were associated with exposure to multiple environmental risk factors, suggesting passive gene-environment correlation. In addition, the PRS based on the schizophrenia GWAS was associated with externalizing behavior problems in children at age 5-6. We did not find any association with problem behavior for the other PRSs. Our results indicate that genetic predispositions for psychiatric disorders and wellbeing are associated with early environmental risk factors for children's problem behavior.

2.
Environ Int ; 131: 104927, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between air pollution exposure and emotional and behavioural problems in children is unclear. We aimed to assess prenatal and postnatal exposure to several air pollutants and child's depressive and anxiety symptoms, and aggressive symptoms in children of 7-11 years. METHODS: We analysed data of 13182 children from 8 European population-based birth cohorts. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM) with diameters of ≤10 µm (PM10), ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5), and between 10 and 2.5 µm (PMcoarse), the absorbance of PM2.5 filters (PM2.5abs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were estimated at residential addresses of each participant. Depressive and anxiety symptoms and aggressive symptoms were assessed at 7-11 years of age using parent reported tests. Children were classified in borderline/clinical range or clinical range using validated cut offs. Region specific models were adjusted for various socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics and then combined using random effect meta-analysis. Multiple imputation and inverse probability weighting methods were applied to correct for potential attrition bias. RESULTS: A total of 1896 (14.4%) children were classified as having depressive and anxiety symptoms in the borderline/clinical range, and 1778 (13.4%) as having aggressive symptoms in the borderline/clinical range. Overall, 1108 (8.4%) and 870 (6.6%) children were classified as having depressive and anxiety symptoms, and aggressive symptoms in the clinical range, respectively. Prenatal exposure to air pollution was not associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms in the borderline/clinical range (e.g. OR 1.02 [95%CI 0.95 to 1.10] per 10 µg/m3 higher NO2) nor with aggressive symptoms in the borderline/clinical range (e.g. OR 1.04 [95%CI 0.96 to 1.12] per 10 µg/m3 higher NO2). Similar results were observed for the symptoms in the clinical range, and for postnatal exposures to air pollution. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our results suggest that prenatal and postnatal exposure to air pollution is not associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms or aggressive symptoms in children of 7 to 11 years old.

3.
Appetite ; 142: 104354, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295505

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to explore the role of ethnicity and maternal perceived weight status in the association between maternal child feeding practices and childhood Body Mass Index (BMI) at the age of 11-12 years in a multi-ethnic population. METHODS: We collected data on child feeding practices by the validated Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) among 2398 mothers of adolescents (Mage = 11.2, SDage = 0.6). Multivariate linear analyses were used to determine the cross-sectional association between child feeding practices ('Restriction', 'Pressure to eat', and 'Monitoring'), maternal perception of child's weight status, SDS-BMI, and ethnicity. RESULTS: 'Restriction' (ß = 0.16; 95% CI [0.11; 0.20]) and 'Pressure to eat' (ß = -0.32 [-0.36;-0.28]) were significantly associated with child SDS-BMI. Both associations were strongly influenced by the mother's perception of child's weight status. Besides, non-native Dutch mothers performed significantly higher levels of 'Restriction' (M±SD = 12.17 ±â€¯4.41) and 'Pressure to eat' (10.75 ±â€¯4.03) compared to native Dutch mothers (11.25 ±â€¯4.15 and 9.99 ±â€¯3.83, respectively). Native Dutch mothers performed higher levels of 'Monitoring' (17.15 ±â€¯2.54) compared to non-native Dutch mothers (16.73 ±â€¯3.01). Furthermore, children of non-native Dutch mothers had a 0.15 (0.27; 0.46) higher SDS-BMI. Finally, results showed that the association between 'Pressure to eat' and SDS-BMI was stronger in native Dutch mothers (ß = -0.20; 95% CI [-0.24; -0.15]) compared to non-native Dutch mothers (ß = -0.11; 95% CI [-0.18; -0.04]). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Ethnic differences in childhood BMI seemed to be partially attributable to the maternal perception of her child's weight status. Besides, maternal perception of child's weight appeared to play an important role in the association between maternal child feeding practices and childhood SDS-BMI. Hence, our findings contribute to the growing evidence concerning the bi-directional association between child feeding practices and childhood BMI.

