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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576413

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective was to develop a fully automated algorithm for abdominal fat segmentation and to deploy this method at scale in an academic biobank. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We built a fully automated image curation and labeling technique using deep learning and distributive computing to identify subcutaneous and visceral abdominal fat compartments from 52,844 computed tomography scans in 13,502 patients in the Penn Medicine Biobank (PMBB). A classification network identified the inferior and superior borders of the abdomen, and a segmentation network differentiated visceral and subcutaneous fat. Following technical evaluation of our method, we conducted studies to validate known relationships with visceral and subcutaneous fat. RESULTS: When compared with 100 manually annotated cases, the classification network was on average within one 5-mm slice for both the superior (0.4 ± 1.1 slice) and inferior (0.4 ± 0.6 slice) borders. The segmentation network also demonstrated excellent performance with intraclass correlation coefficients of 1.00 (P < 2 × 10-16) for subcutaneous and 1.00 (P < 2 × 10-16) for visceral fat on 100 testing cases. We performed integrative analyses of abdominal fat with the phenome extracted from the electronic health record and found highly significant associations with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and renal failure, among other phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS: This work presents a fully automated and highly accurate method for the quantification of abdominal fat that can be applied to routine clinical imaging studies to fuel translational scientific discovery.

2.
PLoS Med ; 17(10): e1003288, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies have identified height as a strong risk factor for atrial fibrillation, but this finding may be limited by residual confounding. We aimed to examine genetic variation in height within the Mendelian randomization (MR) framework to determine whether height has a causal effect on risk of atrial fibrillation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In summary-level analyses, MR was performed using summary statistics from genome-wide association studies of height (GIANT/UK Biobank; 693,529 individuals) and atrial fibrillation (AFGen; 65,446 cases and 522,744 controls), finding that each 1-SD increase in genetically predicted height increased the odds of atrial fibrillation (odds ratio [OR] 1.34; 95% CI 1.29 to 1.40; p = 5 × 10-42). This result remained consistent in sensitivity analyses with MR methods that make different assumptions about the presence of pleiotropy, and when accounting for the effects of traditional cardiovascular risk factors on atrial fibrillation. Individual-level phenome-wide association studies of height and a height genetic risk score were performed among 6,567 European-ancestry participants of the Penn Medicine Biobank (median age at enrollment 63 years, interquartile range 55-72; 38% female; recruitment 2008-2015), confirming prior observational associations between height and atrial fibrillation. Individual-level MR confirmed that each 1-SD increase in height increased the odds of atrial fibrillation, including adjustment for clinical and echocardiographic confounders (OR 1.89; 95% CI 1.50 to 2.40; p = 0.007). The main limitations of this study include potential bias from pleiotropic effects of genetic variants, and lack of generalizability of individual-level findings to non-European populations. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed evidence that height is likely a positive causal risk factor for atrial fibrillation. Further study is needed to determine whether risk prediction tools including height or anthropometric risk factors can be used to improve screening and primary prevention of atrial fibrillation, and whether biological pathways involved in height may offer new targets for treatment of atrial fibrillation.

3.
Hum Mol Genet ; 29(19): 3327-3337, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833022

RESUMO

Clinical observations have linked tobacco smoking with increased type 2 diabetes risk. Mendelian randomization analysis has recently suggested smoking may be a causal risk factor for type 2 diabetes. However, this association could be mediated by additional risk factors correlated with smoking behavior, which have not been investigated. We hypothesized that body mass index (BMI) could help to explain the association between smoking and diabetes risk. First, we confirmed that genetic determinants of smoking initiation increased risk for type 2 diabetes (OR 1.21, 95% CI: 1.15-1.27, P = 1 × 10-12) and coronary artery disease (CAD; OR 1.21, 95% CI: 1.16-1.26, P = 2 × 10-20). Additionally, 2-fold increased smoking risk was positively associated with increased BMI (~0.8 kg/m2, 95% CI: 0.54-0.98 kg/m2, P = 1.8 × 10-11). Multivariable Mendelian randomization analyses showed that BMI accounted for nearly all the risk smoking exerted on type 2 diabetes (OR 1.06, 95% CI: 1.01-1.11, P = 0.03). In contrast, the independent effect of smoking on increased CAD risk persisted (OR 1.12, 95% CI: 1.08-1.17, P = 3 × 10-8). Causal mediation analyses agreed with these estimates. Furthermore, analysis using individual-level data from the Million Veteran Program independently replicated the association of smoking behavior with CAD (OR 1.24, 95% CI: 1.12-1.37, P = 2 × 10-5), but not type 2 diabetes (OR 0.98, 95% CI: 0.89-1.08, P = 0.69), after controlling for BMI. Our findings support a model whereby genetic determinants of smoking increase type 2 diabetes risk indirectly through their relationship with obesity. Smokers should be advised to stop smoking to limit type 2 diabetes and CAD risk. Therapeutic efforts should consider pathophysiology relating smoking and obesity.

