Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 68
Filtrar
1.
Neurobiol Aging ; 108: 122-132, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607247

RESUMO

We studied the association between episodic memory and cortical fibrillar ß-amyloid pathology within twin pairs. Using telephone-administered cognitive screening of 1415 twin pairs in a population-based older Finnish Twin Cohort study, we identified 45 (mean [SD] age 72.9 [4.0] years, 40% women) cognitively discordant same-sex twin pairs (24 dizygotic and 21 monozygotic) without neurological or psychiatric disorders other than AD or mild cognitive impairment. In-person neuropsychological testing was conducted. Cortical amyloid was measured with carbon 11-labelled Pittsburgh compound B ([11C]PiB) positron emission tomography imaging and quantified as the average standardized uptake value ratio in cortical regions affected in AD. Larger within-twin pair differences in verbal immediate (r = -0.42) and delayed free recall (r = -0.41), and visual delayed free recall (r = -0.46) were associated with larger within-twin pair differences in [11C]PiB uptake (p's < 0.01). Correlations were not significantly different in dizygotic and monozygotic pairs suggesting that the episodic memory-cortical amyloid relationship is not confounded by genetic effects. However, larger samples are needed to draw more definitive conclusions.

2.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 24(4): 204-216, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526173

RESUMO

Co-twin comparisons address familial confounding by controlling for genetic and environmental influences that twin siblings share. We applied the co-twin comparison design to investigate associations of adolescent factors with alcohol dependence (AD) symptoms. Participants were 1286 individuals (581 complete twin pairs; 42% monozygotic; and 54% female) from the FinnTwin12 study. Predictors included adolescent academic achievement, substance use, externalizing problems, internalizing problems, executive functioning, peer environment, physical health, relationship with parents, alcohol expectancies, life events, and pubertal development. The outcome was lifetime AD clinical criterion count, as measured in young adulthood. We examined associations of each adolescent domain with AD symptoms in individual-level and co-twin comparison analyses. In individual-level analyses, adolescents with higher levels of substance use, teacher-reported externalizing problems at age 12, externalizing problems at age 14, self- and co-twin-reported internalizing problems, peer deviance, and perceived difficulty of life events reported more symptoms of AD in young adulthood (ps < .044). Conversely, individuals with higher academic achievement, social adjustment, self-rated health, and parent-child relationship quality met fewer AD clinical criteria (ps < .024). Associations between adolescent substance use, teacher-reported externalizing problems, co-twin-reported internalizing problems, peer deviance, self-rated health, and AD symptoms were of a similar magnitude in co-twin comparisons. We replicated many well-known adolescent correlates of later alcohol problems, including academic achievement, substance use, externalizing and internalizing problems, self-rated health, and features of the peer environment and parent-child relationship. Furthermore, we demonstrate the utility of co-twin comparisons for understanding pathways to AD. Effect sizes corresponding to the associations between adolescent substance use, teacher-reported externalizing problems, co-twin-reported internalizing problems, peer deviance, and self-rated health were not significantly attenuated (p value threshold = .05) after controlling for genetic and environmental influences that twin siblings share, highlighting these factors as candidates for further research.

3.
Horm Behav ; 136: 105054, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488063

RESUMO

Comparing twins from same- and opposite-sex pairs can provide information on potential sex differences in a variety of outcomes, including socioeconomic-related outcomes such as educational attainment. It has been suggested that this design can be applied to examine the putative role of intrauterine exposure to testosterone for educational attainment, but the evidence is still disputed. Thus, we established an international database of twin data from 11 countries with 88,290 individual dizygotic twins born over 100 years and tested for differences between twins from same- and opposite-sex dizygotic pairs in educational attainment. Effect sizes with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by linear regression models after adjusting for birth year and twin study cohort. In contrast to the hypothesis, no difference was found in women (ß = -0.05 educational years, 95% CI -0.11, 0.02). However, men with a same-sex co-twin were slightly more educated than men having an opposite-sex co-twin (ß = 0.14 educational years, 95% CI 0.07, 0.21). No consistent differences in effect sizes were found between individual twin study cohorts representing Europe, the USA, and Australia or over the cohorts born during the 20th century, during which period the sex differences in education reversed favoring women in the latest birth cohorts. Further, no interaction was found with maternal or paternal education. Our results contradict the hypothesis that there would be differences in the intrauterine testosterone levels between same-sex and opposite-sex female twins affecting education. Our findings in men may point to social dynamics within same-sex twin pairs that may benefit men in their educational careers.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34009445