4.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0216035, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233509

RESUMO

Early life stress has been shown to contribute to alterations in biobehavioral regulation. Genetic make-up, especially related to social sensitivity, might affect the child's vulnerability to these alterations. This study examined whether maternal verbally aggressive behavior in early infancy interacts with oxytocin polymorphisms in changing resting cardiovascular outcomes at age 5-6. In the Amsterdam-Born-Children-and-their-Development-(ABCD)-study, a large prospective, observational, population-based birth cohort, maternal verbally aggressive behavior was assessed in the 13th postnatal week (range 11-25 weeks, SD 2 weeks) by a questionnaire (maternal self-report). Indicators of resting cardiac autonomic nervous system activity (sympathetic drive by pre-ejection period, parasympathetic drive by respiratory sinus arrhythmia), heart rate, and blood pressure were measured at age 5-6 years. Data on oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms rs53576, rs2268498 and oxytocin polymorphisms rs2740210, rs4813627, were collected (N = 966 included). If the child was carrier of the rs53576 GG variant, exposure to maternal verbally aggressive behavior (10.6%) was associated with increased systolic blood pressure at age 5-6 (B = 4.9 mmHg,95% CI[2.2;7.7]). If the child was carrier of the rs2268498 TT/TC variant, exposure to maternal verbally aggressive behavior was associated with increased systolic blood pressure at age 5-6 (B = 3.0 mmHg,95%CI[1.0:5.0]). No significant interactions of maternal verbally aggressive behavior with oxytocin gene polymorphisms on heart rate or cardiac autonomic nervous system activity were found. In conclusion, oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms may partly determine a child's vulnerability to develop increased systolic blood pressure after being exposed to maternal verbally aggressive behavior in early infancy.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31065789

RESUMO

Genetic predisposition of social sensitivity might affect vulnerability to develop psychopathology after early life stress exposure. This study examined whether maternal verbally aggressive behavior in early infancy interacts with oxytocin polymorphisms in developing internalizing symptoms at ages 5-6 and 11-12. In the Amsterdam-Born-Children-and-their-Development (ABCD) study, a large observational, population-based birth cohort, maternal verbally aggressive behavior was assessed in the 13th postnatal week by a self-report questionnaire. Internalizing symptoms at age 5-6 were assessed by maternal report (N = 969) and internalizing symptoms at age 11-12 were assessed by self-report (N = 750). Data on oxytocin receptor polymorphisms rs53576 and rs2268498 and oxytocin polymorphisms rs2740210 and rs4813627 were collected. If the child was carrier of rs2740210 CA/AA polymorphism, exposure to maternal verbally aggressive behavior (10.6%) was positively associated with general anxiety at age 5-6 and emotional symptoms at age 11-12 (p for interaction = 0.011 and p = 0.015, respectively). If the child was carrier of rs4813627 GG (wild type), exposure to maternal verbally aggressive behavior was negatively associated with anxiety sensitivity and emotional symptoms at age 11-12 (p for interaction = 0.011 and p = 0.022, respectively). After exposure to maternal verbally aggressive behavior in early infancy, oxytocin polymorphisms may partly determine a child's vulnerability to internalizing symptoms.

6.
J Hypertens ; 37(7): 1467-1474, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145714

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy pose a major burden during pregnancy and are also associated with an increased risk for hypertension later in life. Plasma creatine kinase activity is identified in the general population as an independent risk factor for hypertension. We hypothesize that plasma creatine kinase activity is similarly associated with blood pressure during pregnancy. METHODS: Women who participated in the 'Amsterdam Born Children and their Development-study' were eligible for the current study. The associations between plasma creatine kinase activity and blood pressure measurements during pregnancy, and between plasma creatine kinase activity and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (gestational hypertension, HELLP, preeclampsia and eclampsia) were evaluated using multiple linear regression and logistic regression models. RESULTS: In 3619 pregnant women, plasma creatine kinase activity was significantly associated with all blood pressure outcomes. This was most pronounced for the mean SBP throughout pregnancy, with a regression coefficient of 3.48 mmHg (CI 1.67-5.28, P < 0.001) per 1-unit logCK. With respect to the hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, we found a significant association between severe gestational hypertension diagnosed before 34 weeks of gestation (OR 9.16, CI 1.32-63.86, P = 0.025) per 1-unit logCK activity. HELLP and preeclampsia were not significantly associated. CONCLUSION: Our data show that plasma creatine kinase activity measured in early pregnancy is associated with blood pressure during pregnancy and associated with severe gestational hypertension diagnosed before 34 weeks of gestation, whereas no significant association was found between creatine kinase and other hypertensive disorders in pregnancy.

