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1.
Environ Int ; 159: 107036, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34896668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent environmental pollutants used as flame retardants. Gestational PBDE exposure has been associated with a variety of behavior problems in children, but little is known about its impact into adolescence, particularly on social skills, which are important for achieving social competence, establishing identity, and forming lasting relationships. OBJECTIVE: We investigated associations between gestational exposure to PBDEs and social skills and problem behaviors in early adolescence in a longitudinal pregnancy and birth cohort in Cincinnati, Ohio (recruited 2003-2006). METHODS: We measured maternal serum concentrations of five PBDE congeners during gestation. At age 12, we measured social skills and problem behaviors scores for 243 adolescents using self- and caregiver-report on the Social Skills Improvement System (SSiS). We used multivariable linear regression models to estimate associations between maternal PBDE concentrations and SSiS scores, controlling for potential covariates. We report associations for the five congeners and a summary exposure variable (∑5BDE: the sum of BDE- 28, 47, 99, 100, and 153, n = 197). RESULTS: We found sex-specific associations of ∑5BDE concentrations with adolescent-reported Problem Behaviors (∑5BDE × sex pint = 0.02) and caregiver-reported Social Skills (∑5BDE × sex pint = 0.02). In sex-stratified models, log10 transformed data revealed increased maternal ∑5BDE concentration among males was associated with decreased caregiver-reported Social Skills composite score (ß = -10.2, 95% CI: -19.5, -1.0), increased adolescent-reported Problem Behaviors composite score (ß = 12.1, 95% CI: 5.4, 18.8), and increased caregiver-reported Problem Behaviors composite score (ß = 6.2, 95% CI: 0.7, 11.7). Further analysis on SSiS subscales revealed similar patterns in significant associations among males. There were no statistically significant associations in stratified models among females despite higher ∑5BDE exposure (Female GM=40.15 ng/g lipid, GSE=1.10; Male GM=35.30 ng/g lipid, GSE=1.09). DISCUSSION: We found gestational PBDE exposure in males was associated with poorer behavioral outcomes, extending previous findings among this cohort into early adolescence.

2.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131642, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351280

RESUMO

Neonicotinoids are replacement insecticides increasingly used for organophosphates, methylcarbamates, and pyrethroids. Experimental evidence suggests neonicotinoids may affect glucose metabolism and insulin secretion through pancreatic ß cell dysfunction, oxidative stress, and inflammation. However, no epidemiologic study has investigated neonicotinoids as potential diabetogens. We examined associations between neonicotinoids with insulin and glucose homeostasis parameters among 1381 non-diabetic adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2015-2016). Urinary concentrations of acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, N-desmethyl-acetamiprid, and 5-hydroxy-imidacloprid were quantified. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were assessed. Insulin resistance was defined as a homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance ≥2.5. We used weighted linear and logistic regression to estimate associations between detectable neonicotinoids with insulin and glucose homeostasis parameters compared to non-detectable neonicotinoid concentrations. Weighted detection frequencies for imidacloprid, 5-hydroxy-imidacloprid, and N-desmethyl-acetamiprid were 4.4 %, 21.5 %, and 32.8 %, respectively. Detectable imidacloprid (ß = -4.7 µIU/mL, 95 % confidence interval [CI] -8.5, -0.8) and 5-hydroxy-imidacloprid (ß = -2.4 µIU/mL, 95 % CI -4.6, -0.2) were associated with lower fasting plasma insulin levels. Individuals with detectable 5-hydroxy-imidacloprid had lower odds of insulin resistance (odds ratio [OR] = 0.3, 95 % CI 0.2, 0.7). We observed evidence of sexually dimorphic associations between N-desmethyl-acetamiprid with glucose (pint = 0.079) and 5-hydroxy-imidacloprid with HbA1c (pint = 0.038), with patterns suggesting positive associations in males and negative associations in females. Associations between 5-hydroxy-imidacloprid and insulin were modified by body mass index (BMI) (pint = 0.013). We additionally observed age modified associations between 5-hydyroxy-imidacloprid and glucose (pint = 0.048). Results suggest neonicotinoids may be associated with insulin and glucose homeostasis indices and call for prospective studies to examine the metabolic impact of these replacement insecticides in humans.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Insulina , Adulto , Feminino , Glucose , Homeostase , Humanos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Masculino , Neonicotinoides , Nitrocompostos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
Arch Osteoporos ; 17(1): 2, 2021 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34878583