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sense of coherence (SOC) represents coping and can be considered an essential component of mental health. SOC correlates with mental health and personality, but the background of these associations is poorly understood. We analyzed the role of genetic factors behind the associations of SOC with mental health, self-esteem and personality using genetic twin modeling and polygenic scores (PGS). METHODS: Information on SOC (13-item Orientation of Life Questionnaire), four mental health indicators, self-esteem and personality (NEO Five Factor Inventory Questionnaire) was collected from 1295 Finnish twins at 20-27 years of age. RESULTS: In men and women, SOC correlated negatively with depression, alexithymia, schizotypal personality and overall mental health problems and positively with self-esteem. For personality factors, neuroticism was associated with weaker SOC and extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness with stronger SOC. All these psychological traits were influenced by genetic factors with heritability estimates ranging from 19 to 66%. Genetic and environmental factors explained these associations, but the genetic correlations were generally stronger. The PGS of major depressive disorder was associated with weaker, and the PGS of general risk tolerance with stronger SOC in men, whereas in women the PGS of subjective well-being was associated with stronger SOC and the PGSs of depression and neuroticism with weaker SOC. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that a substantial proportion of genetic variation in SOC is shared with mental health, self-esteem and personality indicators. This suggests that the correlations between these traits reflect a common neurobiological background rather than merely the influence of external stressors.

5.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0238667, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914742

RESUMO

Aggressive behavior in school is an ongoing concern. The current focus is on specific manifestations such as bullying, but the behavior is broad and heterogenous. Children spend a substantial amount of time in school, but their behaviors in the school setting tend to be less well characterized than at home. Because aggression may index multiple behavioral problems, we used three validated instruments to assess means, correlations and gender differences of teacher-rated aggressive behavior with co-occurring externalizing/internalizing problems and social behavior in 39,936 schoolchildren aged 7-14 from 4 population-based cohorts from Finland, the Netherlands, and the UK. Correlations of aggressive behavior were high with all other externalizing problems (r: 0.47-0.80) and lower with internalizing problems (r: 0.02-0.39). A negative association was observed with prosocial behavior (r: -0.33 to -0.54). Mean levels of aggressive behavior differed significantly by gender. Despite the higher mean levels of aggressive behavior in boys, the correlations were notably similar for boys and girls (e.g., aggressive-hyperactivity correlations: 0.51-0.75 boys, 0.47-0.70 girls) and did not vary greatly with respect to age, instrument or cohort. Thus, teacher-rated aggressive behavior rarely occurs in isolation; boys and girls with problems of aggressive behavior likely require help with other behavioral and emotional problems. Important to note, higher aggressive behavior is not only associated with higher amounts of other externalizing and internalizing problems but also with lower levels of prosocial behavior.


Assuntos
Agressão , Comportamento Infantil , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos , Professores Escolares , Comportamento Social , Reino Unido
6.
Mol Psychiatry ; 26(6): 2148-2162, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420481

