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Curr Cardiol Rev ; 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995013


The purpose of the review is the analysis of clinical and experimental data on the etiology and pathogenesis of takotsubo syndrome (TS). TS is characterized by contractile dysfunction, which usually affects the apical region of the heart, lack of coronary artery obstruction, moderate increase in myocardial necrosis markers, prolonged QTc interval (in 50% of patients), sometimes elevation of ST segment (in 19% of patients), increase N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide level, microvascular dysfunction, sometimes spasm of the epicardial coronary arteries (in 10% of patients), myocardial edema, and life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias (in 11% of patients). Stress cardiomyopathy is a rare disease, it is observed in 0.6 - 2.5% of patients with acute coronary syndrome. The occurrence of takotsubo syndrome is 9 times higher in women, who are aged 60-70 years old , than in men. The hospital mortality among patients with TS corresponds to 3.5% - 12%. In many patients with TS, but not in all, physical or emotional stress precedes the disease. Many patients with TS, but not all, have neurological or mental illnesses. The level of catecholamines is increased in patients with TS, therefore, the occurrence of TS is associated with the excessive activation of the adrenergic system. The negative inotropic effect of catecholamines is associated with the activation of ß2 adrenergic receptors. An important role of the adrenergic system in the pathogenesis of TS is confirmed by studies which were performed using 125I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (125I -MIBG). TS causes edema and inflammation of the myocardium. The inflammatory response in TS is systemic. TS causes impaired coronary microcirculation and reduces coronary reserve. There is reason to believe that an increase in blood viscosity may play an important role in the pathogenesis of microcirculatory dysfunction in patients with TS. Epicardial coronary artery spasm is not obligatory for the occurrence of TS. Cortisol, endothelin-1 and microRNAs are challengers for the role of TS triggers. A decrease in estrogen levels is a factor contributing to the onset of TS. The central nervous system appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of TS.

J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(18): 2278-2291, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672185


BACKGROUND: The assessment of coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) in left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) expands the risk stratification potential of stress echocardiography (SE) based on stress-induced regional wall motion abnormalities (RWMA). OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and functional correlates of CFVR. METHODS: This prospective, observational, multicenter study initially screened 3,410 patients (2,061 [60%] male; age 63 ± 11 years; ejection fraction 61 ± 9%) with known or suspected coronary artery disease and/or heart failure. All patients underwent SE (exercise, n = 1,288; vasodilator, n = 1,860; dobutamine, n = 262) based on new or worsening RWMA in 20 accredited laboratories of 8 countries. CFVR was calculated as the stress/rest ratio of diastolic peak flow velocity pulsed-Doppler assessment of LAD flow. A subset of 1,867 patients was followed up. RESULTS: The success rate for CFVR on LAD was 3,002 of 3,410 (feasibility = 88%). Reduced (≤2.0) CFVR was found in 896 of 3,002 (30%) patients. At multivariable logistic regression analysis, inducible RWMA (odds ratio [OR]: 6.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.9 to 8.5; p < 0.01), abnormal left ventricular contractile reserve (OR: 3.4; 95% CI: 2.7 to 4.2; p < 0.01), and B-lines (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1 to 1.9; p = 0.01) were associated with reduced CFVR. During a median follow-up time of 16 months, 218 events occurred. RWMA (hazard ratio: 3.8; 95% CI: 2.3 to 6.3; p < 0.001) and reduced CFVR (hazard ratio: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1 to 2.2; p = 0.009) were independently associated with adverse outcome. CONCLUSIONS: CFVR is feasible with all SE protocols. Reduced CFVR is often accompanied by RWMA, abnormal LVCR, and pulmonary congestion during stress, and shows independent value over RWMA in predicting an adverse outcome.

J Nucl Cardiol ; 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30847856


PURPOSE: To define the diagnostic power of absolute myocardial blood flow (MBF) evaluation on dynamic CZT imaging in intermediate risk patients in comparison with invasive coronary angiography (ICA) and fractional flow reserve (FFR). METHODS: Twenty-three stable CAD patients underwent one-day dynamic rest-stress 99mTc-Sestamibi myocardial perfusion imaging by CZT camera. Stress and rest MBF values were calculated semi-automatically using a net retention model by Leppo. Coronary flow reserve (CFR) and flow difference (FD) [MBF stress - MBF rest] were also estimated. A total of 28 vessels were functionally quantified with FFR: 19 (68%) vessels with a stenosis ≥ 70% and 9 (32%) with < 70% stenotic lesions. RESULTS: The mean global MBFs at rest and during stress were 0.36 (IQR 0.33-0.54) mL/min/g and 0.67 (IQR 0.55-0.81) mL/min/g, respectively, with an average CFR of 1.80 (IQR 1.35-2.24). Moderate correlations between stenosis severity and FFR (r = 0.45; P = .01), stress MBF (r = -0.46; P = .01) and FD (r = -0.37; P = .04) were detected. FFR abnormalities were best predicted by absolute stress MBF, CFR and FD with values of ≤ 0.54 mL/min/g (sensitivity 61.5%; specificity 93.3%), ≤ 1.48 (sensitivity 69.2%; specificity 93.3%) and ≤ 0.18 mL/min/g (sensitivity 69.2%; specificity 100%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The values of stress MBF, CFR and FD obtained through dynamic CZT acquisitions compare well with invasive FFR. The clinical use of dynamic acquisition of myocardial perfusion imaging by CZT may help cardiologist in the detection of hemodynamically significant CAD.

