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1.
Exp Dermatol ; 2019 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587370

RESUMO

Studies have shown that wound pH is a potentially influential factor in the healing process. Due to the flaws of traditional pH measurement approaches, wound pH measurement has not become part of current standard of care. A near-infrared pH-sensitive ratiometric film was created and characterized for measuring wound pH. This film was fabricated by physically absorbing poly (N-isopropyl Acrylamide) nanoparticles conjugated with pH-sensitive (CypHer5E) and pH-insensitive (Cy7) fluorescent dyes into 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate hydrogel film. The pH pattern on wounds can be indirectly measured by pressing freshly discarded wound dressing on top of the pH-sensitive film and imaging it. In vitro tests show that the film can accurately and rapidly detect a wide range of pH (from pH 4 to 8) in wound milieu. Further, patient studies showed that, by measuring pH on wound contact side of discarded wound gauze, the pH and its non-homogeneous distribution on wounds can be indirectly determined. By comparing patients with different wound conditions, we find that near-infrared pH sensing film can be used to measure wound exudate pH with high accuracy and efficiency. In addition, wound pH determination can provide an accurate assessment of wound healing activity in real time.

2.
J Radiat Res ; 2019 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504711

RESUMO

This study assessed abdominal organ motion induced by gastroduodenal motilities in volunteers during fasting and postprandial states, using cine magnetic resonance imaging (cine-MRI). Thirty-five volunteers underwent cine-MRI while holding their breath in the fasting and postprandial states. Gastric motility was quantified by the amplitude and velocity of antral peristaltic waves. Duodenal motility was evaluated as the change of duodenal diameter. Abdominal organ motion was measured in the liver, pancreas and kidneys. Motion was quantified by calculating maximal organ displacement in the left-right, antero-posterior and caudal-cranial directions. Median antral amplitude and velocity in the fasting and postprandial states were 7.7 and 15.1 mm (P < 0.01), and 1.3 and 2.5 mm/s (P < 0.01), respectively. Duodenal motility did not change. Median displacement for all organs ranged from 0.9 to 2.9 mm in the fasting state and from 1.0 to 2.9 mm in the postprandial state. Significant increases in abdominal organ displacement in the postprandial state were observed in the right lobe of the liver, pancreatic head and both kidneys. Differences in the median displacement of these organs between the two states were all <1 mm. Although the motion of several abdominal organs increased in the postprandial state, the difference between the two states was quite small. Thus, our study suggests that treatment planning and irradiation need not include strict management of gastric conditions, nor the addition of excess margins to compensate for differences in the intra-fractional abdominal organ motion under different gastric motilities in the fasting and postprandial states.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390751

RESUMO

For decades, researchers have debated whether climate change has an adverse impact on diseases, especially infectious diseases. They have identified a strong relationship between climate variables and vector's growth, mortality rate, reproduction, and spatiotemporal distribution. Epidemiological data further indicates the emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases post every single extreme weather event. Based on studies conducted mostly between 1990-2018, three aspects that resemble the impact of climate change impact on diseases are: (a) emergence and re-emergence of vector-borne diseases, (b) impact of extreme weather events, and (c) social upliftment with education and adaptation. This review mainly examines and discusses the impact of climate change based on scientific evidences in published literature. Humans are highly vulnerable to diseases and other post-catastrophic effects of extreme events, as evidenced in literature. It is high time that human beings understand the adverse impacts of climate change and take proper and sustainable control measures. There is also the important requirement for allocation of effective technologies, maintenance of healthy lifestyles, and public education.

4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(31): 15616-15624, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308240

RESUMO

Type-1 reactions (T1R) are pathological inflammatory episodes and main contributors to nerve damage in leprosy. Here, we evaluate the genewise enrichment of rare protein-altering variants in 7 genes where common variants were previously associated with T1R. We selected 474 Vietnamese leprosy patients of which 237 were T1R-affected and 237 were T1R-free matched controls. Genewise enrichment of nonsynonymous variants was tested with both kernel-based (sequence kernel association test [SKAT]) and burden methods. Of the 7 genes tested 2 showed statistical evidence of association with T1R. For the LRRK2 gene an enrichment of nonsynonymous variants was observed in T1R-free controls (P SKAT-O = 1.6 × 10-4). This genewise association was driven almost entirely by the gain-of-function variant R1628P (P = 0.004; odds ratio = 0.29). The second genewise association was found for the Parkin coding gene PRKN (formerly PARK2) where 7 rare variants were enriched in T1R-affected cases (P SKAT-O = 7.4 × 10-5). Mutations in both PRKN and LRRK2 are known causes of Parkinson's disease (PD). Hence, we evaluated to what extent such rare amino acid changes observed in T1R are shared with PD. We observed that amino acids in Parkin targeted by nonsynonymous T1R-risk mutations were also enriched for mutations implicated in PD (P = 1.5 × 10-4). Hence, neuroinflammation in PD and peripheral nerve damage due to inflammation in T1R share overlapping genetic control of pathogenicity.