RESUMO

Higher intake of ß-carotene and ß-cryptoxanthin were associated with lower risk of osteoporosis. A very high intake of lutein + zeaxanthin was also associated with lower risk of osteoporosis. These results support the beneficial role of carotenoids on bone health. PURPOSE: To examine the associations of α-carotene, ß-carotene, ß-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and lutein + zeaxanthin intake with the risk of osteoporosis based on the cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2005-2018. METHODS: This study identified individuals ≥ 50 years old with valid and complete data on carotenoid intake and bone mineral density (BMD). Intake of α-carotene, ß-carotene, ß-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and lutein + zeaxanthin was averaged from two 24-h recall interviews. BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and converted to T-scores; osteoporosis was defined as a T-score ≤ - 2.5. We used logistic regression models to test the associations between carotenoids and osteoporosis, adjusting for factors such as age, sex, race, and education. RESULTS: Participants were on average 61.9 years of age, with 57.5% identifying as females. Higher quintiles of ß-carotene (odds ratio [OR] for quintile 5 vs. 1:0.33; 95% CI: 0.19-0.59; P for trend = 0.010) and ß-cryptoxanthin intake (OR for quintile 5 vs. 1:0.61; 95% CI: 0.39-0.97; P for trend = 0.037) were associated with reduced risk of osteoporosis. Similar and marginally significant results for lutein + zeaxanthin intake was found (OR for quintile 5 vs. 1:0.53; 95% CI: 0.30-0.94; P for trend = 0.076). There was no association of α-carotene and lycopene intake with osteoporosis. These associations did not differ by sex (all P_interaction > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Higher ß-carotene and ß-cryptoxanthin intake was associated with decreased osteoporosis risk. A very high intake of lutein + zeaxanthin was also associated with lower risk of osteoporosis.

4.
Environ Res ; : 112220, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the association between maternal exposure to organophosphate esters (OPEs) and systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) during pregnancy. METHODS: We analyzed data from 346 women with a singleton live birth in the HOME Study, a prospective birth cohort in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. We quantified four OPE metabolites in maternal spot urine samples collected at 16 and 26 weeks pregnancy, standardized by specific gravity. We calculated intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). We extracted the first two recorded BP measurements (<20 weeks), the two highest recorded BP measurements (≥20 weeks), and diagnoses of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) via chart review. Women with two BP measurements ≥140/90 mmHg or HDP noted in the chart at ≥20 weeks pregnancy were defined as HDP cases. We used linear mixed models and modified Poisson regression with covariate adjustment to estimate associations between OPE concentrations as continuous variables or in tertiles with maternal BP and HDP. RESULTS: ICCs of OPEs were 0.17-0.45. Diphenyl phosphate (DPHP) had the highest geometric mean concentration among OPE metabolites. Increasing the average bis(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (BCEP) concentrations were positively associated with two highest recorded DBP ≥20 weeks pregnancy. Compared with women in the 1st DPHP tertile, women in the 3rd tertile at 16 weeks pregnancy had 1.72 mmHg (95% CI: -0.01, 3.46) higher DBP <20 weeks pregnancy, and women in the 3rd tertile of the average DPHP concentrations had 2.25 mmHg (95% CI: 0.25, 4.25) higher DBP ≥20 weeks pregnancy. 33 women (9.5%) were identified with HDP. Di-n-butyl phosphate (DNBP) concentrations at 16 weeks were positively associated with HDP, with borderline significance (RR = 2.98, 95% CI 0.97-9.15). Other OPE metabolites were not significantly associated with HDP. CONCLUSION: Maternal urinary BCEP and DPHP concentrations were associated with increased BP during pregnancy. Maternal urinary DNBP concentrations were associated with HDP, with borderline significance.