4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237430, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Given ongoing challenges in non-invasive non-alcoholic liver disease (NAFLD) diagnosis, we sought to validate an ALT-based NAFLD phenotype using measures readily available in electronic health records (EHRs) and population-based studies by leveraging the clinical and genetic data in the Million Veteran Program (MVP), a multi-ethnic mega-biobank of US Veterans. METHODS: MVP participants with alanine aminotransferases (ALT) >40 units/L for men and >30 units/L for women without other causes of liver disease were compared to controls with normal ALT. Genetic variants spanning eight NAFLD risk or ALT-associated loci (LYPLAL1, GCKR, HSD17B13, TRIB1, PPP1R3B, ERLIN1, TM6SF2, PNPLA3) were tested for NAFLD associations with sensitivity analyses adjusting for metabolic risk factors and alcohol consumption. A manual EHR review assessed performance characteristics of the NAFLD phenotype with imaging and biopsy data as gold standards. Genetic associations with advanced fibrosis were explored using FIB4, NAFLD Fibrosis Score and platelet counts. RESULTS: Among 322,259 MVP participants, 19% met non-invasive criteria for NAFLD. Trans-ethnic meta-analysis replicated associations with previously reported genetic variants in all but LYPLAL1 and GCKR loci (P<6x10-3), without attenuation when adjusted for metabolic risk factors and alcohol consumption. At the previously reported LYPLAL1 locus, the established genetic variant did not appear to be associated with NAFLD, however the regional association plot showed a significant association with NAFLD 279kb downstream. In the EHR validation, the ALT-based NAFLD phenotype yielded a positive predictive value 0.89 and 0.84 for liver biopsy and abdominal imaging, respectively (inter-rater reliability (Cohen's kappa = 0.98)). HSD17B13 and PNPLA3 loci were associated with advanced fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: We validate a simple, non-invasive ALT-based NAFLD phenotype using EHR data by leveraging previously established NAFLD risk-associated genetic polymorphisms.


Assuntos
Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , 17-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases/genética , Abdome/diagnóstico por imagem , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Idoso , Alanina Transaminase/genética , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Humanos , Lipase/genética , Fígado/patologia , Lisofosfolipase/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etnologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco , Veteranos
5.
Nat Genet ; 52(7): 680-691, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541925

RESUMO

We investigated type 2 diabetes (T2D) genetic susceptibility via multi-ancestry meta-analysis of 228,499 cases and 1,178,783 controls in the Million Veteran Program (MVP), DIAMANTE, Biobank Japan and other studies. We report 568 associations, including 286 autosomal, 7 X-chromosomal and 25 identified in ancestry-specific analyses that were previously unreported. Transcriptome-wide association analysis detected 3,568 T2D associations with genetically predicted gene expression in 687 novel genes; of these, 54 are known to interact with FDA-approved drugs. A polygenic risk score (PRS) was strongly associated with increased risk of T2D-related retinopathy and modestly associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD), peripheral artery disease (PAD) and neuropathy. We investigated the genetic etiology of T2D-related vascular outcomes in the MVP and observed statistical SNP-T2D interactions at 13 variants, including coronary heart disease (CHD), CKD, PAD and neuropathy. These findings may help to identify potential therapeutic targets for T2D and genomic pathways that link T2D to vascular outcomes.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Afro-Americanos , Cromossomos Humanos X , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/genética , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medição de Risco
6.
PLoS Genet ; 16(4): e1008629, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282858

