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1.
Front Pharmacol ; 9: 972, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30190676

RESUMO

The endemic Croatian species Centaurea ragusina L., like other species from the genus Centaurea, has been traditionally used in Croatia as an antibacterial agent and for the treatment of gastrointestinal and urogenital disorders. In several chromatographic steps, three flavonoids and three sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) were isolated and identified from the most active fractions of the ethanol extract. Two STLs, one for which we created the trivial name ragusinin, and hemistepsin A are here reported for the first time as constituents of the genus Centaurea. All six compounds were screened for their effect on several tumor and one normal cell lines. Among them, ragusinin showed the best bioactivity and high specificity to affect tumor murine SCCVII, human HeLa and Caco-2 cell lines, but not the viability of normal V79 fibroblasts. Due to these characteristics the action of ragusinin was investigated in more detail. Since DNA is the primary target for many drugs with antibacterial and anticancer activity, we studied its interaction with ragusinin. Rather moderate binding affinity to DNA excluded it as the primary target of ragusinin. Due to the possibility of STL interaction with glutathione (GSH), the ubiquitous peptide that traps reactive compounds and other xenobiotics to prevent damage to vital proteins and nucleic acids, its role in deactivation of ragusinin was evaluated. Addition of the GSH precursor N-acetyl-cysteine potentiated the viability of HeLa cells, while the addition of GSH inhibitor L-buthionine sulfoximine decreased it. Moreover, pre-treatment of HeLa cells with the inhibitor of glutathione-S-transferase decreased their viability indicating the detoxifying role of GSH in ragusinin treated cells. Cell death, derived by an accumulation of cells in a G2 phase of the cell cylce, was shown to be independent of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and caspase-3 cleavage pointing toward an alternative cell death pathway.

2.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 73(3): 189-195, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29860648

RESUMO

Native Crocus taxa are abundant in regions with moderate and dry climate; however, their potential in the food industry has thus far been neglected. The objective of this study was to compare the quantitative and qualitative flavonoid content and antioxidant and cytotoxic activity in organs of several populations of Croatian native taxa and assess their potential for application in the food industry. The dominant flavonoids in the native Crocus taxa were kaempferol and quercetin. Tepals contained similar or higher concentrations of flavonoid-glycosides than other organs. Tepals from Cvv1 and Cvv2 populations contained more flavonoid-glycosides than the commonly used spice saffron (C. sativus stigmas). The FRAP antioxidant activity of Cvv1 and Cvv5 tepals was similar to that of standard Trolox. DPPH inhibition of Cvv1 and Cvv3 tepals was within the range of that recorded for saffron. Cvv1 tepals significantly reduced reactive oxygen species in the broadest concentration range (50-1000 µg/ml), and showed considerable antioxidant activity in the ABTS assay, equal to 82% of standard Trolox antioxidant activity. A significantly higher concentration of kaempferol-rutinoside was recorded in this than in other taxa. The flavonoid showed a very strong or strong correlation with antioxidant assays results, and a negative correlation with cellular reactive oxygen species concentration. We therefore presumed that kaempferol-rutinoside is one of the main antioxidant phenolics in Crocus tepals. None of the tested extracts showed cytotoxicity toward Caco-2 cells. The results revealed that Cvv tepals have potential as a food supplement and are a promising material for further food safety tests.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Crocus/química , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Células CACO-2 , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Quempferóis/análise , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Quercetina/análise , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
3.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 125: 74-84, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29427890