5.
J Clin Densitom ; 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34716086

RESUMO

In vitro and vivo studies indicate that oxidative stress contributes to bone loss. Fluorescent oxidation products (FlOPs) are novel biomarkers of oxidative stress; they reflect global oxidative damage of lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and DNA. However, whether FlOPs are associated with bone mineral density (BMD) is still unclear. In the present study, we examined the association between FlOPs and BMD among male veterans. This cross-sectional study was conducted among participants recruited from the Department of Medical Examination, The Second Hospital of Jilin University in Jilin, China. We identified male veterans who were at least 50 y old between June and October of 2019. Plasma FlOPs were measured with a fluorescent microplate reader (excitation/emission wavelength: 320/420 nm). BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The association between FlOPs and BMD was tested by multivariable linear regression models. A total of 164 male veterans were enrolled in the study, the average age was 56.6 y. After adjusting for covariates, veterans who had FlOP levels in the highest tertile had a statistically significant lower femoral neck (ß = -0.044; p = 0.007) and total hip BMD (ß = -0.045; p = 0.020) as compared to those with FlOP levels in the lowest tertile. Similar results were found when FlOPs were treated as a continuous variable (per 1-SD increase, ß = -0.014 and p = 0.033 for femoral neck BMD; ß = -0.016 and p = 0.047 for total hip BMD). Higher FlOP levels were associated with lower BMD among male veterans.

6.
Neurotoxicology ; 87: 149-155, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582899

RESUMO

Many environmental chemicals are being identified as suspected neurotoxicants based on the findings of both experimental and epidemiological studies. Organophosphate esters (OPEs), which are among the chemicals that have replaced neurotoxic polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) after 2004, have also become an important public health topic as evidence regarding their potential for early-life neurotoxicity is growing. In 233 mother child pairs from Cincinnati, OH, we measured concentrations of the OPE metabolites bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCIPP), bis-2-chloroethyl phosphate (BCEP), diphenyl phosphate (DPHP), and di-n-butyl phosphate (DNBP) in the urine of pregnant women at 16 and 26 weeks gestation and at delivery. At age 8 years, we assessed children's cognition using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV. In models adjusted for maternal race, income, body mass index, and IQ, maternal urinary BCEP was associated with a modest increase in child full-scale IQ (ß: 0.81 per a ln-unit BCEP increase; 95 % CI: 0.00, 1.61) while other OPEs were not associated with changes in full-scale IQ or any IQ subscales. Maternal serum PBDE concentrations did not confound the relationships between urinary OPE metabolites and child IQ. Using Bayesian kernel machine regression, we did not find that concentrations of a mixture of OPE metabolites during gestation was associated with any child cognition measures. The results of this study are not consistent with other published work, and a larger sample size would be beneficial to explore potential associations more fully. Therefore, additional studies are necessary to continue studying prenatal OPE exposure and child neurodevelopment and behavior.