RESUMO

Analyzing 12,361 all-cause cirrhosis cases and 790,095 controls from eight cohorts, we identify a common missense variant in the Mitochondrial Amidoxime Reducing Component 1 gene (MARC1 p.A165T) that associates with protection from all-cause cirrhosis (OR 0.91, p = 2.3*10-11). This same variant also associates with lower levels of hepatic fat on computed tomographic imaging and lower odds of physician-diagnosed fatty liver as well as lower blood levels of alanine transaminase (-0.025 SD, 3.7*10-43), alkaline phosphatase (-0.025 SD, 1.2*10-37), total cholesterol (-0.030 SD, p = 1.9*10-36) and LDL cholesterol (-0.027 SD, p = 5.1*10-30) levels. We identified a series of additional MARC1 alleles (low-frequency missense p.M187K and rare protein-truncating p.R200Ter) that also associated with lower cholesterol levels, liver enzyme levels and reduced risk of cirrhosis (0 cirrhosis cases for 238 R200Ter carriers versus 17,046 cases of cirrhosis among 759,027 non-carriers, p = 0.04) suggesting that deficiency of the MARC1 enzyme may lower blood cholesterol levels and protect against cirrhosis.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso/genética , Fígado Gorduroso/prevenção & controle , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Cirrose Hepática/prevenção & controle , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Oxirredutases/genética , Alelos , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Fígado Gorduroso/sangue , Fígado Gorduroso/enzimologia , Feminino , Homozigoto , Humanos , Fígado/enzimologia , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/enzimologia , Cirrose Hepática Alcoólica/sangue , Cirrose Hepática Alcoólica/enzimologia , Cirrose Hepática Alcoólica/genética , Cirrose Hepática Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Mutação com Perda de Função/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
Nat Genet ; 51(11): 1574-1579, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676865

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism is a significant cause of mortality1, yet its genetic determinants are incompletely defined. We performed a discovery genome-wide association study in the Million Veteran Program and UK Biobank, with testing of approximately 13 million DNA sequence variants for association with venous thromboembolism (26,066 cases and 624,053 controls) and meta-analyzed both studies, followed by independent replication with up to 17,672 venous thromboembolism cases and 167,295 controls. We identified 22 previously unknown loci, bringing the total number of venous thromboembolism-associated loci to 33, and subsequently fine-mapped these associations. We developed a genome-wide polygenic risk score for venous thromboembolism that identifies 5% of the population at an equivalent incident venous thromboembolism risk to carriers of the established factor V Leiden p.R506Q and prothrombin G20210A mutations. Our data provide mechanistic insights into the genetic epidemiology of venous thromboembolism and suggest a greater overlap among venous and arterial cardiovascular disease than previously thought.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/metabolismo , Doenças Vasculares/genética , Tromboembolia Venosa/genética , Idoso , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/genética , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Doenças Vasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Vasculares/patologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/patologia
8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 763-772, 2019 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564439

RESUMO

Large-scale multi-ethnic cohorts offer unprecedented opportunities to elucidate the genetic factors influencing complex traits related to health and disease among minority populations. At the same time, the genetic diversity in these cohorts presents new challenges for analysis and interpretation. We consider the utility of race and/or ethnicity categories in genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of multi-ethnic cohorts. We demonstrate that race/ethnicity information enhances the ability to understand population-specific genetic architecture. To address the practical issue that self-identified racial/ethnic information may be incomplete, we propose a machine learning algorithm that produces a surrogate variable, termed HARE. We use height as a model trait to demonstrate the utility of HARE and ethnicity-specific GWASs.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Algoritmos , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
9.
Nat Med ; 25(8): 1274-1279, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285632