7.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 28: 232-235, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30390887

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Research in adults shows high intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) increases blood pressure (BP), however evidence in children is scarce and inconclusive. No studies have investigated autonomic nervous system (ANS) activation due to SSBs in children. Our aim was to investigate the associations between SSBs intake, BP and ANS activation in children. METHODS: Cross-sectional data collected in 2008-2010 at age 5/6 (n = 2519) and in 2015-2016 at age 11/12 (n = 769) years in the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development-study were analyzed in 2017. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), as well as pre-ejection period (PEP; sympathetic activation) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA; parasympathetic activation) were measured during supine position. SSBs intake was self-reported. RESULTS: After adjustments for covariates, including weight status, no associations between SSBs intake, BP and ANS measures were found at age 5/6. At age 11/12, one serving/day increase in SSBs was associated with 0.8 mmHg increase in SBP (95%CI:0.4; 1.2), 0.3 mmHg increase in DBP (0.0; 0.5) and 0.9 msec decrease in PEP (-1.5;-0.2). Children in the highest SSBs tertile had an increase of 2.3 mmHg in SBP (0.7; 4.0) and a decrease of 3.6 msec in PEP (-6.7;-0.6) compared to children in the lowest tertile. CONCLUSION: In children aged 11/12, high intake of SSBs was associated with increased BP, which might be due to increased sympathetic nervous system activation. Importantly, these associations were independent of weight status.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30314943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the exposure of young children to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) and potentially associated health effects. We assessed the relationship of RF-EMF exposure from different sources and screen time exposure with emotional and behavioural problems in 5-year-old children. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 3102 children aged 5 years from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) study, in the Netherlands. Residential RF-EMF exposure from mobile phone base stations was estimated with a 3D geospatial radio wave propagation model. Residential presence of RF-EMF indoor sources (cordless phone base stations and Wireless Fidelity (WiFi)), children's mobile phone and cordless phone calls and screen time exposure (computer/video game and television watching) was reported by the mother. Teachers (n = 2617) and mothers (n = 3019) independently reported child emotional and behavioural problems using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. RESULTS: No associations were found between mobile phone and cordless phone calls and emotional and behavioural problems. Children exposed to higher RF-EMF levels from mobile phone base stations showed higher odds of maternal-reported emotional symptoms (OR 1.82, 95%CI 1.07 to 3.09). Children with cordless phone at home had lower odds of teacher-reported problematic prosocial behaviour (OR 0.68, 95%CI 0.48 to 0.97) and of maternal-reported peer relationship problems (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.96). Children who watched television ≥1.5 h/day had higher odds of maternal-reported hyperactivity/inattention (OR 3.13, 95%CI 1.43 to 6.82). CONCLUSION: Mobile phone and cordless phone calls, which lead to peak RF-EMF exposures to the head, were not associated with any emotional and behavioural problems in 5-year-old children. Environmental RF-EMF exposure from mobile phone base stations and from indoor sources and television watching, which both contribute very little to RF-EMF exposure, were associated with specific emotional and behavioural problems but mainly when reported by the mothers. We cannot, however, discard residual confounding or reverse causality. Further longitudinal research in particular as children will increase the use of telecommunication devices with the age may help to better understand the exact contribution of the different RF-EMF exposure sources if any. Moreover, a thorough control for confounding is essential for a correct interpretation of the studies on screen time and emotional and behavioural problems.

9.
Child Obes ; 2018 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30280927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal overweight/obesity during pregnancy increases offspring's risks of obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). A possible pathway is by reduced physical fitness and physical activity (PA) levels in children of overweight/obese mother. We assessed whether maternal prepregnancy overweight/obesity independently determines cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), muscular strength, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and sedentary behavior (SB) in 8- to 9-year-old children. We also assessed whether child's fat mass (FM) mediates these associations. METHODS: One hundred ninety-four children of Dutch ethnicity aged 8.6 (± 0.4) years were randomly selected from a prospective birth cohort, the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) study. CRF was assessed by the 20-m multistage shuttle run test (20-m MSRT), muscular strength by hand dynamometry, and MVPA and SB by accelerometry. The association of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2 with these outcome measures was assessed by multivariable linear regressions. RESULTS: Mean (± standard deviation) attained 20-m MSRT stage was 5.3 (± 1.7). Compared with children from normal weight women, children of women with prepregnancy overweight/obesity attained a 0.80 (95% confidence interval: 0.15-1.50) lower stage, adjusted for child's sex and MVPA. This association was not mediated by birthweight or child's FM at age 5 years. Maternal prepregnancy overweight/obesity was not associated with child's muscular strength, MVPA, or SB. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal prepregnancy overweight/obesity was associated with reduced childhood CRF, but not with muscular strength, PA, or SB. Birthweight and FM at age 5 years did not mediate this association. Reduced CRF may partly explain the increased CVD risk in children of overweight/obese women.