7.
Neurotoxicol Teratol ; 88: 107022, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toxicological studies have raised concerns regarding the neurotoxic effects of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). However, observational evidence from human studies investigating the association between childhood PFAS and neurobehavior is limited and remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether childhood PFAS concentrations are associated with neurobehavior in children at age 8 years and whether child sex modifies this relationship. METHODS: We used data from 208 mother-child dyads in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) Study, a prospective pregnancy and birth cohort (Cincinnati, OH, USA). We quantified PFAS in child serum at 3 and 8 years. We assessed neurobehavioral domains using the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2 at 8 years. We used multiple informant models to estimate score changes per ln-increase in repeated PFAS concentrations. RESULTS: Childhood PFAS were not associated with Externalizing or Internalizing Problems at 8 years. However, we noted effect measure modification by sex, with higher scores in Externalizing Problems among males per ln-unit increase in perfluorononanoate (PFNA) at 3 years (ß = 4.3 points, 95% CI: 1.0, 7.7) while females had lower scores (ß = -2.8 points, 95% CI: -4.7, -1.0). More Internalizing Problems were observed among males per ln-unit increase in concurrent PFNA concentrations (ß = 3.7 points, 95% CI: 0.7, 6.8), but not in females (ß = -1.7 points, 95% CI: -4.6, 1.2). Childhood PFNA concentrations were associated with lower scores for attention problems and activity of daily living. CONCLUSION: While findings do not consistently support an association between childhood PFAS serum concentrations and neurobehavior, child sex may play a role in this relationship.

8.
Environ Int ; 156: 106747, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toxicology studies have identified pregnancy as a window of susceptibility for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and cardiometabolic indices in women. No study in humans, however, has examined EDC mixtures and cardiometabolic indices during pregnancy. METHODS: We used the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) Study to examine whether bisphenol A (BPA), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), and phthalates are associated with blood pressure, glucose, and lipids in 388 pregnant women. We measured PBDEs and PFAS in serum at 16 weeks gestation, while BPA and phthalate metabolites were quantified in urine at 16 and 26 weeks gestation. We used linear regression and Bayesian Kernel Machine Regression (BKMR) to estimate covariate-adjusted associations of individual EDCs and their mixtures with cardiometabolic indices during pregnancy. RESULTS: A 10-fold increase in BDE-28 was associated with a 13.1 mg/dL increase in glucose (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 2.9, 23.2) in linear regression. The BKMR model also identified BDE-28 as having a positive association with glucose. BDE-28, BDE-47, and BDE-99 were positively associated with total cholesterol in both single- and multi-pollutant models, whereas a suggestive negative association was noted with BDE-153. Mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP) (ß = -7.9 mg/dL, 95% CI -12.9, -3.0) and monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) (ß = -6.3 mg/dL, 95% CI -10.6, -2.0) were both associated with significant decreases in cholesterol in linear regression, but only MBzP was identified as an important contributor in the BKMR model. CONCLUSION: Overall, we observed positive associations between PBDEs with glucose and cholesterol levels during pregnancy, while negative associations were found between some phthalate biomarkers and cholesterol. No relationship was noted for BPA or PFAS with cardiometabolic indices during pregnancy across both models.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Disruptores Endócrinos , Poluentes Ambientais , Teorema de Bayes , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Gravidez
9.
Am J Epidemiol ; 190(9): 1793-1802, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33778842

RESUMO

Production of organophosphate esters (OPEs), which represent a major flame-retardant class present in consumer goods, has increased over the past 2 decades. Experimental studies suggest that OPEs may be associated with thyroid hormone disruption, but few human studies have examined this association. We quantified OPE metabolites in the urine of 298 pregnant women from Cincinnati, Ohio, in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment Study (enrolled 2003-2006) at 3 time points (16 and 26 weeks' gestation, and at delivery), and thyroid hormones in 16-week maternal and newborn cord sera. Urinary bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)-phosphate concentrations were generally associated with decreased triiodothyronine and thyroxine levels and increased thyroid-stimulating hormone levels in maternal and newborn thyroid hormones in quartile dose-response analyses and multiple informant models. There was weaker evidence for thyroid hormone alterations in association with diphenyl-phosphate and di-n-butyl-phosphate. Bis-2-chloroethyl-phosphate was not associated with alterations in thyroid hormones in any analyses. We did not observe any evidence of effect modification by infant sex. These results suggest that gestational exposure to some OPEs may influence maternal and neonatal thyroid function, although replication in other cohorts is needed.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido/sangue , Organofosfatos/urina , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/química , Retardadores de Chama/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Organofosfatos/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Tireotropina/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue , Tri-Iodotironina/sangue , Adulto Jovem
10.
Open Med (Wars) ; 16(1): 149-155, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33585690

