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1.
Phys Rev Lett ; 128(16): 163201, 2022 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522508

RESUMO

Optical precision spectroscopy of isotope shifts can be used to test for new forces beyond the standard model, and to determine basic properties of atomic nuclei. We measure isotope shifts on the highly forbidden ^{2}S_{1/2}→^{2}F_{7/2} octupole transition of trapped ^{168,170,172,174,176}Yb ions. When combined with previous measurements in Yb^{+} and very recent measurements in Yb, the data reveal a King plot nonlinearity of up to 240σ. The trends exhibited by experimental data are explained by nuclear density functional theory calculations with the Fayans functional. We also find, with 4.3σ confidence, that there is a second distinct source of nonlinearity, and discuss its possible origin.

2.
Nature ; 604(7906): 451-456, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35444318

RESUMO

The ability to engineer parallel, programmable operations between desired qubits within a quantum processor is key for building scalable quantum information systems1,2. In most state-of-the-art approaches, qubits interact locally, constrained by the connectivity associated with their fixed spatial layout. Here we demonstrate a quantum processor with dynamic, non-local connectivity, in which entangled qubits are coherently transported in a highly parallel manner across two spatial dimensions, between layers of single- and two-qubit operations. Our approach makes use of neutral atom arrays trapped and transported by optical tweezers; hyperfine states are used for robust quantum information storage, and excitation into Rydberg states is used for entanglement generation3-5. We use this architecture to realize programmable generation of entangled graph states, such as cluster states and a seven-qubit Steane code state6,7. Furthermore, we shuttle entangled ancilla arrays to realize a surface code state with thirteen data and six ancillary qubits8 and a toric code state on a torus with sixteen data and eight ancillary qubits9. Finally, we use this architecture to realize a hybrid analogue-digital evolution2 and use it for measuring entanglement entropy in quantum simulations10-12, experimentally observing non-monotonic entanglement dynamics associated with quantum many-body scars13,14. Realizing a long-standing goal, these results provide a route towards scalable quantum processing and enable applications ranging from simulation to metrology.

3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(5): 050501, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397223

RESUMO

We demonstrate a new approach for fast preparation, manipulation, and collective readout of an atomic Rydberg-state qubit. By making use of Rydberg blockade inside a small atomic ensemble, we prepare a single qubit within 3 µs with a success probability of F_{p}=0.93±0.02, rotate it, and read out its state in 6 µs with a single-shot fidelity of F_{d}=0.92±0.04. The ensemble-assisted detection is 10^{3} times faster than imaging of a single atom with the same optical resolution, and enables fast repeated nondestructive measurement. We observe qubit coherence times of 15 µs, much longer than the π rotation time of 90 ns. Potential applications ranging from faster quantum information processing in atom arrays to efficient implementation of quantum error correction are discussed.

4.
Science ; 373(6562): 1511-1514, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385353

RESUMO

The realization of an efficient quantum optical interface for multi-qubit systems is an outstanding challenge in science and engineering. Using two atoms in individually controlled optical tweezers coupled to a nanofabricated photonic crystal cavity, we demonstrate entanglement generation, fast nondestructive readout, and full quantum control of atomic qubits. The entangled state is verified in free space after being transported away from the cavity by encoding the qubits into long-lived states and using dynamical decoupling. Our approach bridges quantum operations at an optical link and in free space with a coherent one-way transport, potentially enabling an integrated optical interface for atomic quantum processors.

5.
Nature ; 595(7866): 227-232, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234334

RESUMO

Motivated by far-reaching applications ranging from quantum simulations of complex processes in physics and chemistry to quantum information processing1, a broad effort is currently underway to build large-scale programmable quantum systems. Such systems provide insights into strongly correlated quantum matter2-6, while at the same time enabling new methods for computation7-10 and metrology11. Here we demonstrate a programmable quantum simulator based on deterministically prepared two-dimensional arrays of neutral atoms, featuring strong interactions controlled by coherent atomic excitation into Rydberg states12. Using this approach, we realize a quantum spin model with tunable interactions for system sizes ranging from 64 to 256 qubits. We benchmark the system by characterizing high-fidelity antiferromagnetically ordered states and demonstrating quantum critical dynamics consistent with an Ising quantum phase transition in (2 + 1) dimensions13. We then create and study several new quantum phases that arise from the interplay between interactions and coherent laser excitation14, experimentally map the phase diagram and investigate the role of quantum fluctuations. Offering a new lens into the study of complex quantum matter, these observations pave the way for investigations of exotic quantum phases, non-equilibrium entanglement dynamics and hardware-efficient realization of quantum algorithms.