5.
Cancer Control ; 26(1): 1073274819865279, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343899

RESUMO

Little is known about breast cancer in Vietnamese women. Previous studies have reported the frequencies of prognostic factors of breast cancer in this population. The aim of this study was to examine the prognostic factors associated with the survival rates of patients with breast cancer treated at the National Cancer Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam. We recruited 248 women with operable breast cancer treated with surgery and adjuvant therapy. Tumor tissue samples were stained by many immunohistochemical approaches and analyzed for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2 gene amplification status. A Cox model was used to determine the relationship between survival and the prognostic factors. The disease-free survival rate, overall survival rate, and cancer-specific survival rate were 75.8%, 80.6%, and 86.4%, respectively, at 5 years and 62.3%, 68.1%, and 78.9%, respectively, at 10 years. The lung was the most common metastatic site. Women with factors associated with a poor prognosis (eg, advanced clinical stage, high tumor grade, progesterone receptor [PR] negativity, HER2 amplification) had significantly lower survival rates. Patients with PR-negative breast cancer had significantly worse survival rates compared to those who were PR positive, according to multivariate analysis (hazard ratio = 1.77, 95% confidence interval: 1.01-3.11, P = .045); however, there was only a statistically significant difference in postmenopausal patients. The PR was a prognostic factor in postmenopausal women with breast cancer, but not in premenopausal women.

6.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 27(9): 1855-1862, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30910476

RESUMO

Many imaging probes have been developed for a wide variety of imaging modalities. However, no optical imaging probe could be utilized for both microscopic and whole animal imaging. To fill the gap, the dual-wavelength fluorescent imaging nanoprobe was developed to simultaneously carry both visible-range fluorescent dye and near-infrared (NIR) dye. Emission scan confirms that the nanoprobe exhibits two separate peaks with strong fluorescent intensity in both visible and NIR ranges. Furthermore, the dual-wavelength fluorescent nanoprobe has high photostability and colloidal stability, as well as long shelf-life. In vitro cell culture experiments show that the nanoprobe has the ability to label different types of cells (namely, esophageal, prostate, fibroblast and macrophage cell) for fluorescent microscope imaging. More importantly, cell tracking experiments confirm that cell migration and distribution in various organs can be tracked in real time using in vivo whole-body NIR imaging and in vitro microscopic imaging, respectively.

7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 1365, 2019 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718885

RESUMO

This study aims to highlight discrepancies between experimental and simulation linked to the mechanisms of Mo and V adsorption onto ferrihydrite (FHY) nanoparticles. We have measured adsorption capacities and uptake efficiencies and then fitted and compared these with outputs from various geochemical and adsorption models that were run as a function of pH, surface area (SA) and ferrihydrite particles size distributions. Our results revealed that the experimental data for the Mo system could be fitted very well, but this was not the case for the V system, when a model default value for the SA of FHY of 600 m2 g-1 was used. The discrepancy in the results for the V system can be explained by the lack of specific V species and/or associated constants in databases and variation in software versions, which change the outputted chemical species. Our comparative results also confirm that any experimental variables used as modelling inputs need to be checked carefully prior to any modelling exercises.

8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 105, 2019 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30631063