10.
Eur Respir J ; 52(3)2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30209194

RESUMO

The parallel epidemics of childhood asthma and obesity over the past few decades have spurred research into obesity as a risk factor for asthma. However, little is known regarding the role of asthma in obesity incidence. We examined whether early-onset asthma and related phenotypes are associated with the risk of developing obesity in childhood.This study includes 21 130 children born from 1990 to 2008 in Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the UK. We followed non-obese children at 3-4 years of age for incident obesity up to 8 years of age. Physician-diagnosed asthma, wheezing and allergic rhinitis were assessed up to 3-4 years of age.Children with physician-diagnosed asthma had a higher risk for incident obesity than those without asthma (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.66, 95% CI 1.18-2.33). Children with active asthma (wheeze in the last 12 months and physician-diagnosed asthma) exhibited a higher risk for obesity (aHR 1.98, 95% CI 1.31-3.00) than those without wheeze and asthma. Persistent wheezing was associated with increased risk for incident obesity compared to never wheezers (aHR 1.51, 95% CI 1.08-2.09).Early-onset asthma and wheezing may contribute to an increased risk of developing obesity in later childhood.

11.
Nutrients ; 10(8)2018 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30082636

RESUMO

Worldwide, childhood obesity is rapidly increasing, making it a pressing public health issue. Obesity is strongly linked to eating behaviour and energy intake but little is known about their prenatal determinants. In an exploratory study of data collected within the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) study, we hypothesized that intra-uterine exposure to increased lipids is associated with adverse eating behaviour and increased energy intake in the offspring at age 5. During early gestation, a non-fasting blood sample was taken from 1463 non-diabetic Dutch women, including: total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), free fatty acids (FFA), Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) and Apolipoprotein B (ApoB). Eating behaviour, measured using the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, included food approaching (enjoyment of food, food responsiveness) and food avoidant behaviour (satiety responsiveness, slowness of eating). Energy intake (total energy, fat and carbohydrate intake) was measured using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Associations were analysed using multivariable linear regression. Increased maternal TC concentrations were associated with lower enjoyment of food, higher satiety responsiveness and increased slowness of eating, as well as decreased kcal and fat intake in the offspring. Elevated ApoA1 was associated with increased slowness of eating, lower enjoyment of food and lower kcal, fat and carbohydrate intake. ApoB was positively associated with satiety responsiveness and slowness of eating. Higher TG concentrations were associated with higher food responsiveness. Maternal FFA did not show significant associations. Findings demonstrated that the maternal prenatal lipid profile was associated with offspring's eating behaviour and energy intake, although not always in the hypothesized direction.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Lipídeos/sangue , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Estado Nutricional , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Eur J Public Health ; 28(6): 1062-1068, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30007318

RESUMO

Background: Socioeconomically disadvantaged children often have psychosocial problems. This study examined the mediating role of maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy, infancy and early childhood in the association between maternal education, as indicator of socioeconomic status (SES), and child's psychosocial problems. Methods: Included were 3410 children from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) study. To assess the child's psychosocial problems at age 5-6 years, mothers and teachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and the Depressive Anxiety and Stress Scale 21. Mediation analysis was performed to calculate the direct effect of maternal education on SDQ score and indirect effects through maternal depressive symptoms. Results: The mean mother-reported SDQ total score was significantly higher (P < 0.001) for children of low-educated mothers (6.74 ± 4.41) compared with children of highly educated mothers (4.47 ± 3.73). Levels of maternal depressive symptoms were also higher in low-educated mothers during pregnancy, infancy and early childhood. Maternal depressive symptoms explained 27.5% of the association between maternal education and mother-reported SDQ scores and 22.9% for combined mother/teacher SDQ scores. Maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy had the strongest indirect effect. Conclusion: Maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy mediate the association between low maternal education and child's psychosocial problems. Early recognition and treatment of maternal depressive symptoms is important to prevent psychosocial problems in children, especially in those with low education.