6.
Nature ; 588(7838): 414-418, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328668

RESUMO

State-of-the-art atomic clocks are based on the precise detection of the energy difference between two atomic levels, which is measured in terms of the quantum phase accumulated over a given time interval1-4. The stability of optical-lattice clocks (OLCs) is limited both by the interrupted interrogation of the atomic system by the local-oscillator laser (Dick noise5) and by the standard quantum limit (SQL) that arises from the quantum noise associated with discrete measurement outcomes. Although schemes for removing the Dick noise have been recently proposed and implemented4,6-8, performance beyond the SQL by engineering quantum correlations (entanglement) between atoms9-20 has been demonstrated only in proof-of-principle experiments with microwave clocks of limited stability. The generation of entanglement on an optical-clock transition and operation of an OLC beyond the SQL represent important goals in quantum metrology, but have not yet been demonstrated experimentally16. Here we report the creation of a many-atom entangled state on an OLC transition, and use it to demonstrate a Ramsey sequence with an Allan deviation below the SQL after subtraction of the local-oscillator noise. We achieve a metrological gain of [Formula: see text] decibels over the SQL by using an ensemble consisting of a few hundred ytterbium-171 atoms, corresponding to a reduction of the averaging time by a factor of 2.8 ± 0.3. Our results are currently limited by the phase noise of the local oscillator and Dick noise, but demonstrate the possible performance improvement in state-of-the-art OLCs1-4 through the use of entanglement. This will enable further advances in timekeeping precision and accuracy, with many scientific and technological applications, including precision tests of the fundamental laws of physics21-23, geodesy24-26 and gravitational-wave detection27.

7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(12): 123002, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016768

RESUMO

We measure isotope shifts for five Yb^{+} isotopes with zero nuclear spin on two narrow optical quadrupole transitions ^{2}S_{1/2}→^{2}D_{3/2}, ^{2}S_{1/2}→^{2}D_{5/2} with an accuracy of ∼300 Hz. The corresponding King plot shows a 3×10^{-7} deviation from linearity at the 3σ uncertainty level. Such a nonlinearity can indicate physics beyond the Standard Model (SM) in the form of a new bosonic force carrier, or arise from higher-order nuclear effects within the SM. We identify the quadratic field shift as a possible nuclear contributor to the nonlinearity at the observed scale, and show how the nonlinearity pattern can be used in future, more accurate measurements to separate a new-boson signal from nuclear effects.

8.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(22): 223602, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567901

RESUMO

Quantum mechanical expectation values for subsets can differ substantially from those for the whole ensemble. This implies that the effect of interactions between two systems can be altered substantially by conditioning. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that, for two light fields ψ_{S} (signal) and ψ_{A} (ancilla) that have only weakly interacted with one another, subsequent measurements on the ancilla can produce substantial conditional amplification, attenuation, or phase shift of ψ_{S}. We observe conditional signal power changes over a large range of 30, and phase shift up to π/2, induced by measurements in ancilla bases that differ only slightly from one another. The method is generically applicable to a variety of systems, and allows one to modify or boost a given interaction by trading in success probability for interaction strength.

9.
Science ; 367(6480): 892-895, 2020 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001522

RESUMO

Quantum control of complex objects in the regime of large size and mass provides opportunities for sensing applications and tests of fundamental physics. The realization of such extreme quantum states of matter remains a major challenge. We demonstrate a quantum interface that combines optical trapping of solids with cavity-mediated light-matter interaction. Precise control over the frequency and position of the trap laser with respect to the optical cavity allowed us to laser-cool an optically trapped nanoparticle into its quantum ground state of motion from room temperature. The particle comprises 108 atoms, similar to current Bose-Einstein condensates, with the density of a solid object. Our cooling technique, in combination with optical trap manipulation, may enable otherwise unachievable superposition states involving large masses.