RESUMO

DNA methylation profiles of aggressive behavior may capture lifetime cumulative effects of genetic, stochastic, and environmental influences associated with aggression. Here, we report the first large meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) of aggressive behavior (N = 15,324 participants). In peripheral blood samples of 14,434 participants from 18 cohorts with mean ages ranging from 7 to 68 years, 13 methylation sites were significantly associated with aggression (alpha = 1.2 × 10-7; Bonferroni correction). In cord blood samples of 2425 children from five cohorts with aggression assessed at mean ages ranging from 4 to 7 years, 83% of these sites showed the same direction of association with childhood aggression (r = 0.74, p = 0.006) but no epigenome-wide significant sites were found. Top-sites (48 at a false discovery rate of 5% in the peripheral blood meta-analysis or in a combined meta-analysis of peripheral blood and cord blood) have been associated with chemical exposures, smoking, cognition, metabolic traits, and genetic variation (mQTLs). Three genes whose expression levels were associated with top-sites were previously linked to schizophrenia and general risk tolerance. At six CpGs, DNA methylation variation in blood mirrors variation in the brain. On average 44% (range = 3-82%) of the aggression-methylation association was explained by current and former smoking and BMI. These findings point at loci that are sensitive to chemical exposures with potential implications for neuronal functions. We hope these results to be a starting point for studies leading to applications as peripheral biomarkers and to reveal causal relationships with aggression and related traits.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigenoma , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Agressão , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Longevidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 92(3): 323-330, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Middle-age risk scores predict cognitive impairment, but it is not known if these associations are evident when controlling for shared genetic and environmental factors. Using two risk scores, self-report educational-occupational score and Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia (CAIDE), we investigated if twins with higher middle-age dementia risk have poorer old-age cognition compared with their co-twins with lower risk. METHODS: We used a population-based older Finnish Twin Cohort study with middle-age questionnaire data (n=15 169, mean age=52.0 years, SD=11.8) and old-age cognition measured via telephone interview (mean age=74.1, SD=4.1, n=4302). Between-family and within-family linear regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: In between-family analyses (N=2359), higher educational-occupational score was related to better cognition (B=0.76, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.83) and higher CAIDE score was associated with poorer cognition (B=-0.73, 95% CI -0.82 to -0.65). Within twin-pair differences in educational-occupational score were significantly related to within twin-pair differences in cognition in dizygotic (DZ) pairs (B=0.78, 95% CI 0.25 to 1.31; N=338) but not in monozygotic (MZ) pairs (B=0.12, 95% CI -0.44 to 0.68; N=221). Within twin-pair differences in CAIDE score were not related to within twin-pair differences in cognition: DZ B=-0.38 (95% CI -0.90 to 0.14, N=343) and MZ B=-0.05 (95% CI -0.59 to 0.49; N=226). CONCLUSION: Middle-age dementia risk scores predicted old-age cognition, but within twin-pair analyses gave little support for associations independent of shared environmental and genetic factors. Understanding genetic underpinnings of risk score-cognition associations is important for early detection of dementia and designing intervention trials.


Assuntos
Demência/epidemiologia , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Demência/diagnóstico , Escolaridade , Feminino , Finlândia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ocupações , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
8.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 62(3): 327-338, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To conduct a comprehensive assessment of the association between aggression and academic performance in compulsory education. METHOD: We studied aggression and academic performance in over 27,000 individuals from four European twin cohorts participating in the ACTION consortium (Aggression in Children: Unraveling gene-environment interplay to inform Treatment and InterventiON strategies). Individual level data on aggression at ages 7-16 were assessed by three instruments (Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment, Multidimensional Peer Nomination Inventory, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) including parental, teacher and self-reports. Academic performance was measured with teacher-rated grade point averages (ages 12-14) or standardized test scores (ages 12-16). Random effect meta-analytical correlations with academic performance were estimated for parental ratings (in all four cohorts) and self-ratings (in three cohorts). RESULTS: All between-family analyses indicated significant negative aggression-academic performance associations with correlations ranging from -.06 to -.33. Results were similar across different ages, instruments and raters and either with teacher-rated grade point averages or standardized test scores as measures of academic performance. Meta-analytical r's were -.20 and -.23 for parental and self-ratings, respectively. In within-family analyses of all twin pairs, the negative aggression-academic performance associations were statistically significant in 14 out of 17 analyses (r = -.17 for parental- and r = -.16 for self-ratings). Separate analyses in monozygotic (r = -.07 for parental and self-ratings), same-sex dizygotic (r's = -.16 and -.17 for parental and self-ratings) and opposite-sex dizygotic (r's = -.21 and -.19 for parental and self-ratings) twin pairs suggested partial confounding by genetic effects. CONCLUSIONS: There is a robust negative association between aggression and academic performance in compulsory education. Part of these associations were explained by shared genetic effects, but some evidence of a negative association between aggression and academic performance remained even in within-family analyses of monozygotic twin pairs.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Agressão , Adolescente , Criança , Escolaridade , Humanos , Pais , Gêmeos Monozigóticos
9.
Brain Commun ; 2(1): fcaa024, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954285