13.
Early Hum Dev ; 122: 32-41, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29864728

RESUMO

The prevalence of obesity among women of childbearing age has been rising dramatically over the last decades. Pre-pregnancy obesity may have negative neurodevelopmental consequences for the offspring. The present study examined the association of maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity with child behavior problems and executive functioning at age 5 years. Data of 4094 mother-child pairs of the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development birth cohort study was used. Child behavioral problems were assessed with the maternal and teacher version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Two executive functioning constructs, inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility, were measured with the Response Organization Objects task of the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks test battery. Increased maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was associated with an increase in children's behavioral problems (OR total behavioral problems reported by mothers pre-pregnancy obesity versus normal weight: 1.78 [95% CI 1.17 to 2.69] and reported by teachers for pre-pregnancy overweight versus normal weight: 1.32 [1.00 to 1.74]). Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity was associated with an increase in peer relationship problems reported by teachers (OR: 1.77 [1.18 to 2.64]). It was also associated with a small decrease in cognitive flexibility (increased Reaction Time in ms: B = 67.59 [5.88 to 129.30] and Within Subject Standard Deviation in ms: B = 76.46 [32.00 to 120.92]), but not with inhibitory control. Cognitive flexibility did not mediate the association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and children's behavioral problems.

14.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0197508, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29851997

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Early life stress has been shown to influence the developing autonomic nervous system. Stressors in infancy may program the autonomic nervous system resting state set point, affecting cardiovascular function in later life. Excessive crying may be an indicator of increased stress arousal in infancy. We hypothesized that excessive infant crying is related to altered cardiac autonomic nervous system activity and increased blood pressure at age 5-6 years. METHODS: In the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study, excessive crying, maternal burden of infant care and maternal aggressive behavior in the 13th week after birth (range 11-16 weeks) were reported using questionnaires. Blood pressure, heart rate, heart rate variability and indicators of cardiac autonomic nervous system activity (sympathetic drive by pre-ejection period, parasympathetic drive by respiratory sinus arrhythmia) were measured at age 5-6 years during rest. Inclusion criteria were singleton birth, term-born, and no reported congenital or cardiovascular problems (N = 2153 included). RESULTS: Excessive crying (2.8%) was not associated with resting heart rate, heart rate variability, pre-ejection period, respiratory sinus arrhythmia nor with blood pressure at age 5-6 years. CONCLUSIONS: Excessive infant crying as an indicator of increased stress arousal does not seem to be related to resting activity of the autonomic nervous system or blood pressure at age 5-6. Potential associations may become visible under stressed conditions.

15.
Environ Int ; 117: 204-214, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29754001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) has rapidly increased and little is known about exposure levels in children. This study describes personal RF-EMF environmental exposure levels from handheld devices and fixed site transmitters in European children, the determinants of this, and the day-to-day and year-to-year repeatability of these exposure levels. METHODS: Personal environmental RF-EMF exposure (µW/m2, power flux density) was measured in 529 children (ages 8-18 years) in Denmark, the Netherlands, Slovenia, Switzerland, and Spain using personal portable exposure meters for a period of up to three days between 2014 and 2016, and repeated in a subsample of 28 children one year later. The meters captured 16 frequency bands every 4 s and incorporated a GPS. Activity diaries and questionnaires were used to collect children's location, use of handheld devices, and presence of indoor RF-EMF sources. Six general frequency bands were defined: total, digital enhanced cordless telecommunications (DECT), television and radio antennas (broadcast), mobile phones (uplink), mobile phone base stations (downlink), and Wireless Fidelity (WiFi). We used adjusted mixed effects models with region random effects to estimate associations of handheld device use habits and indoor RF-EMF sources with personal RF-EMF exposure. Day-to-day and year-to-year repeatability of personal RF-EMF exposure were calculated through intraclass correlations (ICC). RESULTS: Median total personal RF-EMF exposure was 75.5 µW/m2. Downlink was the largest contributor to total exposure (median: 27.2 µW/m2) followed by broadcast (9.9 µW/m2). Exposure from uplink (4.7 µW/m2) was lower. WiFi and DECT contributed very little to exposure levels. Exposure was higher during day (94.2 µW/m2) than night (23.0 µW/m2), and slightly higher during weekends than weekdays, although varying across regions. Median exposures were highest while children were outside (157.0 µW/m2) or traveling (171.3 µW/m2), and much lower at home (33.0 µW/m2) or in school (35.1 µW/m2). Children living in urban environments had higher exposure than children in rural environments. Older children and users of mobile phones had higher uplink exposure but not total exposure, compared to younger children and those that did not use mobile phones. Day-to-day repeatability was moderate to high for most of the general frequency bands (ICCs between 0.43 and 0.85), as well as for total, broadcast, and downlink for the year-to-year repeatability (ICCs between 0.49 and 0.80) in a small subsample. CONCLUSION: The largest contributors to total personal environmental RF-EMF exposure were downlink and broadcast, and these exposures showed high repeatability. Urbanicity was the most important determinant of total exposure and mobile phone use was the most important determinant of uplink exposure. It is important to continue evaluating RF-EMF exposure in children as device use habits, exposure levels, and main contributing sources may change.