RESUMO

Salinity is one of major abiotic stresses affecting Brassica crop production. Here we present investigations into the physiological, biochemical, and hormonal components of the short-term salinity stress response in Chinese cabbage seedlings, with particular emphasis on the biosynthesis and metabolism of auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Upon salinity treatments (50-200 mM NaCl) IAA level was elevated in a dose dependent manner reaching 1.6-fold increase at the most severe salt treatment in comparison to the control. IAA precursor profiling suggested that salinity activated the indole-3-acetamide and indole-3-acetaldoxime biosynthetic pathways while suppressing the indole-3-pyruvic acid pathway. Levels of the IAA catabolites 2-oxoindole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid-aspartate increased 1.7- and 2.0-fold, respectively, under the most severe treatment, in parallel with those of IAA. Conversely, levels of the ester conjugate indole-3-acetyl-1-O-ß-d-glucose and its catabolite 2-oxoindole-3-acetyl-1-O-ß-d-glucose decreased 2.5- and 7.0-fold, respectively. The concentrations of stress hormones including jasmonic acid and jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA and JA-Ile), salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) confirmed the stress induced by salt treatment: levels of JA and JA-Ile increased strongly under the mildest treatment, ABA only increased under the most severe treatment, and SA levels decreased dose-dependently. These hormonal changes were related to the observed changes in biochemical stress markers upon salt treatments: reductions in seedling fresh weight and root growth, decreased photosynthesis rate, increased levels of reactive oxygen species, and elevated proline content and the Na+/K+ ratio. Correlations among auxin profile and biochemical stress markers were discussed based on Pearson's coefficients and principal component analysis (PCA).


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Chemosphere ; 199: 191-200, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29438946

RESUMO

Airborne fly ash and related hazardous particles derived from coal combustion contaminate soil and groundwater, negatively affecting ecosystems. The aim of this study was chemical and toxicological evaluation of aqueous extracts of soil collected from the vicinity of a coal-fired Plomin power plant (PPP), using Lemna (Lemna minor L.) bioassay and additional biochemical indicators - photosynthetic pigments, lipid peroxidation, antioxidative enzymes and glutathione. Topsoil samples were collected from distances of 200, 300, 400 and 800 m from the PPP in accordance with the prevailing SW wind direction. Elevated levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (up to 15,765 ng L-1) and potentially toxic trace elements were detected in the Plomin soil extracts (PEs) in comparison to control soil extract (CE). Trace elements accumulated in L. minor were mostly in accordance with their concentrations in PEs. The results demonstrate that PEs induced significant growth inhibition and other phytotoxic effects. Those effects can be related to damage caused by increased production of reactive oxygen species and impaired antioxidant levels. The connection among the phytotoxicity, a distribution of analyzed contaminants, and distances from the PPP is clearly established.


Assuntos
Araceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinza de Carvão/toxicidade , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Oligoelementos/toxicidade , Araceae/metabolismo , Carvão Vegetal/química , Cinza de Carvão/análise , Croácia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Centrais Elétricas , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Oligoelementos/análise
5.
Phytochem Anal ; 28(6): 584-592, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28741753

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The phytochemical composition and biological activity of non-volatile components of Centaurea ragusina L. has not been studied previously. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to evaluate the phytochemical and bioactive potential (including interactions with polynucleotides) of C. ragusina L. depending on the origin of plant material (in vivo - leaves from natural habitats, ex vitro - leaves from plants acclimated from culture media, in vitro - leaves and calli from plants grown in culture media) and polarity of solvents used in extract preparation (80 and 96% ethanol and water combinations or single solvents). METHODOLOGY: The polyphenol composition was determined by spectrophotometric and HPLC analysis. Biological activity of extracts was evaluated by following methods: 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods for antioxidative activity, 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) microdilution method for antibacterial activity, crystal-violet test for cytotoxic activity and thermal denaturation (TD) and circular dichroism (CD) for DNA/RNA interactions. RESULTS: Conditions for the most efficient polyphenol extraction were determined: the 80% ethanol/water solvent system was the most suitable for callus and leaf ex vitro samples and 80 or 96% ethanol for leaf in vivo samples. Significantly higher levels of chlorogenic acid and naringenin were detected in callus tissue than in vivo plant. Ethanolic extracts exhibited the significant antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. DNA/RNA active compounds in plant extracts were detected by TD and CD methods. CONCLUSIONS: Callus tissue and ex vitro leaves represent a valuable source of polyphenols as in vivo leaves. TD and CD can be applied for detection of DNA/RNA active compounds in extracts from natural resources. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Centaurea/química , DNA/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/química , RNA/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dicroísmo Circular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Espectrofotometria
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 543(Pt A): 147-154, 2016 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26580737