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease is associated with chronic response of innate immune system, referred as neuroinflammation. PET radioligands binding to the 18 kDa translocator protein are potential biomarkers of neuroinflammation. Translocator protein PET studies in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease have indicated controversial results, possibly reflecting interindividual variation and heterogeneity of study populations. We controlled for genetic and environmental effects by studying twin pairs discordant for episodic memory performance. Episodic memory impairment is a well-known cognitive hallmark of early Alzheimer's disease process. Eleven same-sex twin pairs (four monozygotic pairs, six female pairs, age 72-77 years) underwent [11C]N-acetyl-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)-2-phenoxy-5-pyridinamine ([11C]PBR28) PET imaging, structural magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological testing in 2014-17. Main PET outcome was the volume-weighted average standardized uptake value of cortical regions vulnerable to Alzheimer's disease pathology. Ten pairs were discordant for episodic memory performance. In the eight pairs with identical translocator protein genotype, twins with poorer episodic memory had ∼20% higher cortical [11C]PBR28 binding compared with their better-performing co-twins (mean intra-pair difference 0.21 standardized uptake value, 95% confidence interval 0.05-0.37, P = 0.017). The result remained the same when including all discordant pairs and controlling for translocator protein genotype. Increased translocator protein PET signal suggests that increased microglial activation is associated with poorer episodic memory performance. Twins with worse episodic memory performance compared with their co-twins had on average 20% higher uptake of the neuroinflammatory marker translocator protein PET tracer 11[11C]PBR28. The findings support a negative association between neuroinflammation and episodic memory and the use of translocator protein positron emission tomography as a useful indicator of Alzheimer's disease process.

10.
Neurobiol Aging ; 94: 149-153, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623261

RESUMO

Degree of memory impairment is often used to infer early versus late amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Previously, 318 Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative participants with aMCI-determined by a single memory test-were divided based on Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Task (AVLT) delayed recall: AVLT-impaired (n = 225) and AVLT-normal (n = 93). Equally consistent with differential progression or differential diagnosis, the AVLT-impaired group had more abnormal Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers, more neurodegeneration over time, and was more likely to develop AD. In the present study, higher AD polygenic risk scores were associated with increased odds of being AVLT-impaired (odds ratio 1.8, p < 0.001). Thus, impairment severity does not necessarily reflect early versus late aMCI because disease progression cannot alter polygenic risk. Presumed early MCI is likely a heterogeneous category that includes excess false-positives. The additional cognitive test improved diagnostic precision by reducing false positives. Impairment severity may reflect differences in underlying disease risk but cannot be used to infer early versus late MCI based on cross-sectional data alone.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Progressão da Doença , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
11.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 61(7): 807-817, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aggression in children has genetic and environmental causes. Studies of aggression can pool existing datasets to include more complex models of social effects. Such analyses require large datasets with harmonized outcome measures. Here, we made use of a reference panel for phenotype data to harmonize multiple aggression measures in school-aged children to jointly analyze data from five large twin cohorts. METHODS: Individual level aggression data on 86,559 children (42,468 twin pairs) were available in five European twin cohorts measured by different instruments. A phenotypic reference panel was collected which enabled a model-based phenotype harmonization approach. A bi-factor integration model in the integrative data analysis framework was developed to model aggression across studies while adjusting for rater, age, and sex. Finally, harmonized aggression scores were analyzed to estimate contributions of genes, environment, and social interaction to aggression. The large sample size allowed adequate power to test for sibling interaction effects, with unique dynamics permitted for opposite-sex twins. RESULTS: The best-fitting model found a high level of overall heritability of aggression (~60%). Different heritability rates of aggression across sex were marginally significant, with heritability estimates in boys of ~64% and ~58% in girls. Sibling interaction effects were only significant in the opposite-sex twin pairs: the interaction effect of males on their female co-twin differed from the effect of females on their male co-twin. An aggressive female had a positive effect on male co-twin aggression, whereas more aggression in males had a negative influence on a female co-twin. CONCLUSIONS: Opposite-sex twins displayed unique social dynamics of aggressive behaviors in a joint analysis of a large, multinational dataset. The integrative data analysis framework, applied in combination with a reference panel, has the potential to elucidate broad, generalizable results in the investigation of common psychological traits in children.


Assuntos
Agressão , Internacionalidade , Irmãos/psicologia , Gêmeos/genética , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/genética , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética
13.
Obes Rev ; 21(4): e12989, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898862