RESUMO

The 2013-2016 Ebola virus (EBOV) disease epidemic demonstrated the grave consequences of filovirus epidemics in the absence of effective therapeutics. Besides EBOV, two additional ebolaviruses, Sudan (SUDV) and Bundibugyo (BDBV) viruses, as well as multiple variants of Marburg virus (MARV), have also caused high fatality epidemics. Current experimental EBOV monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are ineffective against SUDV, BDBV, or MARV. Here, we report that a cocktail of two broadly neutralizing ebolavirus mAbs, FVM04 and CA45, protects nonhuman primates (NHPs) against EBOV and SUDV infection when delivered four days post infection. This cocktail when supplemented by the anti-MARV mAb MR191 exhibited 100% efficacy in MARV-infected NHPs. These findings provide a solid foundation for clinical development of broadly protective immunotherapeutics for use in future filovirus epidemics.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Ebolavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Filoviridae/imunologia , Marburgvirus/imunologia , Doenças dos Primatas/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Ebolavirus/classificação , Ebolavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ebolavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Filoviridae/terapia , Infecções por Filoviridae/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Marburgvirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Marburgvirus/fisiologia , Doenças dos Primatas/terapia , Doenças dos Primatas/virologia , Primatas , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
J Infect Dis ; 218(suppl_5): S553-S564, 2018 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29939318

RESUMO

Background: Several vaccine platforms have been successfully evaluated for prevention of Ebola virus (EBOV) disease (EVD) in nonhuman primates and humans. Despite remarkable efficacy by multiple vaccines, the immunological correlates of protection against EVD are incompletely understood. Methods: We systematically evaluated the antibody response to various EBOV proteins in 79 nonhuman primates vaccinated with various EBOV vaccine platforms. We evaluated the serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G titers against EBOV glycoprotein (GP), the ability of the vaccine-induced antibodies to bind GP at acidic pH or to displace ZMapp, and virus neutralization titers. The correlation of these outcomes with survival from EVD was evaluated by appropriate statistical methods. Results: Irrespective of the vaccine platform, protection from EVD strongly correlated with anti-GP IgG titers. The GP-directed antibody levels required for protection in animals vaccinated with virus-like particles (VLPs) lacking nucleoprotein (NP) was significantly higher than animals immunized with NP-containing VLPs or adenovirus-expressed GP, platforms that induce strong T-cell responses. Furthermore, protective immune responses correlated with anti-GP antibody binding strength at acidic pH, neutralization of GP-expressing pseudovirions, and the ability to displace ZMapp components from GP. Conclusions: These findings suggest key quantitative and qualitative attributes of antibody response to EVD vaccines as potential correlates of protection.

10.
J Infect Dis ; 218(suppl_5): S603-S611, 2018 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29955852

RESUMO

Background: Filoviruses including Ebola, Sudan, and other species are emerging zoonotic pathogens representing a significant public health concern with high outbreak potential, and they remain a potential bioterrorism-related threat. We have developed a despeciated equine Ebola polyclonal antibody (E-EIG) postexposure treatment against Ebola virus (EBOV) and evaluated its efficacy in the guinea pig model of EBOV infection. Methods: Guinea pigs were infected with guinea pig-adapted EBOV (Mayinga strain) and treated with various dose levels of E-EIG (20-100 mg/kg) twice daily for 6 days starting at 24 h postinfection. The E-EIG was also assessed for neutralization activity against related filoviruses including EBOV strains Mayinga, Kikwit, and Makona and the Bundibugyo and Taï Forest ebolavirus species. Results: Treatment with E-EIG conferred 83% to 100% protection in guinea pigs. The results demonstrated a comparable neutralization activity (range, 1:512-1:896) of E-EIG against all tested strains, suggesting the potential for cross-protection with the polyclonal antibody therapeutic. Conclusions: This study showed that equine-derived polyclonal antibodies are efficacious against lethal EBOV disease in a relevant animal model. Furthermore, the studies support the utility of the equine antibody platform for the rapid production of a therapeutic product in the event of an outbreak by a filovirus or other zoonotic pathogen.

11.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 103(7): 2436-2446, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29659920

RESUMO

Context: Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) (mainly secondary to 11p15 molecular disruption) and Temple syndrome (TS) (secondary to 14q32.2 molecular disruption) are imprinting disorders with phenotypic (prenatal and postnatal growth retardation, early feeding difficulties) and molecular overlap. Objective: To describe the clinical overlap between SRS and TS and extensively study the molecular aspects of TS. Patients: We retrospectively collected data on 28 patients with disruption of the 14q32.2 imprinted region, identified in our center, and performed extensive molecular analysis. Results: Seventeen (60.7%) patients showed loss of methylation of the MEG3/DLK1 intergenic differentially methylated region by epimutation. Eight (28.6%) patients had maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14 and three (10.7%) had a paternal deletion in 14q32.2. Most patients (72.7%) had a Netchine-Harbison SRS clinical scoring system ≥4/6, and consistent with a clinical diagnosis of SRS. The mean age at puberty onset was 7.2 years in girls and 9.6 years in boys; 37.5% had premature pubarche. The body mass index of all patients increased before pubarche and/or the onset of puberty. Multilocus analysis identified multiple methylation defects in 58.8% of patients. We identified four potentially damaging genetic variants in genes encoding proteins involved in the establishment or maintenance of DNA methylation. Conclusions: Most patients with 14q32.2 disruption fulfill the criteria for a clinical diagnosis of SRS. These clinical data suggest similar management of patients with TS and SRS, with special attention to their young age at the onset of puberty and early increase of body mass index.

