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1.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591517

RESUMO

The HoxD cluster is critical for vertebrate limb development. Enhancers located in both the telomeric and centromeric gene deserts flanking the cluster regulate the transcription of HoxD genes. In rare patients, duplications, balanced translocations or inversions misregulating HOXD genes are responsible for mesomelic dysplasia of the upper and lower limbs. By aCGH, whole-genome mate-pair sequencing, long-range PCR and fiber fluorescent in situ hybridization, we studied patients from two families displaying mesomelic dysplasia limited to the upper limbs. We identified microduplications including the HOXD cluster and showed that microduplications were in an inverted orientation and inserted between the HOXD cluster and the telomeric enhancers. Our results highlight the existence of an autosomal dominant condition consisting of isolated ulnar dysplasia caused by microduplications inserted between the HOXD cluster and the telomeric enhancers. The duplications likely disconnect the HOXD9 to HOXD11 genes from their regulatory sequences. This presumptive loss-of-function may have contributed to the phenotype. In both cases, however, these rearrangements brought HOXD13 closer to telomeric enhancers, suggesting that the alterations derive from the dominant-negative effect of this digit-specific protein when ectopically expressed during the early development of forearms, through the disruption of topologically associating domain structure at the HOXD locus.

3.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(8): e786, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a strong evidence for genetic factors as the main causes of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). To date, hundreds of genes have been identified either by copy number variations (CNVs) and/or single nucleotide variations. However, despite all the findings, the genetics of these disorders have not been totally explored. METHODS: Thus, the aim of our work was to identify rare CNVs and genes present in these regions in ASD children, using a high-resolution comparative genomic hybridization technique and quantitative PCR (qPCR) approach. RESULTS: Our results have shown 60-70 chromosomal aberrations per patient. We have initially selected 66 CNVs that have been further assessed using qPCR. Finally, we have validated 22 CNVs including 11 deletions and 11 duplications. Ten CNVs are de novo, 11 are inherited and one of unknown origin of transmission. Among the CNVs detected, novel ASD candidate genes PJA2, SYNPO, APCS, and TAC1 have been identified in our group of Lebanese patients. In addition, previously described CNVs have been identified containing genes such as SHANK3, MBP, CHL1, and others. CONCLUSION: Our study broadens the population spectrum of studied ASD patients and adds new candidates at the list of genes contributing to these disorders.

4.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(4): 663-668, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683921

RESUMO

NAME OF THE DISEASE (SYNONYMS): Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS). OMIM# OF THE DISEASE: 312870. NAME OF THE ANALYSED GENES OR DNA/CHROMOSOME SEGMENTS: GPC3. OMIM# OF THE GENE(S): 300037. Review of the analytical and clinical validity as well as of the clinical utility of DNA-based testing for mutations in the GPC3 gene(s) in ⊠ diagnostic, ☐ predictive and ⊠ prenatal settings and for ⊠ risk assessment in relatives.

6.
Prenat Diagn ; 2018 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30328630

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic utility of prenatal diagnosis using the chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) for fetuses presenting with isolated or associated intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). METHOD: We retrospectively included all fetuses with IUGR referred for prenatal testing and studied by rapid fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), karyotype, and CMA. RESULTS: Among the 162 IUGR fetuses (78 associated and 84 isolated IUGR) included, 15 had an abnormal FISH result: 10 associated and five isolated fetal IUGRs. Among the 143 fetuses studied by CMA, 10 (7%) presented pathogenic copy number variations (CNVs). All 10 were in the associated fetal IUGR group (10/65 or 15.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.4%-26.2%) versus 0/78 in the isolated fetal IUGR group (95% CI: 0%-5.6%). Six fetuses (4.2%) carried variants of unknown significance (VOUS) (three associated and three isolated fetal IUGRs). CONCLUSION: Our study highlights the added value of CMA in the case of associated fetal IUGR with an incremental yield of 6.1% (4/65) over karyotyping. No pathogenic CNVs were reported in the isolated fetal IUGR group. More studies must be conducted to determine when and whether CMA would be wisely indicated in this population.