RESUMO

Uncertainty exists regarding the relation of body size and weight change with dementia risk. As populations continue to age and the global obesity epidemic shows no sign of waning, reliable quantification of such associations is important. We examined the relationship of body mass index, waist circumference, and annual percent weight change with risk of dementia and its subtypes by pooling data from 19 prospective cohort studies and four clinical trials using meta-analysis. Compared with body mass index-defined lower-normal weight (18.5-22.4 kg/m2 ), the risk of all-cause dementia was higher among underweight individuals but lower among those with upper-normal (22.5-24.9 kg/m2 ) levels. Obesity was associated with higher risk in vascular dementia. Similarly, relative to the lowest fifth of waist circumference, those in the highest fifth had nonsignificant higher vascular dementia risk. Weight loss was associated with higher all-cause dementia risk relative to weight maintenance. Weight gain was weakly associated with higher vascular dementia risk. The relationship between body size, weight change, and dementia is complex and exhibits non-linear associations depending on dementia subtype under scrutiny. Weight loss was associated with an elevated risk most likely due to reverse causality and/or pathophysiological changes in the brain, although the latter remains speculative.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Tamanho Corporal/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Demência/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Demência/etiologia , Demência Vascular/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Magreza/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia
14.
Alzheimers Dement ; 16(9): 1305-1311, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30222945

RESUMO

Several concepts, which in the aggregate get might be used to account for "resilience" against age- and disease-related changes, have been the subject of much research. These include brain reserve, cognitive reserve, and brain maintenance. However, different investigators have use these terms in different ways, and there has never been an attempt to arrive at consensus on the definition of these concepts. Furthermore, there has been confusion regarding the measurement of these constructs and the appropriate ways to apply them to research. Therefore the reserve, resilience, and protective factors professional interest area, established under the auspices of the Alzheimer's Association, established a whitepaper workgroup to develop consensus definitions for cognitive reserve, brain reserve, and brain maintenance. The workgroup also evaluated measures that have been used to implement these concepts in research settings and developed guidelines for research that explores or utilizes these concepts. The workgroup hopes that this whitepaper will form a reference point for researchers in this area and facilitate research by supplying a common language.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Encéfalo , Reserva Cognitiva , Guias como Assunto/normas , Doença de Alzheimer , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa
15.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 14(3): 787-796, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30511118

RESUMO

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a heterogeneous condition with variable outcomes. Improving diagnosis to increase the likelihood that MCI reliably reflects prodromal Alzheimer's Disease (AD) would be of great benefit for clinical practice and intervention trials. In 230 cognitively normal (CN) and 394 MCI individuals from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, we studied whether an MCI diagnostic requirement of impairment on at least two episodic memory tests improves 3-year prediction of medial temporal lobe atrophy and progression to AD. Based on external age-adjusted norms for delayed free recall on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), MCI participants were further classified as having normal (AVLT+, above -1 SD, n = 121) or impaired (AVLT -, -1 SD or below, n = 273) AVLT performance. CN, AVLT+, and AVLT- groups differed significantly on baseline brain (hippocampus, entorhinal cortex) and cerebrospinal fluid (amyloid, tau, p-tau) biomarkers, with the AVLT- group being most abnormal. The AVLT- group had significantly more medial temporal atrophy and a substantially higher AD progression rate than the AVLT+ group (51% vs. 16%, p < 0.001). The AVLT+ group had similar medial temporal trajectories compared to CN individuals. Results were similar even when restricted to individuals with above average (based on the CN group mean) baseline medial temporal volume/thickness. Requiring impairment on at least two memory tests for MCI diagnosis can markedly improve prediction of medial temporal atrophy and conversion to AD, even in the absence of baseline medial temporal atrophy. This modification constitutes a practical and cost-effective approach for clinical and research settings.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Atrofia , Biomarcadores , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Testes Neuropsicológicos
16.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 22(4): 240-254, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462340

RESUMO

The older Finnish Twin Cohort (FTC) was established in 1974. The baseline survey was in 1975, with two follow-up health surveys in 1981 and 1990. The fourth wave of assessments was done in three parts, with a questionnaire study of twins born during 1945-1957 in 2011-2012, while older twins were interviewed and screened for dementia in two time periods, between 1999 and 2007 for twins born before 1938 and between 2013 and 2017 for twins born in 1938-1944. The content of these wave 4 assessments is described and some initial results are described. In addition, we have invited twin-pairs, based on response to the cohortwide surveys, to participate in detailed in-person studies; these are described briefly together with key results. We also review other projects based on the older FTC and provide information on the biobanking of biosamples and related phenotypes.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Doenças em Gêmeos/genética , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/genética , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Doenças em Gêmeos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/genética , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 34(12): 1883-1891, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469194