16.
Br J Nutr ; 120(3): 345-352, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29843832

RESUMO

About 57 % of the pregnant European women have 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations below 50 nmol/l. However, as data on the impact of gestational vitamin D deficiency on maternal and fetal health are limited, the WHO does not advocate vitamin D supplementation as part of routine antenatal care. We explored associations between first trimester maternal 25(OH)D status and childhood cognition at 5-6 years of age (n 1854, primarily Caucasian). Median serum 25(OH)D was determined at 13 (interquartile range 12-14) weeks of gestation. Childhood attention, motor fluency and flexibility and executive function were assessed using the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks. Restricted cubic splines and linear regression analyses were used to analyse the data while adjusting for many maternal and child related covariates. Higher 25(OH)D status (nmol/l) was associated with better attention and executive functioning as shown by a faster reaction time (ß -0·30 (sd 0·14) ms, P=0·03), faster response speed (ß -0·58 (sd 0·21) ms, P=0·006), and better response speed stability (ß -0·45 (sd 0·17) ms, P=0·009). No associations were observed of serum 25(OH)D with motor fluency and flexibility. Associations were most pronounced among children of African origin (n 205) as compared with those of Caucasian or another origin, for example attention (reaction time, ß -2·06 (sd 0·70) ms, P=0·004) and executive function (response speed, ß -1·95 (sd 0·94) ms, P=0·04). Concluding, maternal 25(OH)D status was significantly associated with childhood attention and executive function, while no associations were observed for 25(OH)D status with motor fluency and flexibility.

17.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 32(9): 797-805, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28929268

RESUMO

Highly prevalent and typically beginning in childhood, asthma is a burdensome disease, yet the risk factors for this condition are not clarified. To enhance understanding, this study assessed the cohort-specific and pooled risk of maternal education on asthma in children aged 3-8 across 10 European countries. Data on 47,099 children were obtained from prospective birth cohort studies across 10 European countries. We calculated cohort-specific prevalence difference in asthma outcomes using the relative index of inequality (RII) and slope index of inequality (SII). Results from all countries were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis procedures to obtain mean RII and SII scores at the European level. Final models were adjusted for child sex, smoking during pregnancy, parity, mother's age and ethnicity. The higher the score the greater the magnitude of relative (RII, reference 1) and absolute (SII, reference 0) inequity. The pooled RII estimate for asthma risk across all cohorts was 1.46 (95% CI 1.26, 1.71) and the pooled SII estimate was 1.90 (95% CI 0.26, 3.54). Of the countries examined, France, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands had the highest prevalence's of childhood asthma and the largest inequity in asthma risk. Smaller inverse associations were noted for all other countries except Italy, which presented contradictory scores, but with small effect sizes. Tests for heterogeneity yielded significant results for SII scores. Overall, offspring of mothers with a low level of education had an increased relative and absolute risk of asthma compared to offspring of high-educated mothers.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Mães , Asma/etiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comparação Transcultural , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Idade Materna , Mães/psicologia , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
18.
Early Hum Dev ; 113: 62-70, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28787620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight is known to program offspring for adverse health outcomes later in life. AIMS: To investigate how growth patterns of weight, height and BMI from birth to 7years differ according to maternal pre-pregnancy weight (normal weight, overweight and obesity), with specific attention for sex differences. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective multi-ethnic ABCD-study. SUBJECTS: 3805 mother-child pairs were included. Self-reported maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index was categorized into: normal weight (18.5-25kg/m2; n=3354), overweight (25-30kg/m2; n=711) and obesity (≥30kg/m2; n=241). OUTCOME MEASURES: Population-specific growth patterns were used to compute SD-scores for weight, height and BMI (on average 12.7 (SD=2.6) measurements for each child) for term born boys and girls separately. Mixed effect models were fitted to these SD-scores to determine the effect of pre-pregnancy BMI category on postnatal growth, corrected for maternal characteristics. RESULTS: Compared to children of mothers with normal weight before pregnancy, children of overweight mothers grew faster in weight and BMI (boys and girls) and children of obese mothers grew faster in height (only girls), weight and BMI (boys and girls) during the first years of life. The differences seemed to increase with age and were in general larger in girls. CONCLUSION: Maternal overweight and obesity impact on offspring's weight, height and BMI growth pattern with increasing differences when children age. Effects were in general stronger for girls. These results suggest that a healthy weight before pregnancy may be beneficial for optimal weight, height and BMI growth in the offspring.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
BMJ Open ; 7(5): e013413, 2017 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28490549