7.
Hum Mutat ; 39(6): 790-805, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29637653

RESUMO

Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) is an X-linked multiple congenital anomalies and overgrowth syndrome caused by a defect in the glypican-3 gene (GPC3). Until now, GPC3 mutations have been reported in isolated cases or small series and the global genotypic spectrum of these mutations has never been delineated. In this study, we review the 57 previously described GPC3 mutations and significantly expand this mutational spectrum with the description of 29 novel mutations. Compiling our data and those of the literature, we provide an overview of 86 distinct GPC3 mutations identified in 120 unrelated families, ranging from single nucleotide variations to complex genomic rearrangements and dispersed throughout the entire coding region of GPC3. The vast majority of them are deletions or truncating mutations (frameshift, nonsense mutations) predicted to result in a loss-of-function. Missense mutations are rare and the two which were functionally characterized, impaired GPC3 function by preventing GPC3 cleavage and cell surface addressing respectively. This report by describing for the first time the wide mutational spectrum of GPC3 could help clinicians and geneticists in interpreting GPC3 variants identified incidentally by high-throughput sequencing technologies and also reinforces the need for functional validation of non-truncating mutations (missense, in frame mutations, duplications).

8.
Ann Clin Biochem ; 55(5): 543-552, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29388433

RESUMO

Objectives Autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability present a challenge for therapeutic and dietary management. We performed a re-analysis of plasma amino acid chromatography of children with autism spectrum disorders ( n = 22) or intellectual disability ( n = 29) to search for a metabolic signature that can distinguish individuals with these disorders from controls ( n = 30). Methods We performed univariate and multivariate analyses using different machine learning strategies, from the raw data of the amino acid chromatography. Finally, we analysed the metabolic pathways associated with discriminant biomarkers. Results Multivariate analysis revealed models to discriminate patients with autism spectrum disorders or intellectual disability and controls from plasma amino acid profiles ( P < 0.0003). Univariate analysis showed that autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability patients shared similar differences relative to controls, including lower glutamate ( P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0002, respectively) and serine ( P = 0.002 for both) concentrations. The multivariate model ( P < 6.12.10-7) to discriminate between autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability revealed the involvement of urea, 3-methyl-histidine and histidine metabolism. Biosigner analysis and univariate analysis confirmed the role of 3-methylhistidine ( P = 0.004), histidine ( P = 0.003), urea ( P = 0.0006) and lysine ( P = 0.002). Conclusions We revealed discriminant metabolic patterns between autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disability and controls. Amino acids known to play a role in neurotransmission were discriminant in the models comparing autism spectrum disorders or intellectual disability to controls, and histidine and b-alanine metabolism was specifically highlighted in the model.

10.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(1): 85-93, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29184170

RESUMO

Syndromes caused by copy number variations are described as reciprocal when they result from deletions or duplications of the same chromosomal region. When comparing the phenotypes of these syndromes, various clinical features could be described as reversed, probably due to the opposite effect of these imbalances on the expression of genes located at this locus. The NFIX gene codes for a transcription factor implicated in neurogenesis and chondrocyte differentiation. Microdeletions and loss of function variants of NFIX are responsible for Sotos syndrome-2 (also described as Malan syndrome), a syndromic form of intellectual disability associated with overgrowth and macrocephaly. Here, we report a cohort of nine patients harboring microduplications encompassing NFIX. These patients exhibit variable intellectual disability, short stature and small head circumference, which can be described as a reversed Sotos syndrome-2 phenotype. Strikingly, such a reversed phenotype has already been described in patients harboring microduplications encompassing NSD1, the gene whose deletions and loss-of-function variants are responsible for classical Sotos syndrome. Even though the type/contre-type concept has been criticized, this model seems to give a plausible explanation for the pathogenicity of 19p13 microduplications, and the common phenotype observed in our cohort.