12.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 75(1): 67-79, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28864883

RESUMO

Transcriptional regulation of proteins involved in neuronal polarity is a key process that underlies the ability of neurons to transfer information in the central nervous system. The Collapsin Response Mediator Protein (CRMP) family is best known for its role in neurite outgrowth regulation conducting to neuronal polarity and axonal guidance, including CRMP5 that drives dendrite differentiation. Although CRMP5 is able to control dendritic development, the regulation of its expression remains poorly understood. Here we identify a Sox5 consensus binding sequence in the putative promoter sequence upstream of the CRMP5 gene. By luciferase assays we show that Sox5 increases CRMP5 promoter activity, but not if the putative Sox5 binding site is mutated. We demonstrate that Sox5 can physically bind to the CRMP5 promoter DNA in gel mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Using a combination of real-time RT-PCR and quantitative immunocytochemistry, we provide further evidence for a Sox5-dependent upregulation of CRMP5 transcription and protein expression in N1E115 cells: a commonly used cell line model for neuronal differentiation. Furthermore, we report that increasing Sox5 levels in this neuronal cell line inhibits neurite outgrowth. This inhibition requires CRMP5 because CRMP5 knockdown prevents the Sox5-dependent effect. We confirm the physiological relevance of the Sox5-CRMP5 pathway in the regulation of neurite outgrowth using mouse primary hippocampal neurons. These findings identify Sox5 as a critical modulator of neurite outgrowth through the selective activation of CRMP5 expression.


Assuntos
Amidoidrolases/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Crescimento Neuronal/genética , Fatores de Transcrição SOXD/genética , Amidoidrolases/metabolismo , Animais , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Encéfalo/embriologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Camundongos , Mutação , Neuritos/metabolismo , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Ligação Proteica , Fatores de Transcrição SOXD/metabolismo
13.
PLoS Genet ; 13(8): e1006952, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28793313

RESUMO

Leprosy is a human infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. A strong host genetic contribution to leprosy susceptibility is well established. However, the modulation of the transcriptional response to infection and the mechanism(s) of disease control are poorly understood. To address this gap in knowledge of leprosy pathogenicity, we conducted a genome-wide search for expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) that are associated with transcript variation before and after stimulation with M. leprae sonicate in whole blood cells. We show that M. leprae antigen stimulation mainly triggered the upregulation of immune related genes and that a substantial proportion of the differential gene expression is genetically controlled. Indeed, using stringent criteria, we identified 318 genes displaying cis-eQTL at an FDR of 0.01, including 66 genes displaying response-eQTL (reQTL), i.e. cis-eQTL that showed significant evidence for interaction with the M. leprae stimulus. Such reQTL correspond to regulatory variations that affect the interaction between human whole blood cells and M. leprae sonicate and, thus, likely between the human host and M. leprae bacilli. We found that reQTL were significantly enriched among binding sites of transcription factors that are activated in response to infection, and that they were enriched among single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with susceptibility to leprosy per se and Type-I Reaction, and seven of them have been targeted by recent positive selection. Our study suggested that natural selection shaped our genomic diversity to face pathogen exposure including M. leprae infection.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Hanseníase/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Regulação para Baixo , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Hanseníase/imunologia , Mycobacterium leprae , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Componente Principal , RNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Regulação para Cima
14.
Nat Commun ; 8: 16040, 2017 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28699638

RESUMO

Branched-chain aminotransferases (BCAT) are enzymes that initiate the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), such as leucine, thereby providing macromolecule precursors; however, the function of BCATs in macrophages is unknown. Here we show that BCAT1 is the predominant BCAT isoform in human primary macrophages. We identify ERG240 as a leucine analogue that blocks BCAT1 activity. Selective inhibition of BCAT1 activity results in decreased oxygen consumption and glycolysis. This decrease is associated with reduced IRG1 levels and itaconate synthesis, suggesting involvement of BCAA catabolism through the IRG1/itaconate axis within the tricarboxylic acid cycle in activated macrophages. ERG240 suppresses production of IRG1 and itaconate in mice and contributes to a less proinflammatory transcriptome signature. Oral administration of ERG240 reduces the severity of collagen-induced arthritis in mice and crescentic glomerulonephritis in rats, in part by decreasing macrophage infiltration. These results establish a regulatory role for BCAT1 in macrophage function with therapeutic implications for inflammatory conditions.