RESUMO

Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a leading cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality; however, the extent to which genetic factors increase risk for PAD is largely unknown. Using electronic health record data, we performed a genome-wide association study in the Million Veteran Program testing ~32 million DNA sequence variants with PAD (31,307 cases and 211,753 controls) across veterans of European, African and Hispanic ancestry. The results were replicated in an independent sample of 5,117 PAD cases and 389,291 controls from the UK Biobank. We identified 19 PAD loci, 18 of which have not been previously reported. Eleven of the 19 loci were associated with disease in three vascular beds (coronary, cerebral, peripheral), including LDLR, LPL and LPA, suggesting that therapeutic modulation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, the lipoprotein lipase pathway or circulating lipoprotein(a) may be efficacious for multiple atherosclerotic disease phenotypes. Conversely, four of the variants appeared to be specific for PAD, including F5 p.R506Q, highlighting the pathogenic role of thrombosis in the peripheral vascular bed and providing genetic support for Factor Xa inhibition as a therapeutic strategy for PAD. Our results highlight mechanistic similarities and differences among coronary, cerebral and peripheral atherosclerosis and provide therapeutic insights.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Doença Arterial Periférica/genética , Idoso , LDL-Colesterol/genética , Fator V/genética , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores de LDL/genética , Veteranos
10.
Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet ; 44(2): 179-187, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30168000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Efavirenz is commonly used in Africa and is frequently associated with neurocognitive toxicity, which may compromise clinical outcomes. Older individuals are at increased risk for drug toxicity and clinical outcomes may be worse in older age, particularly among those individuals with cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B6 polymorphisms associated with slower efavirenz metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine if the CYP2B6 polymorphisms differentially impacts loss to care in older people. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 914 treatment-naïve HIV+ adults initiating efavirenz-based antiretroviral treatment at public HIV clinics in Gaborone, Botswana between 2009 and 2013. Older age, defined as age ≥ 50 years, was the primary exposure and loss to care at 6 months was the primary outcome. Interaction between age and CYP2B6 516G>T and 983T>C polymorphisms, defined as extensive, intermediate, and slow metabolism, was assessed. Neurocognitive toxicity was measured using a symptom questionnaire. Age-stratified logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with loss to care. RESULTS: Older age was associated with loss to care (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.30-2.92). Age modified the effect of CYP2B6 genotype on loss to care with older, slow metabolizers at over four-fold higher risk when compared to older, intermediate metabolizers (OR 4.06 95% CI 1.38-11.89); neurocognitive toxicity did not mediate this risk. CYP2B6 metabolism genotype did not increase risk of loss to care in younger participants. CONCLUSION: Older age was associated with loss to care, especially among those with slow efavirenz metabolism. Understanding the relationship between older age and CYP2B6 genotype will be important to improving outcomes in an aging population initiating efavirenz-based ART in similar settings.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Fármacos Anti-HIV/metabolismo , Benzoxazinas/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/metabolismo , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Fatores Etários , Alquinos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Benzoxazinas/uso terapêutico , Botsuana/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Ciclopropanos , Citocromo P-450 CYP2B6/genética , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
11.
Nat Genet ; 50(11): 1514-1523, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30275531

RESUMO

The Million Veteran Program (MVP) was established in 2011 as a national research initiative to determine how genetic variation influences the health of US military veterans. Here we genotyped 312,571 MVP participants using a custom biobank array and linked the genetic data to laboratory and clinical phenotypes extracted from electronic health records covering a median of 10.0 years of follow-up. Among 297,626 veterans with at least one blood lipid measurement, including 57,332 black and 24,743 Hispanic participants, we tested up to around 32 million variants for association with lipid levels and identified 118 novel genome-wide significant loci after meta-analysis with data from the Global Lipids Genetics Consortium (total n > 600,000). Through a focus on mutations predicted to result in a loss of gene function and a phenome-wide association study, we propose novel indications for pharmaceutical inhibitors targeting PCSK9 (abdominal aortic aneurysm), ANGPTL4 (type 2 diabetes) and PDE3B (triglycerides and coronary disease).


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
12.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(19): e03488, 2018 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30371334

RESUMO

Background Niacin is a broad-spectrum lipid-modulating drug, but its mechanism of action is unclear. Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple loci associated with blood lipid levels and lipoprotein (a). It is unknown whether these loci modulate response to niacin. Methods and Results Using data from the AIM - HIGH (Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome with Low HDL /High Triglycerides and Impact on Global Health Outcomes) trial (n=2054 genotyped participants), we determined whether genetic variations at validated loci were associated with a differential change in plasma lipids and lipoprotein (a) 1 year after randomization to either statin+placebo or statin+niacin in a variant-treatment interaction model. Nominally significant interactions ( P<0.05) were found for genetic variants in MVK , LIPC , PABPC 4, AMPD 3 with change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; SPTLC 3 with change in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; TOM 1 with change in total cholesterol; PDXDC 1 and CYP 26A1 with change in triglycerides; and none for lipoprotein (a). We also investigated whether these loci were associated with cardiovascular events. The risk of coronary disease related death was higher in the minor allele carriers at the LIPC locus in the placebo group (odds ratio 2.08, 95% confidence interval 1.11-3.90, P=0.02) but not observed in the niacin group (odds ratio 0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.48-1.65, P=0.7); P-interaction =0.02. There was a greater risk for acute coronary syndrome (odds ratio 1.85, 95% confidence interval 1.16-2.77, P=0.02) and revascularization events (odds ratio 1.64, 95% confidence interval 1.2-2.22, P=0.002) in major allele carriers at the CYP 26A1 locus in the placebo group not seen in the niacin group. Conclusions Genetic variation at loci previously associated with steady-state lipid levels displays evidence for lipid response to niacin treatment. Clinical Trials Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT00120289.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias/genética , Variação Genética , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Lipídeos/sangue , Niacina/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Quimioterapia Combinada , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Pharmacogenomics J ; 18(5): 678-688, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29855606