11.
NPJ Genom Med ; 2: 32, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29263841

RESUMO

Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS) is characterized by a variety of clinical symptoms with heterogeneous degrees of severity, including intellectual disability (ID), absent or delayed speech, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It results from a deletion of the distal part of chromosome 22q13 that in most cases includes the SHANK3 gene. SHANK3 is considered a major gene for PMS, but the factors that modulate the severity of the syndrome remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated 85 patients with different 22q13 rearrangements (78 deletions and 7 duplications). We first explored the clinical features associated with PMS, and provide evidence for frequent corpus callosum abnormalities in 28% of 35 patients with brain imaging data. We then mapped several candidate genomic regions at the 22q13 region associated with high risk of clinical features, and suggest a second locus at 22q13 associated with absence of speech. Finally, in some cases, we identified additional clinically relevant copy-number variants (CNVs) at loci associated with ASD, such as 16p11.2 and 15q11q13, which could modulate the severity of the syndrome. We also report an inherited SHANK3 deletion transmitted to five affected daughters by a mother without ID nor ASD, suggesting that some individuals could compensate for such mutations. In summary, we shed light on the genotype-phenotype relationship of patients with PMS, a step towards the identification of compensatory mechanisms for a better prognosis and possibly treatments of patients with neurodevelopmental disorders.

13.
Eur J Med Genet ; 60(11): 605-609, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28811189

RESUMO

Koolen-de Vries syndrome (MIM#610443) is a rare microdeletion syndrome involving the 17q21.31 region, which was first described by Koolen in 2006. Clinical and behavioral characteristics have been extensively reported from more than 100 postnatal cases including infants, children and young adults. The syndrome is highly clinically heterogeneous, but the main features associate characteristic cranio-facial dysmorphism, heart defects, limb, skeletal, genito-urinary anomalies, along with intellectual disability with early childhood epilepsy and behavioral disturbances. Central nervous system malformations usually consist in hydrocephalus and thin corpus callosum. We report herein an early fetal case with an apparently isolated abnormal corpus callosum diagnosed by ultrasonography, for which a medical termination of the pregnancy was achieved at 22 weeks of gestation. Postmortem examination displayed facial dysmorphism consisting of hypertelorism, short philtrum and flat and broad nose, cleft palate and left duplex ureter. Neuropathological examination revealed a mega corpus callosum that has never been reported so far in this syndrome. Array-CGH performed on thymic DNA tissue revealed a 17q21.31 microdeletion, which allowed for the confirmation of early occurring Koolen-de Vries syndrome.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Fenótipo , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico por imagem , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Adulto , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17/genética , Corpo Caloso/diagnóstico por imagem , Corpo Caloso/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico por imagem , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Gravidez , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal
14.
J Hum Genet ; 61(8): 693-9, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27193221

RESUMO

Otopalatodigital spectrum disorders (OPDSD) constitute a group of dominant X-linked osteochondrodysplasias including four syndromes: otopalatodigital syndromes type 1 and type 2 (OPD1 and OPD2), frontometaphyseal dysplasia, and Melnick-Needles syndrome. These syndromes variably associate specific facial and extremities features, hearing loss, cleft palate, skeletal dysplasia and several malformations, and show important clinical overlap over the different entities. FLNA gain-of-function mutations were identified in these conditions. FLNA encodes filamin A, a scaffolding actin-binding protein. Here, we report phenotypic descriptions and molecular results of FLNA analysis in a large series of 27 probands hypothesized to be affected by OPDSD. We identified 11 different missense mutations in 15 unrelated probands (n=15/27, 56%), of which seven were novel, including one of unknown significance. Segregation analyses within families made possible investigating 20 additional relatives carrying a mutation. This series allows refining the phenotypic and mutational spectrum of FLNA mutations causing OPDSD, and providing suggestions to avoid the overdiagnosis of OPD1.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Craniofaciais/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/diagnóstico , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/genética , Mutação , Osteocondrodisplasias/diagnóstico , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Fenótipo , Alelos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Éxons , Facies , Feminino , Filaminas/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Análise de Sequência de DNA
16.
Am J Med Genet A ; 164A(8): 1965-75, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24782328