RESUMO

Hypertension is associated with body mass index (BMI) and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases (CCDs). Whether hypertension modifies the relationship between BMI and CCDs is still unclear. We examined the association between BMI and CCDs and tested whether effect measure modification was present by hypertension. We identified a population-based sample of 3,942 participants in Shuncheng, Fushun, Liaoning, China. Hypertension was defined as any past use of antihypertensive medication or having a measured systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥130/80 mm Hg. BMI was calculated from measured body weight and body height. Data on diagnosed CCDs were self-reported and validated in the medical records. We used logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between BMI and CCDs. Higher BMI was associated with increased odds of having CCDs (OR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.07-1.31). This association was significantly modified by hypertension (P for interaction <0.001), with positive associations observed among hypertensive individuals (OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.14-1.42). Age, sex, and diabetic status did not modify the relationship between BMI and CCDs (all P for interaction >0.10). Although higher BMI was associated with increased odds of CCDs, the relationship was mainly limited to hypertensive patients.

11.
Environ Res ; 195: 110825, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies of prenatal per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related behaviors in children are inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: To examine associations between maternal serum PFAS concentrations and child behavior in 241 mother-child dyads within the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) Study. METHODS: We quantified perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) in maternal serum collected during pregnancy or at delivery. We evaluated a total of 17 outcomes of child behavior using the Behavioral Assessment System for Children-2 (BASC-2) at 5 and 8 years (n = 240) and ADHD diagnostic symptoms and criteria with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Young Child (DISC-YC) at 5 years (n = 190). We used linear mixed models and logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to assess associations between PFAS and continuous or dichotomous "at risk" BASC-2 scores; negative binomial regression to calculate incident rate ratios for counts of ADHD symptoms; and Poisson regression with robust standard errors to calculate relative risks of meeting ADHD diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: Each ln-unit increase in PFOS, PFHxS, and PFNA was associated with higher BASC-2 scores and increased odds of "at-risk" scores for externalizing behaviors, including hyperactivity (PFOS: odds ratio [OR] 2.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2, 5.9; PFHxS: OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.5, 4.3; PFNA: OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.3, 8.0). PFHxS was also associated with internalizing problems (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1, 3.4) and somatization (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2, 4.0). PFOS and PFNA were significantly associated with 50-80% more DISC-YC symptoms and diagnostic criteria related to hyperactive-impulsive type ADHD. Prenatal PFNA was associated with increased risk of any-type ADHD. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal PFOS and PFNA were consistently associated with measures related to hyperactive-impulsive type ADHD across two validated assessment instruments. PFHxS was associated with increased problems with both externalizing and internalizing behaviors. No associations were noted between PFOA and child neurobehavior.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/induzido quimicamente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Caprilatos/toxicidade , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Humanos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia
12.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 232: 113686, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traffic related air pollution (TRAP) and its component polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may be neurotoxic in children. There is limited research on postnatal exposure to TRAP and PAHs and child neurodevelopment. METHODS: We linked data from the U.S. NHANES 2001-2004 with the National Highway Planning Network 2005 to examine the proximity to major roads (highway or urban/rural principal arterials), urinary PAH metabolites, and diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) based on Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (C-DISC) in 1253 children aged 8-15 years. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs) for ADHD and CD by traffic proximity and PAH exposures using logistic regression adjusted for confounders. RESULTS: Higher ADHD prevalence was observed among children living <500 m (9.86%) compared to those ≥500 m (3.84%) from a major road. Prevalence of children with CD was comparable (<500 m: 2.51% and ≥500 m: 2.43%). We found little difference in urinary PAH metabolite levels between children living near major roads and those who did not. Children living <500 m from a major road had a non-significant OR of 2.06 (95% CI 0.85-5.03) for ADHD diagnosis. Children living on ≥2 major roads within 500 m of a highway had a non-significant OR of 2.27 (95% CI 0.71-7.26) for ADHD diagnosis. There was no association between proximity to major roads and CD diagnosis. CONCLUSION: We found living close to a major road was not associated with increased PAH levels. We did not find statistically significant relation between proximity to a major road or urinary PAH metabolite levels and ADHD or CD diagnosis in this cross-sectional analysis. Prospective studies are needed for the investigation of postnatal TRAP exposure and ADHD and CD diagnosis.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno da Conduta , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Criança , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais
13.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 21(1): 711, 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies examining the association between ß-carotene intake and risk of fracture have reported inconsistent findings. We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the association between ß-carotene intake and risk of fracture. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane library databases for relevant articles that were published until December 2019. We also identified studies from reference lists of articles identified from the clinical databases. The frequentist and Bayesian random-effects model was used to synthesize data. RESULTS: Nine studies with a total of 190,545 men and women, with an average age of 59.8 years, were included in this meta-analysis. For ß-carotene intake (1.76-14.30 mg/day), the pooled risk ratio (RR) of any fracture was 0.67 (95% Credible Interval (CrI): 0.51-0.82; heterogeneity: P = 0.66, I2 = 0.00%) and 0.63 (95%CrI: 0.44-0. 82) for hip fracture. By study design, the pooled RRs were 0.55 (95% CrI: 0.14-0.96) for case-control studies and 0.82 (95% CrI: 0.58-0.99) for cohort studies. By geographic region, the pooled RRs were 0.58 (95% CrI: 0.28-0.89), 0.86 (95% CrI: 0.35-0.1.37), and 0.91(95% CrI: 0.75-1.00) for studies conducted in China, the United States, and Europe, respectively. By sex, the pooled RRs were 0.88 (95% CrI: 0.73-0.99) for males and 0.76 (95% CrI, 0.44-1.07) for females. There was a 95% probability that ß-carotene intake reduces risk of hip fracture and any type of fracture by more than 20%. CONCLUSIONS: The present meta-analysis suggests that ß-carotene intake was inversely associated with fracture risk, which was consistently observed for case-control and cohort studies. Randomized controlled trials are warranted to confirm this relationship.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Quadril , beta Caroteno , Teorema de Bayes , China , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Fraturas do Quadril/diagnóstico , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Fraturas do Quadril/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15502, 2020 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968187