10.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(6): 063602, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109118

RESUMO

We demonstrate photon-mediated interactions between two individually trapped atoms coupled to a nanophotonic cavity. Specifically, we observe collective enhancement when the atoms are resonant with the cavity and level repulsion when the cavity is coupled to the atoms in the dispersive regime. Our approach makes use of individual control over the internal states of the atoms and their position with respect to the cavity mode, as well as the light shifts to tune atomic transitions individually, allowing us to directly observe the anticrossing of the bright and dark two-atom states. These observations open the door for realizing quantum networks and studying quantum many-body physics based on atom arrays coupled to nanophotonic devices.

11.
Opt Express ; 27(26): 37714-37720, 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878548

RESUMO

We demonstrate a combination of optical and electronic feedback that significantly narrows the linewidth of distributed Bragg reflector lasers (DBRs). We use optical feedback from a long external fiber path to reduce the high-frequency noise of the laser. An electro-optic modulator placed inside the optical feedback path allows us to apply electronic feedback to the laser frequency with very large bandwidth, enabling robust and stable locking to a reference cavity that suppresses low-frequency components of laser noise. The combination of optical and electronic feedback allows us to significantly lower the frequency noise power spectral density of the laser across all frequencies and narrow its linewidth from a free-running value of 1.1 MHz to a stabilized value of 1.9 kHz, limited by the detection system resolution. This approach enables the construction of robust lasers with sub-kHz linewidth based on DBRs across a broad range of wavelengths.

12.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(23): 230504, 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868463

RESUMO

We demonstrate quantum many-body state reconstruction from experimental data generated by a programmable quantum simulator by means of a neural-network model incorporating known experimental errors. Specifically, we extract restricted Boltzmann machine wave functions from data produced by a Rydberg quantum simulator with eight and nine atoms in a single measurement basis and apply a novel regularization technique to mitigate the effects of measurement errors in the training data. Reconstructions of modest complexity are able to capture one- and two-body observables not accessible to experimentalists, as well as more sophisticated observables such as the Rényi mutual information. Our results open the door to integration of machine learning architectures with intermediate-scale quantum hardware.

13.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(17): 170503, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702233

RESUMO

We report the implementation of universal two- and three-qubit entangling gates on neutral-atom qubits encoded in long-lived hyperfine ground states. The gates are mediated by excitation to strongly interacting Rydberg states and are implemented in parallel on several clusters of atoms in a one-dimensional array of optical tweezers. Specifically, we realize the controlled-phase gate, enacted by a novel, fast protocol involving only global coupling of two qubits to Rydberg states. We benchmark this operation by preparing Bell states with fidelity F≥95.0(2)%, and extract gate fidelity ≥97.4(3)%, averaged across five atom pairs. In addition, we report a proof-of-principle implementation of the three-qubit Toffoli gate, in which two control atoms simultaneously constrain the behavior of one target atom. These experiments demonstrate key ingredients for high-fidelity quantum information processing in a scalable neutral-atom platform.

14.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(17): 173401, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702268

RESUMO

We create a one-dimensional strongly correlated quantum gas of ^{133}Cs atoms with attractive interactions by direct laser cooling in 300 ms. After compressing and cooling the optically trapped atoms to the vibrational ground state along two tightly confined directions, the emergence of a non-Gaussian time-of-flight distribution along the third, weakly confined direction reveals that the system enters a quantum degenerate regime. We observe a reduction of two- and three-body spatial correlations and infer that the atoms are directly cooled into a highly correlated excited metastable state, known as a super-Tonks-Girardeau gas.

15.
Phys Rev Lett ; 122(22): 223203, 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283296

RESUMO

Spin squeezing can improve atomic precision measurements beyond the standard quantum limit (SQL), and unitary spin squeezing is essential for improving atomic clocks. We report substantial and nearly unitary spin squeezing in ^{171}Yb, an optical lattice clock atom. The collective nuclear spin of ∼10^{3} atoms is squeezed by cavity feedback, using light detuned from the system's resonances to attain unitarity. The observed precision gain over the SQL is limited by state readout to 6.5(4) dB, while the generated states offer a gain of 12.9(6) dB, limited by the curvature of the Bloch sphere. Using a squeezed state within 30% of unitarity, we demonstrate an interferometer that improves the averaging time over the SQL by a factor of 3.7(2). In the future, the squeezing can be simply transferred onto the optical-clock transition of ^{171}Yb.