15.
Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 51(2): 118-126, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28559936

RESUMO

The use of bacteria for cancer therapy, which was proposed many years ago, was not recognized as a potential therapeutic strategy until recently. Technological advances and updated knowledge have enabled the genetic engineering of bacteria for their safe and effective application in the treatment of cancer. The efficacy of radiotherapy depends mainly on tissue oxygen levels, and low oxygen concentrations in necrotic and hypoxic regions are a common cause of treatment failure. In addition, the distribution of a drug is important for the therapeutic effect of chemotherapy, and the poor vasculature in tumors impairs drug delivery, limiting the efficacy of a drug, especially in necrotic and hypoxic regions. Bacteria-mediated cancer therapy (BMCT) relies on facultative anaerobes that can survive in well or poorly oxygenated regions, and it therefore improves the therapeutic efficacy drug distribution throughout the tumor mass. Since the mid-1990s, the number of published bacterial therapy papers has increased rapidly, with a doubling time of 2.5 years in which the use of Salmonella increased significantly. BMCT is being reevaluated to overcome some of the drawbacks of conventional therapies. This review focuses on Salmonella-mediated cancer therapy as the most widely used type of BMCT.2.

16.
Cell ; 169(5): 891-904.e15, 2017 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28525756

RESUMO

While neutralizing antibodies are highly effective against ebolavirus infections, current experimental ebolavirus vaccines primarily elicit species-specific antibody responses. Here, we describe an immunization-elicited macaque antibody (CA45) that clamps the internal fusion loop with the N terminus of the ebolavirus glycoproteins (GPs) and potently neutralizes Ebola, Sudan, Bundibugyo, and Reston viruses. CA45, alone or in combination with an antibody that blocks receptor binding, provided full protection against all pathogenic ebolaviruses in mice, guinea pigs, and ferrets. Analysis of memory B cells from the immunized macaque suggests that elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) for ebolaviruses is possible but difficult, potentially due to the rarity of bNAb clones and their precursors. Unexpectedly, germline-reverted CA45, while exhibiting negligible binding to full-length GP, bound a proteolytically remodeled GP with picomolar affinity, suggesting that engineered ebolavirus vaccines could trigger rare bNAb precursors more robustly. These findings have important implications for developing pan-ebolavirus vaccine and immunotherapeutic cocktails.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Vacinas contra Ebola/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Regiões Determinantes de Complementaridade , Reações Cruzadas , Ebolavirus/imunologia , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Feminino , Furões , Cobaias , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas/ultraestrutura , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Modelos Moleculares
17.
Cell Rep ; 19(2): 413-424, 2017 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28402862

RESUMO

Drug combinations are synergistic when their combined efficacy exceeds the sum of the individual actions, but they rarely include ineffective drugs that become effective only in combination. We identified several "enabling pairs" of neutralizing and non-neutralizing anti-ebolavirus monoclonal antibodies, whose combination exhibited new functional profiles, including transforming a non-neutralizing antibody to a neutralizer. Sub-neutralizing concentrations of antibodies 2G4 or m8C4 enabled non-neutralizing antibody FVM09 (IC50 >1 µM) to exhibit potent neutralization (IC50 1-10 nM). While FVM09 or m8C4 alone failed to protect Ebola-virus-infected mice, a combination of the two antibodies provided 100% protection. Furthermore, non-neutralizers FVM09 and FVM02 exponentially enhanced the potency of two neutralizing antibodies against both Ebola and Sudan viruses. We identified a hotspot for the binding of these enabling antibody pairs near the interface of the glycan cap and GP2. Enabling cooperativity may be an underappreciated phenomenon for viruses, with implications for the design and development of immunotherapeutics and vaccines.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Ebolavirus/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Ebolavirus/patogenicidade , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/terapia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Humanos , Camundongos
18.
PLoS Genet ; 13(2): e1006637, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28222097