RESUMO

Syndromic obesity is defined by the association of obesity with one or more feature(s) including developmental delay, dysmorphic traits, and/or congenital malformations. Over 25 syndromic forms of obesity have been identified. However, most cases remain of unknown etiology. The aim of this study was to identify new candidate loci associated with syndromic obesity to find new candidate genes and to better understand molecular mechanisms involved in this pathology. We performed oligonucleotide microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization in a cohort of 100 children presenting with syndromic obesity of unknown etiology, after exhaustive clinical, biological, and molecular studies. Chromosomal copy number variations were detected in 42% of the children in our cohort, with 23% of patients with potentially pathogenic copy number variants. Our results support that chromosomal rearrangements are frequently associated with syndromic obesity with a variety of contributory genes having relevance to either obesity or developmental delay. A list of inherited or apparently de novo duplications and deletions including their enclosed genes and not previously linked to syndromic obesity was established. Proteins encoded by several of these genes are involved in lipid metabolism (ACOXL, MSMO1, MVD, and PDZK1) linked with nervous system function (BDH1 and LINGO2), neutral lipid storage (PLIN2), energy homeostasis and metabolic processes (CDH13, CNTNAP2, CPPED1, NDUFA4, PTGS2, and SOCS6).


Assuntos
Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/genética , Fenótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Transtornos Cromossômicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Estudos de Associação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Síndrome
17.
Mol Genet Metab ; 110(1-2): 90-7, 2013 Sep-Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23920044

RESUMO

Congenital deletions at the 3q13.31 locus have been recently described as a novel microdeletion syndrome characterized by developmental delay, postnatal overgrowth, hypoplastic male genitalia and characteristic facial features. A common critical region of overlapping of 580kb was delineated including two strong candidate genes for developmental delay: DRD3 and ZBTB20. In this report, we describe a new case of 3q13.31 microdeletion identified by array-CGH in a 16year-old girl sharing clinical features commonly observed in the 3q13.31 microdeletion syndrome. This girl had a microdeletion of 7.39Mb spanning the common critical region of overlapping. More interestingly, we report for the first time the existence of a microduplication reciprocal to the microdeletion syndrome. This familial 2.76Mb microduplication identified by array-CGH was carried by two brothers and their father. The phenotype shared by the brothers resembled the phenotype related to the 3q13.31 microdeletion syndrome including especially severe intellectual disability, developmental delay, behavioral abnormalities and obesity. This microduplication involves three strong candidate genes for the developmental delay ZBTB20, LSAMP and GAP43. Further molecular characterization showed that DRD3, another strong candidate gene for developmental delay, was not included in the duplicated region. However, a dosage alteration of this gene cannot be completely excluded as the duplication was inverted at proximity of this gene, as revealed by FISH analysis. Finally, we hypothesized that the phenotype shared by the two brothers could be related to a gene dosage imbalance even if gene expression could not be measured in relevant tissues such as brain or adipocytes.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deleção de Genes , Genes Duplicados , Obesidade/genética , Adolescente , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/genética , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 3/genética , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Feminino , Proteína GAP-43/genética , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Dosagem de Genes , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Masculino , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Obesidade/patologia , Receptores de Dopamina D3/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
18.
Cancer Inform ; 7: 41-56, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19352458

RESUMO

Mutations in two major genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, account for up to 30% of families with hereditary breast cancer. Unfortunately, in most families there is little to indicate which gene should be targeted first for mutation screening, which is labor intensive, time consuming and often prohibitively expensive. As BRCA1 is a tumor suppressor gene involved in various cellular processes, heterozygous mutations could deregulate dependent pathways, such as DNA damage response, and disturb transcriptional activity of genes involved in the downstream signaling cascade. We investigated gene expression profiling in peripheral blood lymphocytes to evaluate this strategy for distinguishing BRCA1 mutation carriers from non-carriers. RNA from whole blood samples of 15 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 15 non-carriers from BRCA1 or BRCA2 families were hybridized to Agilent Technologies Whole Human Genome OligoMicroarrays (4 x 44 K multiplex format) containing 41,000 unique human genes and transcripts. Gene expression data were analyzed with Welch's t-tests and submitted to hierarchical clustering (GeneSpring GX software, Agilent Technologies). Statistical analysis revealed a slight tendency for 133 genes to be differentially expressed between BRCA1 mutation carriers and non-carriers. However, hierarchical clustering of these genes did not accurately discriminate BRCA1 mutation carriers from non-carriers. Expression variation for these genes according to BRCA1 mutation status was weak. In summary, microarray profiling of untreated whole blood does not appear to be informative in identifying breast cancer risk due to BRCA1 mutation.

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