RESUMO

Inter-individual variability in efavirenz (EFV) pharmacokinetics and dynamics is dominantly driven by the polymorphism in cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzyme 2B6 516G>T. We hypothesized that additional CYP polymorphisms mediate the relationship between CYP2B6 516G>T, EFV metabolism, and clinical events. We investigated 21 SNPs in 814 HIV-infected adults initiating EFV-based therapy in Botswana for population pharmacokinetics, CNS toxicities, and treatment outcomes. Two SNPs (rs28399499 and rs28399433) showed reduced apparent oral EFV clearance. Four SNPs (rs2279345, rs4803417, rs4802101, and rs61663607) showed extensive clearance. Composite CYP2B-mediated EFV metabolism was significantly associated with CNS toxicity (p = 0.04), with extensive metabolizers reporting more and slow and very slow metabolizers reporting less toxicity after 1 month compared to intermediate metabolizers. Composite CYP2B6 metabolism was not associated with composite early treatment failure. In conclusion, our data suggest that CNS-related toxicities might not be solely the result of super-therapeutic parent EFV concentrations in HIV-infected individuals in patients of African ancestry.


Assuntos
Benzoxazinas/efeitos adversos , Benzoxazinas/farmacocinética , Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Infecções por HIV/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adulto , Alquinos , Alelos , Botsuana , Estudos de Coortes , Ciclopropanos , Feminino , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/farmacocinética
14.
AIDS ; 31(15): 2107-2113, 2017 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28692529

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between cytochrome p450 2B6 genotypes and efavirenz-based HIV treatment outcomes. DESIGN: Observational cohort study of HIV-infected adults initiating efavirenz-based regimens in Botswana. METHODS: The primary endpoint was a composite of death or loss to care or HIV RNA more than 25 copies/ml at 6 months. CYP2B6 516G>T and 983T>C genotyping was done with Taqman Open Array platform. Adverse experiences were measured by using the Subject Experience Questionnaire. Metabolism alleles were included in logistic regression models of the composite endpoint. RESULTS: A total of 801 individuals included 406 (51%) men, median age 37 years, median baseline CD4 cell count 195 cells/µl, and plasma HIV RNA 4.9 log10 copies/ml. 288 (36%) reached the endpoint, including 34 (4%) deaths, 151 (19%) lost to care, 11 (1%) lost to the study, but alive and in care, and 92 (11%) with plasma HIV RNA more than 25 copies/ml. Metabolism variant alleles were common with 396 (49%) intermediate and 192 (24%) slow metabolizers. There were no statistically significant associations between metabolism and treatment endpoints. However, slower metabolism was associated with fewer adverse experiences. CONCLUSION: Slow metabolism alleles were associated with lower efavirenz clearance but not any of the treatment endpoints. Slow efavirenz metabolism did not exacerbate central nervous system toxicity. These results should allay concern that slow efavirenz metabolism adversely impacts individuals in sub-Saharan African settings in which these alleles are common.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Benzoxazinas/uso terapêutico , Citocromo P-450 CYP2B6/genética , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Alquinos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Benzoxazinas/efeitos adversos , Botsuana , Ciclopropanos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Viral/sangue , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 75(4): 488-491, 2017 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28481785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CYP2B6 polymorphisms that affect efavirenz (EFV) concentrations are common, but the effect of this polymorphism on HIV virologic failure in clinical practice settings has not fully been elucidated. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between the CYP2B6 516G>T genotype and late virologic failure in patients treated with EFV in Gaborone, Botswana. SETTING: We performed a case-control study that included 1338 HIV-infected black Batswana on EFV-based antiretroviral therapy (ART). Patients were approached for enrollment during regular visits at one of the outpatient HIV clinics between July 2013 and April 2014. METHODS: Cases experienced late HIV failure, defined as plasma HIV RNA >1000 copies/mL after maintaining viral suppression (<400 copies/mL) for at least 6 months. For each case, a total of 4 control patients were randomly sampled from the same population. Controls had plasma HIV RNA <400 copies/mL on ART for at least 6 months. Logistic regression was used to determine the adjusted odds of late HIV failure by 516G>T genotype. RESULTS: After adjustment for the confounding variables age and CD4 count, the CYP2B6 516 T-allele was protective against late HIV virologic breakthrough, adjusted OR 0.70; 95% CI: 0.50 to 0.97. CONCLUSION: The CYP2B6 516 T-allele was protective against late virologic breakthrough in patients with initial (6 month) HIV RNA suppression on EFV-based ART. Future studies are needed to assess long-term viral benefits of identifying and offering EFV containing ART to black African HIV-infected patients with CYP2B6 T-alleles, especially given the wider availability of a single pill EFV in this setting.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Benzoxazinas/uso terapêutico , Indutores do Citocromo P-450 CYP2B6/uso terapêutico , Citocromo P-450 CYP2B6/genética , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/genética , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Alquinos , Alelos , Botsuana , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ciclopropanos , Feminino , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/patogenicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Falha de Tratamento
16.
Blood ; 129(23): 3051-3058, 2017 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28411282