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The rate of interventions during childbirth has increased dramatically during the last decades. Maternal anxiety might play a role in the progress of the labour process and interventions during labour. This study aimed to identify associations between anxiety in the first half of pregnancy and the birth process, including any interventions required during labour. In addition, differences in the associations by parity and ethnicity were explored. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Primary care midwifery practices and secondary/tertiary care obstetric practices in Amsterdam, participating in the multiethnic ABCD (Amsterdam Born Children and their Development) study (participation rate 96%; response 8266/12 373 (67%)). PARTICIPANTS: Included were women with singletons, alive at labour start, with a gestational age ≥24 weeks (n=6443). INDEPENDENT VARIABLE: General anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory state) and pregnancy-related anxiety (Pregnancy-Related Anxieties Questionnaire (PRAQ)) were self-reported in the first half of pregnancy. OUTCOMES: Associations between both forms of anxiety and several indicators of the birth process were analysed. Subgroup analyses were performed for parity and ethnicity. RESULTS: The prevalence of high general anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory score ≥43) and pregnancy-related anxiety (PRAQ score ≥P90) were 30.9% and 11.0%, respectively. After adjustment, in nulliparae, both general anxiety and pregnancy-related anxiety were associated with pain relief and/or sedation (OR for general anxiety 1.23; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.48; OR for pregnancy-related anxiety 1.45; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.85). In multiparae, general anxiety was associated with induction of labour (OR 1.53; 95% CI 1.16 to 2.03) and pregnancy-related anxiety was associated with primary caesarean section (OR 1.66; 95% CI 1.02 to 2.70). Associations were largely similar for all ethnicities. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of general and pregnancy-related anxiety in early pregnancy contribute modestly to more interventions during the birth process with similar associations between ethnic groups, but with some differences between nulliparae and multiparae.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Parto/psicologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Cesárea/psicologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Trabalho de Parto/psicologia , Modelos Logísticos , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Paridade , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
20.
PLoS One ; 12(5): e0177554, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28542294

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although pre-pregnancy weight status and early pregnancy lipid profile are known to influence blood pressure course during pregnancy, little is known about how these two factors interact. The association between pre-pregnancy weight status and blood pressure course during pregnancy was assessed in the prospective ABCD study and the role (independent/mediating/moderating) of early pregnancy lipid profile in this association was determined. METHODS: We included 2500 normal weight (<25 kg/m2) and 600 overweight (≥25 kg/m2) women from the prospective ABCD-study with available measurements of non-fasting early pregnancy lipids [median (IQR): 13 (12-14) weeks of gestation] and blood pressure during pregnancy [mean (SD) = 10 (2.3)]. Lipids (triglycerides, total cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B and free fatty acids) were divided into tertiles. Multilevel piecewise linear spline models were used to describe the course of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) in four time periods during gestation for overweight and normal weight women. RESULTS: Both SBP (5.3 mmHg) and DBP (3.9 mmHg) were higher in overweight compared to normal weight women and this difference remained the same over all four time periods. The difference in SBP and DBP was not mediated or moderated by the lipid profile. Lipid profile had an independent positive effect on both SBP (range 1.3-2.2 mmHg) and DBP (0.8-1.1 mmHg), but did not change blood pressure course. CONCLUSIONS: Both pre-pregnancy weight status and early pregnancy lipid profile independently increase blood pressure during pregnancy. Improving pre-pregnancy weight status and early pregnancy lipid profile might result in a healthier blood pressure course during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Peso Corporal , Lipídeos/sangue , Adulto , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo
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