16.
Phys Rev Lett ; 122(20): 203202, 2019 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172763

RESUMO

We present a method for producing three-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates using only laser cooling. The phase transition to condensation is crossed with 2.5×10^{4} ^{87}Rb atoms at a temperature of T_{c}=0.6 µK after 1.4 s of cooling. Atoms are trapped in a crossed optical dipole trap and cooled using Raman cooling with far-off-resonant optical pumping light to reduce atom loss and heating. The achieved temperatures are well below the effective recoil temperature. We find that during the final cooling stage at atomic densities above 10^{14} cm^{-3}, careful tuning of trap depth and optical-pumping rate is necessary to evade heating and loss mechanisms. The method may enable the fast production of quantum degenerate gases in a variety of systems including fermions.

17.
Phys Rev Lett ; 122(12): 123602, 2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30978033

RESUMO

We report three-dimensional (3D) cooling of a levitated nanoparticle inside an optical cavity. The cooling mechanism is provided by cavity-enhanced coherent scattering off an optical tweezer. The observed 3D dynamics and cooling rates are as theoretically expected from the presence of both linear and quadratic terms in the interaction between the particle motion and the cavity field. By achieving nanometer-level control over the particle location we optimize the position-dependent coupling and demonstrate axial cooling by two orders of magnitude at background pressures of 6×10^{-2} mbar. We also estimate a significant (>40 dB) suppression of laser phase noise heating, which is a specific feature of the coherent scattering scheme. The observed performance implies that quantum ground state cavity cooling of levitated nanoparticles can be achieved for background pressures below 1×10^{-7} mbar.

18.
Nature ; 568(7751): 207-211, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936552

RESUMO

Quantum phase transitions (QPTs) involve transformations between different states of matter that are driven by quantum fluctuations1. These fluctuations play a dominant part in the quantum critical region surrounding the transition point, where the dynamics is governed by the universal properties associated with the QPT. Although time-dependent phenomena associated with classical, thermally driven phase transitions have been extensively studied in systems ranging from the early Universe to Bose-Einstein condensates2-5, understanding critical real-time dynamics in isolated, non-equilibrium quantum systems remains a challenge6. Here we use a Rydberg atom quantum simulator with programmable interactions to study the quantum critical dynamics associated with several distinct QPTs. By studying the growth of spatial correlations when crossing the QPT, we experimentally verify the quantum Kibble-Zurek mechanism (QKZM)7-9 for an Ising-type QPT, explore scaling universality and observe corrections beyond QKZM predictions. This approach is subsequently used to measure the critical exponents associated with chiral clock models10,11, providing new insights into exotic systems that were not previously understood and opening the door to precision studies of critical phenomena, simulations of lattice gauge theories12,13 and applications to quantum optimization14,15.

19.
Phys Rev Lett ; 121(12): 123603, 2018 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30296143

RESUMO

Individual neutral atoms excited to Rydberg states are a promising platform for quantum simulation and quantum information processing. However, experimental progress to date has been limited by short coherence times and relatively low gate fidelities associated with such Rydberg excitations. We report progress towards high-fidelity quantum control of Rydberg-atom qubits. Enabled by a reduction in laser phase noise, our approach yields a significant improvement in coherence properties of individual qubits. We further show that this high-fidelity control extends to the multi-particle case by preparing a two-atom entangled state with a fidelity exceeding 0.97(3), and extending its lifetime with a two-atom dynamical decoupling protocol. These advances open up new prospects for scalable quantum simulation and quantum computation with neutral atoms.

20.
Phys Rev Lett ; 120(17): 170601, 2018 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29756824

RESUMO

Quantization of energy is a quintessential characteristic of quantum systems. Here we analyze its effects on the operation of Otto cycle heat machines and show that energy quantization alone may alter and increase machine performance in terms of output work, efficiency, and even operation mode. We show that this difference in performance occurs in machines with inhomogeneous energy level scaling, while quantum machines with homogeneous level scaling behave like classical machines. Our results demonstrate that quantum thermodynamics enables the realization of classically inconceivable Otto machines, such as those with an incompressible working substance. We propose to measure these effects experimentally using a laser-cooled trapped ion as a microscopic heat machine.

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