RESUMO

Owing to its proven toxicity and mutagenicity, arsenic is regarded a principal pollutant in water used for drinking. The objective of this study was the toxicological and chemical evaluation of groundwater samples obtained from arsenic enriched drinking water wells before and after electrochemical and ozone-UV-H2O2-based advanced oxidation processes (EAOP). For this purpose, acute toxicity test with Daphnia magna and chronic toxicity test with Lemna minor L. were employed as well as in vitro bioassays using human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs). Several oxidative stress parameters were estimated in L.minor. Physicochemical analysis showed that EAOP treatment was highly efficient in arsenic but also in ammonia and organic compound removal from contaminated groundwater. Untreated groundwater caused only slight toxicity to HPBLs and D. magna in acute experiments. However, 7-day exposure of L. minor to raw groundwater elicited genotoxicity, a significant growth inhibition and oxidative stress injury. The observed genotoxicity and toxicity of raw groundwater samples was almost completely eliminated by EAOP treatment. Generally, the results obtained with L. minor were in agreement with those obtained in the chemical analysis suggesting the sensitivity of the model organism in monitoring of arsenic-contaminated groundwater. In parallel to chemical analysis, the implementation of chronic toxicity bioassays in a battery is recommended in the assessment of the toxic and genotoxic potential of such complex mixtures.


Assuntos
Arsênio/análise , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Arsênio/toxicidade , Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Subterrânea/química , Oxirredução , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
7.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 73(3): 923-9, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26399165

RESUMO

In the present study toxicity of Frangula alnus Mill. bark, widely used as laxative, was investigated. Human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs) were treated with F. alnus bark extract or emodin (emodin is bark component with laxative property), and cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and parameters of oxidative stress were assessed. Also, polyphenol content of bark extract and antioxidant activity of the extract and emodin measured by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP methods were examined. The bark extract (500 µg/ml) produced cell death and DNA damage, while level of ROS changed at 250 µg/ml. Emodin induced cell death and DNA damage at 150 µg/ml and 200 µg/ml, respectively, and the increase of ROS was observed at 25 µg/ml. These results suggest that both, bark extract and emodin, are cyto/genotoxic to HPBLs and that oxidative stress is involved in the mechanism of their toxicity. The results on antioxidant activity showed that, unlike emodin, bark extract possess moderate antioxidant capacity (44.6%, 46.8% and 2.25 mmol Fe(2+)/g measured by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assay, respectively) that can be related to relatively high phenolic content (116.07 mg/g). However, due to toxicological properties use of F. alnus bark as well as emodin-containing preparations should be taken with caution.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Emodina/farmacologia , Laxantes/farmacologia , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rhamnus/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/toxicidade , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaio Cometa , Dano ao DNA , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Emodina/isolamento & purificação , Emodina/toxicidade , Humanos , Laxantes/isolamento & purificação , Laxantes/toxicidade , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Linfócitos/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/toxicidade , Fitoterapia , Casca de Planta , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Plantas Medicinais , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Rhamnus/toxicidade , Medição de Risco
8.
Arh Hig Rada Toksikol ; 65(1): 89-99, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24615481

RESUMO

Leachates from active and closed municipal solid waste landfills can be a major source of contamination to groundwater and surface waters. In the present study the toxic and genotoxic potential of leachate from an old sanitary landfill prior to and following chemical and electrochemical treatments were assessed using Lemna, Allium, and comet tests. Photosynthetic pigments, malondialdehyde (indicator of lipid peroxidation) and antioxidant enzyme activities were evaluated as additional indicators of toxicity in duckweed. Following duckweed exposure to 25 % dilution of landfill leachate, growth rate and photosynthetic pigments content significantly decreased while lipid peroxidation increased despite stimulation of antioxidative defence mechanisms. Diluted leachate induced DNA strand breaks in duckweed cells as evidenced by the comet assay. Regarding the Allium test, untreated leachate caused inhibition of Allium cepa cell division and induction of mitotic and chromosomal aberrations. Although both water treatments completely reduced genotoxicity of leachate, the electrochemical method was found to be more efficient in removing toxic substances present in landfill leachate and thus more suitable for treating such leachates prior to their discharge into the environment. As landfill leachates pose a risk to human health and environment in general due to their (geno)toxicity, the present study demonstrates that the ecotoxicity/genotoxicity assays should be used in leachate risk assessment together with physicochemical analysis.