RESUMO

Childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is frequently characterized by chromosomal instability. Approximately 50% of patients have disease relapse, and novel prognostic markers are needed to improve risk stratification. We performed genome-wide genotyping in 446 pediatric patients with de novo AML enrolled in Children's Oncology Group (COG) studies AAML0531, AAML03P1, and CCG2961. Affymetrix and Illumina Omni 2.5 platforms were used to evaluate copy-number alterations (CNAs) and determine their associations with treatment outcome. Data from Affymetrix and Illumina studies were jointly analyzed with ASCAT and GISTIC software. An average of 1.14 somatically acquired CNAs per patient were observed. Novel reoccurring altered genomic regions were identified, and the presence of CNAs was found to be associated with decreased 3-year overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS), and relapse risk from the end of induction 1 (hazard ratio [HR], 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.4; HR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0-1.8; and HR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0-2.0, respectively). Analyses by risk group demonstrated decreased OS and EFS in the standard-risk group only (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.3 and HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.6, respectively). Additional studies are required to test the prognostic significance of CNA presence in disease relapse in patients with AML. COG studies AAML0531, AAML03P1, and CCG2961 were registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01407757, #NCT00070174, and #NCT00003790, respectively.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Masculino , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Front Genet ; 7: 139, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27547214

RESUMO

Regression analysis is commonly used in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to test genotype-phenotype associations but restricts the phenotype to a single observation for each individual. There is an increasing need for analytic methods for longitudinally collected phenotype data. Several methods have been proposed to perform longitudinal GWAS for family-based studies but few methods are described for unrelated populations. We compared the performance of three statistical approaches for longitudinal GWAS in unrelated subjectes: (1) principal component-based generalized estimating equations (PC-GEE); (2) principal component-based linear mixed effects model (PC-LMEM); (3) kinship coefficient matrix-based linear mixed effects model (KIN-LMEM), in a study of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the duration of 4 courses of chemotherapy in 624 unrelated children with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) genotyped on the Illumina 2.5 M OmniQuad from the COG studies AAML0531 and AAML1031. In this study we observed an exaggerated type I error with PC-GEE in SNPs with minor allele frequencies < 0.05, wheras KIN-LMEM produces more than expected type II errors. PC-MEM showed balanced type I and type II errors for the observed vs. expected P-values in comparison to competing approaches. In general, a strong concordance was observed between the P-values with the different approaches, in particular among P < 0.01 where the between-method AUCs exceed 99%. PC-LMEM accounts for genetic relatedness and correlations among repeated phenotype measures, shows minimal genome-wide inflation of type I errors, and yields high power. We therefore recommend PC-LMEM as a robust analytic approach for GWAS of longitudinal data in unrelated populations.