RESUMO

Leprosy Type-1 Reactions (T1Rs) are pathological inflammatory responses that afflict a sub-group of leprosy patients and result in peripheral nerve damage. Here, we employed a family-based GWAS in 221 families with 229 T1R-affect offspring with stepwise replication to identify risk factors for T1R. We discovered, replicated and validated T1R-specific associations with SNPs located in chromosome region 10p21.2. Combined analysis across the three independent samples resulted in strong evidence of association of rs1875147 with T1R (p = 4.5x10-8; OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.32-1.80). The T1R-risk locus was restricted to a lncRNA-encoding genomic interval with rs1875147 being an eQTL for the lncRNA. Since a genetic overlap between leprosy and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been detected, we evaluated if the shared genetic control could be traced to the T1R endophenotype. Employing the results of a recent IBD GWAS meta-analysis we found that 10.6% of IBD SNPs available in our dataset shared a common risk-allele with T1R (p = 2.4x10-4). This finding points to a substantial overlap in the genetic control of clinically diverse inflammatory disorders.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Hanseníase/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/complicações , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/patologia , Hanseníase/complicações , Hanseníase/patologia , Masculino , Degeneração Neural/complicações , Degeneração Neural/genética , Degeneração Neural/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/biossíntese , Fatores de Risco , Vietnã
19.
Theranostics ; 6(10): 1672-82, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27446500

RESUMO

Bacteria-based anticancer therapies aim to overcome the limitations of current cancer therapy by actively targeting and efficiently removing cancer. To achieve this goal, new approaches that target and maintain bacterial drugs at sufficient concentrations during the therapeutic window are essential. Here, we examined the tumor tropism of attenuated Salmonella typhimurium displaying the RGD peptide sequence (ACDCRGDCFCG) on the external loop of outer membrane protein A (OmpA). RGD-displaying Salmonella strongly bound to cancer cells overexpressing αvß3, but weakly bound to αvß3-negative cancer cells, suggesting the feasibility of displaying a preferential homing peptide on the bacterial surface. In vivo studies revealed that RGD-displaying Salmonellae showed strong targeting efficiency, resulting in the regression in αvß3-overexpressing cancer xenografts, and prolonged survival of mouse models of human breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) and human melanoma (MDA-MB-435). Thus, surface engineering of Salmonellae to display RGD peptides increases both their targeting efficiency and therapeutic effect.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Técnicas de Visualização da Superfície Celular , Portadores de Fármacos , Melanoma/terapia , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Salmonella typhimurium/genética , Animais , Aderência Bacteriana , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Integrina alfaVbeta3/metabolismo , Camundongos , Oligopeptídeos/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/farmacologia , Salmonella typhimurium/fisiologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 10(5): e0004345, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27219008

RESUMO

After sustained exposure to Mycobacterium leprae, only a subset of exposed individuals develops clinical leprosy. Moreover, leprosy patients show a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations that extend from the paucibacillary (PB) to the multibacillary (MB) form of the disease. This "polarization" of leprosy has long been a major focus of investigation for immunologists because of the different immune response in these two forms. But while leprosy per se has been shown to be under tight human genetic control, few epidemiological or genetic studies have focused on leprosy subtypes. Using PubMed, we collected available data in English on the epidemiology of leprosy polarization and the possible role of human genetics in its pathophysiology until September 2015. At the genetic level, we assembled a list of 28 genes from the literature that are associated with leprosy subtypes or implicated in the polarization process. Our bibliographical search revealed that improved study designs are needed to identify genes associated with leprosy polarization. Future investigations should not be restricted to a subanalysis of leprosy per se studies but should instead contrast MB to PB individuals. We show the latter approach to be the most powerful design for the identification of genetic polarization determinants. Finally, we bring to light the important resource represented by the nine-banded armadillo model, a unique animal model for leprosy.


Assuntos
Tatus , Hanseníase Multibacilar/genética , Hanseníase Paucibacilar/genética , Doenças Negligenciadas/genética , Alelos , Animais , Tatus/microbiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Hanseníase Multibacilar/epidemiologia , Hanseníase Multibacilar/microbiologia , Hanseníase Multibacilar/fisiopatologia , Hanseníase Paucibacilar/epidemiologia , Hanseníase Paucibacilar/microbiologia , Hanseníase Paucibacilar/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Mycobacterium leprae/fisiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/microbiologia
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