Eur J Echocardiogr ; 10(1): 62-8, 2009 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18490275


AIMS: The aim of our study was to detect chronic total occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), circumflex coronary artery (Cx), and right coronary artery (RCA) using transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in 110 consecutive patients who underwent coronary angiography for investigation of angina. METHODS AND RESULTS: Coronary blood flow direction was assessed in the epicardial collaterals [distal LAD (dLAD), obtuse marginal branches and right posterior descending artery (PDA)] and intramyocardial collaterals [LAD septal branch (SB LAD) and RCA septal branch (SB RCA)]. The sensitivity and specificity of retrograde flow for identification of the occluded LAD by TTE in the dLAD only were 78 and 96%, respectively, and those in both dLAD and SB LAD were 89 and 96%, respectively. The retrograde SB LAD flow detects proximal LAD occlusion with 88% sensitivity and 75% specificity. The sensitivity and specificity of retrograde flow for identification of the occluded RCA by TTE in the PDA only were 79 and 97%, respectively, and those in both PDA and SB RCA were 89 and 97%, respectively. The retrograde SB RCA flow does not allow us to differentiate between proximal and non-proximal RCA occlusion. Transthoracic echocardiography is not a method for diagnosing Cx occlusions as the success in visualizing the Cx epicardial collaterals was achieved in 31% of cases only. CONCLUSION: TTE is a sensitive and highly specific non-invasive method for diagnosis of LAD and RCA occlusions, based on the detection of the coronary blood flow direction in the epicardial and intramyocardial collaterals.

Oclusão Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia Doppler em Cores/métodos , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Doença Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Probabilidade , Medição de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
Eur J Echocardiogr ; 5(4): 294-303, 2004 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15219544


AIM AND METHODS: The role of transesophageal Doppler assessment of coronary flow reserve (CFR) in the coronary sinus (CS) in the diagnostics of significant left coronary artery (LCA) stenoses was studied in 65 CAD patients with angiographically proven >50% stenotic atherosclerosis of the LCA territory (38--with isolated left anterior descending artery (LAD) or left circumflex artery (Cx) stenosis; 27--with both LAD and Cx stenoses) and 31 healthy volunteers (all men). Dipyridamole was used as a stress agent. The antegrade phase of coronary flow in the CS moving into the right atrium was analysed. CFR in the CS was calculated in two ways: (1) as ratio of hyperemic to baseline peak antegrade flow velocity (CFRp); (2) as ratio of hyperemic to baseline volumetric blood flow velocity (CFRv). The level of CFR <2.0 in both ways of calculation was diagnosed as reduced. RESULTS: CAD patients compared with healthy volunteers had significantly lower CFRp (1.51+/-0.44 and 2.57+/-0.79; p<0.001) and CFRv (2.21+/-1.18 and 5.43+/-2.83; p < 0.001) in the CS. CFRp <2.0 in the CS was a predictor of significant stenoses of the LCA with sensitivity of 89% and specificity of 76%, while CFRv <2.0 was a predictor of significant stenoses of the LCA with sensitivity of 49% and specificity of 97%. CFRp <2.0 in the CS was registered in 96% of CAD patients with two-vessel lesion and in 84% of CAD patients with one-vessel lesion, while CFRv <2.0 in the CS was revealed in 85% of CAD patients with two-vessel lesion and only in 26% of CAD patients with one-vessel lesion. Sensitivity and specificity of CFRv <2.0 in the CS in the diagnostics of significant two-vessel lesion of the LCA were 85% and 84%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, the reduced CFR in the CS is a sensitive and specific predictor of LCA stenoses. A decrease of both CFRp <2 and CFRv <2.0 in the CS is a predictor of significant two-vessel lesion of the LCA, while a decrease of only CFRp <2.0 in the CS is a predictor of significant one-vessel lesion of the LCA.

Circulação Coronária/fisiologia , Estenose Coronária/fisiopatologia , Vasos Coronários/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contração Miocárdica/fisiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estatística como Assunto