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-m) is an efficient and cost-effective screening instrument of dementia, but there is less support for its utility in the detection of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We undertook a comprehensive evaluation of the utility of different TICS-m versions with or without an education-adjusted scoring method to classify dementia and MCI in a large population-based sample. METHODS: Cross-sectional assessment of cognition (TICS-m), depressive symptoms (CES-D), and apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 status was performed on 1772 older adults (aged 71-78 y, education 5-16 y, 50% female) from the population-based older Finnish Twin Cohort. TICS-m classification methods with and without education adjustment were used to classify individuals with normal cognition, MCI, or dementia. RESULTS: The prevalence of dementia and MCI varied between education-adjusted (dementia = 3.7%, MCI = 9.3%) and unadjusted classifications (dementia = 8.5%-11%, MCI = 22.3%-41.3%). APOE ε4 status was associated with dementia irrespective of education adjustment, but with MCI only when education adjustment was used. Regardless of the version, poorer continuous TICS-m scores were associated with higher age, lower education, more depressive symptoms, male sex, and being an APOE ε4 carrier. CONCLUSIONS: We showed that demographic factors, APOE ε4 status, and depressive symptoms were similarly related to continuous TICS-m scores and dementia classifications with different versions. However, education-adjusted classification resulted in a lower prevalence of dementia and MCI and in a higher proportion of APOE ε4 allele carriers among those identified as having MCI. Our results support the use of education-adjusted classification especially in the context of MCI.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Demência , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Idoso , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Telefone
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(6): 2021-2026, 2019 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30670647

RESUMO

How and when education improves cognitive capacity is an issue of profound societal importance. Education and later-life education-related factors, such as occupational complexity and engagement in cognitive-intellectual activities, are frequently considered indices of cognitive reserve, but whether their effects are truly causal remains unclear. In this study, after accounting for general cognitive ability (GCA) at an average age of 20 y, additional education, occupational complexity, or engagement in cognitive-intellectual activities accounted for little variance in late midlife cognitive functioning in men age 56-66 (n = 1009). Age 20 GCA accounted for 40% of variance in the same measure in late midlife and approximately 10% of variance in each of seven cognitive domains. The other factors each accounted for <1% of the variance in cognitive outcomes. The impact of these other factors likely reflects reverse causation-namely, downstream effects of early adult GCA. Supporting that idea, age 20 GCA, but not education, was associated with late midlife cortical surface area (n = 367). In our view, the most parsimonious explanation of our results, a meta-analysis of the impact of education, and epidemiologic studies of the Flynn effect is that intellectual capacity gains due to education plateau in late adolescence/early adulthood. Longitudinal studies with multiple cognitive assessments before completion of education would be needed to confirm this speculation. If cognitive gains reach an asymptote by early adulthood, then strengthening cognitive reserve and reducing later-life cognitive decline and dementia risk may really begin with improving educational quality and access in childhood and adolescence.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Educação , Adolescente , Idoso , Transtornos Cognitivos , Disfunção Cognitiva , Reserva Cognitiva , Demência , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
20.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 28(3): 341-350, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30019148

RESUMO

Modestly prevalent in the general population (~ 4%), but highly prevalent in prison populations (> 40%), the diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) involves aggression as one of several possible criteria. Using multiple informants, we aimed to determine if general aggression, as well as direct and indirect subtypes, assessed in early adolescence (ages 12, 14) predict young adulthood ASPD in a population-based sample. Using data from a Finnish population-based longitudinal twin cohort study with psychiatric interviews available at age 22 (N = 1347), we obtained DSM-IV-based ASPD diagnoses. Aggression measures from ages 12 (parental and teacher ratings) and 14 (teacher, self, and co-twin ratings) were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) of ASPD from logistic regression models and the area under the curve (AUC) from receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Analyses were adjusted for sex, age, and family structure. All informants' aggression ratings were significant (p < 0.05) predictors of ASPD (OR range 1.3-1.8; AUC range 0.65-0.72). Correlations between informants ranged from 0.13 to 0.33. Models including two or more aggression ratings, particularly age 14 teacher and self ratings, more accurately predicted ASPD (AUC: 0.80; 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.87). Direct aggression rated by all informants significantly predicted ASPD (OR range 1.4-1.9), whereas only self-rated indirect aggression was significantly associated with ASPD (OR = 1.4). Across different informants, general and direct aggression at ages 12 and 14 predicted ASPD in a population-based sample. Psychiatric, social, and parenting interventions for ASPD prevention should focus on children and adolescents with high aggression levels, with an aim to gather information from multiple informants.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Adolescente , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/patologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...