Assuntos
Mutagênicos/análise , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Purificação da Água/métodos , Allium/citologia , Allium/efeitos dos fármacos , Allium/genética , Araceae/citologia , Araceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Araceae/genética , Divisão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaio Cometa , Monitoramento Ambiental , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 466-467: 84-9, 2014 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23895778

RESUMO

Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a by-product of the mining industry that has a detrimental effect on aquatic plant and animal life due to high load of heavy metals and sulfates. In the present study, the toxic and genotoxic potential of AMD prior to and following combination of neutralization/electrocoagulation processes was evaluated using several bioassays and selected parameters. Regardless of pH correction of AMD prior to Daphnia bioassay, high acute toxicity was observed in Daphnia magna. The mine leachate also induced strong phyto-, cyto- and genotoxicity to Allium cepa roots. Short term exposure to AMD inhibited duckweed growth and chlorophyll a content and simultaneously promoted lipid peroxidation and DNA damage despite duckweed capability to upregulate antioxidative defense mechanisms. The results show that observed (geno)toxicity could be related to oxidative stress most probably induced by toxic metal action. However, influence of low pH as a contributing factor in the phytotoxicity of AMD cannot be excluded. The application of combined treatment eliminated genotoxicity and was highly efficient in reducing toxicity of AMD. Thus, the method seems to be suitable for treatment of AMD waters enabling their safe discharge to an aquatic environment.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cálcio/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Óxidos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Allium/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Araceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Bioensaio , Daphnia/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sérvia
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 96: 32-40, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23871567

RESUMO

The genotoxic and toxic potential of polluted surface water exposed to a fertilizer factory effluent was evaluated using assays with fish (Cyprinus carpio) and plant (Lemna minor) model organisms. Beside classical physicochemical parameters, the contents of fluorides, some heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were analyzed as well. Surface water caused inhibition of plant growth and decrease of photosynthetic pigment content. Regarding DNA damage and oxidative stress parameters, both fish and plants showed similar response to the surface water. In confirmation to biochemical markers, histopathological analysis of gill and liver tissues revealed a higher incidence of lesions in fish exposed to polluted surface water. Generally, results obtained by biological monitoring were mostly in agreement with chemical analysis of the surface water, although several discrepancies were observed which might be due to difference in sensitivity of model organisms or in experimental conditions (laboratory and field exposure). The results imply that conventional chemical analysis should be extended to genotoxicity/toxicity assays as measured biological effects and the potential health hazard cannot be predicted based on the physicochemical characteristics of water samples alone.


Assuntos
Araceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Carpas/fisiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fertilizantes/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Araceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 408(5): 1228-33, 2010 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20018345

RESUMO

Screening for mutagens in complex environmental mixtures, such as surface water or industrial wastewater, is gradually being accepted as a routine method in environmental monitoring programs. In the present work, the simplified Alliumcepa root assay was utilized to evaluate the possible cyto- and genotoxic effects of surface and wastewaters collected near the Sava River (Croatia) over a three-month monitoring period. Physicochemical characterization of the water samples included measurements of conductivity, chemical and biological oxygen demand, levels of suspended matter and salts, nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, total nitrogen and total phosphorus. Morphological modifications of the A. cepa roots, inhibition of root growth, cell division and induction of mitotic and chromosomal aberrations were observed. The most highly polluted water samples (industrial effluents) caused an inhibition of root growth of over 50%, a decrease in the mitotic index of over 40%, and a considerable increase in chromosomal aberrations compared to the control. The measured biological effects of some water samples appeared related to the physicochemical characteristics. Therefore, mutagenicity/genotoxicity assays should be included, along with conventional chemical analysis, in water quality monitoring programs. Their use would allow the quantification of mutagenic hazards in surface and wastewaters.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Mutagênicos/farmacologia , Cebolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes da Água/farmacologia , Água/química , Bioensaio , Croácia , Testes de Mutagenicidade/métodos , Mutagênicos/análise , Cebolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes da Água/análise , Abastecimento de Água
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