18.
Leuk Res Rep ; 4(2): 47-50, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26605150

RESUMO

Genetic variation in drug detoxification pathways may influence outcomes in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We evaluated relapse risk and 24 variants in 17 genes in 714 patients in CCG-1961. Three TPMT and 1 MTR variant were associated with increased risks of relapse (rs4712327, OR 3.3, 95%CI 1.2-8.6; rs2842947, OR 2.7, 95%CI 1.1-6.8; rs2842935, OR 2.5, 95%CI 1.1-5.0; rs10925235, OR 4.9, 95%CI 1.1-25.1). One variant in SLC19A1 showed a protective effect (rs4819128, OR 0.5, 95%CI 0.3-0.9). Our study provides data that relapse risk in pediatric ALL is associated with germline variations in TPMT, MTR and SLC19A1.

19.
Cancer Genet ; 208(7-8): 408-13, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26163103

RESUMO

Copy number alterations (CNAs) are a hallmark of pediatric cancer genomes. An increasing number of research groups use multiple platforms and software packages to detect and analyze CNAs. However, different platforms have experimental and analysis-specific biases that may yield different results. We sought to estimate the concordance of CNAs in children with de novo acute myeloid leukemia between two experimental platforms: Affymetrix SNP 6.0 array and Illumina OmniQuad 2.5 BeadChip. Forty-five paired tumor-remission samples were genotyped on both platforms, and CNAs were estimated from total signal intensity and allelic contrast values using the allele-specific copy number analysis of tumors (ASCAT) algorithm. The two platforms were comparable in detection of CNAs, each missing only two segments from a total of 42 CNAs (4.6%). Overall, there was an interplatform agreement of 96% for allele-specific tumor profiles. However, poor quality samples with low signal/noise ratios showed a high rate of false-positive segments independent of the genotyping platform. These results demonstrate that a common analytic pipeline can be utilized for SNP array data from these two platforms. The customized programming template for the preprocessing, data integration, and analysis is publicly available at https://github.com/AplenCHOP/affyLumCNA.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Leucemia Mieloide/genética , Perda de Heterozigosidade , Doença Aguda , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Análise em Microsséries/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
20.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 14: 622, 2014 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25465053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The concept of responsiveness, introduced by the World Health Organization (WHO), addresses non-clinical aspects of health service quality that are relevant regardless of provider, country, health system or health condition. Responsiveness refers to "aspects related to the way individuals are treated and the environment in which they are treated" during health system interactions. This paper assesses the psychometric properties of a newly developed responsiveness questionnaire dedicated to evaluating maternal experiences of perinatal care services, called the Responsiveness in Perinatal and Obstetric Health Care Questionnaire (ReproQ), using the eight-domain WHO concept. METHODS: The ReproQ was developed between October 2009 and February 2010 by adapting the WHO Responsiveness Questionnaire items to the perinatal care context. The psychometric properties of feasibility, construct validity, and discriminative validity were empirically assessed in a sample of Dutch women two weeks post partum. RESULTS: A total of 171 women consented to participation. Feasibility: the interviews lasted between 20 and 40 minutes and the overall missing rate was 8%. Construct validity: mean Cronbach's alphas for the antenatal, birth and postpartum phase were: 0.73 (range 0.57-0.82), 0.84 (range 0.66-0.92), and 0.87 (range 0.62-0.95) respectively. The item-own scale correlations within all phases were considerably higher than most of the item-other scale correlations. Within the antenatal care, birth care and post partum phases, the eight factors explained 69%, 69%, and 76% of variance respectively. Discriminative validity: overall responsiveness mean sum scores were higher for women whose children were not admitted. This confirmed the hypothesis that dissatisfaction with health outcomes is transferred to their judgement on responsiveness of the perinatal services. CONCLUSIONS: The ReproQ interview-based questionnaire demonstrated satisfactory psychometric properties to describe the quality of perinatal care in the Netherlands, with the potential to discriminate between different levels of quality of care. In view of the relatively small sample, further testing and research is recommended.


Assuntos
Obstetrícia/organização & administração , Assistência Perinatal , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Países Baixos , Parto , Gravidez , Psicometria , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
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