RESUMO

In vivo and vitro evidence indicates that ornithine and its related metabolic products play a role in tumor development. Whether ornithine is associated with breast cancer in humans is still unclear. We examined the association between circulating ornithine levels and breast cancer in females. This 1:1 age-matched case-control study identified 735 female breast cancer cases and 735 female controls without breast cancer. All cases had a pathological test to ascertain a breast cancer diagnosis. The controls were ascertained using pathologic testing, clinical examinations, and/or other tests. Fasting blood samples were used to measure ornithine levels. The average age for cases and controls were 49.6 years (standard deviation [SD] 8.7 years) and 48.9 years (SD 8.7 years), respectively. Each SD increase in ornithine levels was associated with a 12% reduction of breast cancer risk (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.79-0.97). The association between ornithine and breast cancer did not differ by pathological stages of diagnosis or tumor grades (all P for trend > 0.1). We observed no effect measure modification by molecular subtypes (P for interaction = 0.889). In conclusion, higher ornithine levels were associated with lower breast cancer risk in females.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Ornitina/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco
15.
Environ Res ; 186: 109583, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether cadmium (Cd) exposure during fetal brain development is associated with child neurobehavior. OBJECTIVE: To examine the potential associations between Cd exposure during pregnancy and neurobehavior among children. METHODS: We used data from 276 children in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) Study, a well-established prospective pregnancy and birth cohort. We measured maternal urinary Cd concentrations at 26 weeks of gestation. For cognitive function, we assessed Mental Development Index (MDI) and Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II, the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence-III, or the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-IV at ages 1, 2, 3, 5, and 8 years. We assessed child behaviors using the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2 at ages 2, 3, 4, 5, and 8 years, yielding four composite measures: Externalizing Problems, Internalizing Problems, Behavioral Symptoms Index, and Adaptive Skills. We used linear mixed models with covariate adjustment to estimate the associations between maternal urinary Cd concentrations and child neurobehavior. RESULTS: We categorized study participants into three groups based on maternal urinary Cd concentrations (Group 1: < limit of detection (LOD), Group 2: 0.06-0.22 µg/g creatinine, Group 3: >0.22 µg/g creatinine). In linear mixed models adjusting for maternal and child characteristics, maternal urinary Cd levels were not significantly associated with cognitive function at ages 1, 2, 3, 5, and 8 years or with behavioral composite measures at 2, 3, 4, 5, and 8 years. CONCLUSIONS: No significant associations were observed between maternal urinary Cd and cognitive or behavioral measures in children at 1-8 years of age in this study.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Cádmio/toxicidade , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Testes de Inteligência , Exposição Materna , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 228: 113527, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may affect child neurobehavior; however, exposures to mixtures of POPs have rarely been examined. METHODS: We estimated associations of prenatal serum concentrations of 17 POPs, namely 5 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 6 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and 4 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), with Wide Range Achievement Test-4 reading composite scores at age 8 years in 161 children from a pregnancy and birth cohort (Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment [HOME] Study, 2003-present) in Cincinnati, OH. We applied 6 statistical methods: least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), elastic net (ENET), Sparse Principal Component Analysis (SPCA), Weighted Quantile Sum (WQS) regression, Bayesian Kernel Machine Regression (BKMR), and Bayesian Additive Regression Trees (BART), to estimate covariate-adjusted associations with individual and their mixtures in multi-pollutant models. RESULTS: Both LASSO and ENET models indicated inverse associations with reading scores for BDE-153 and BDE-28, and positive associations for CB-118, CB-180, perfluoroctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorononanoate (PFNA). The SPCA identified inverse associations for BDE-153 and BDE-100 and positive associations for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), PFOA, and PFNA, as parts of different principal component scores. The WQS regression showed the highest weights for BDE-100 (0.35) and BDE-28 (0.16) in the inverse association model and for PFNA (0.29) and CB-180 (0.21) in the positive association model. The BKMR model identified BDE-100 and BDE-153 for inverse associations and CB-118, CB-153, CB-180, PFOA, and PFNA for positive associations. The BART method found dose-response functions similar to the BKMR model. No interactions between POPs were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Despite some inconsistency among biomarkers, these analyses revealed inverse associations between prenatal PBDE concentrations and children's reading scores. Positive associations of PCB congeners and PFAS with reading skills were also found.


Assuntos
Exposição Materna , Poluentes Orgânicos Persistentes , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Leitura , Adulto , Criança , DDT/sangue , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno/sangue , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/sangue , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/sangue , Humanos , Poluentes Orgânicos Persistentes/sangue , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Gravidez/sangue
17.
Rev Environ Health ; 35(3): 245-256, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598325

RESUMO

Background Epidemiological studies have historically focused on single toxicants, or toxic chemicals, and neurodevelopment, even though the interactions of chemicals and nutrients may result in additive, synergistic, antagonistic, or potentiating effects on neurological endpoints. Investigating the impact of environmentally-relevant chemical mixtures, including heavy metals and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), is more reflective of human exposures and may result in more refined environmental policies to protect the public. Objective In this review, we provide a summary of epidemiological studies that have analyzed chemical mixtures of heavy metals and EDCs and neurobehavior utilizing multi-chemical models, including frequentist and Bayesian methods. Content Studies investigating chemicals and neurobehavior have the opportunity to not only examine the impact of chemical mixtures, but they can also identify chemicals from a mixture that may play a key role in neurotoxicity, investigate interactive effects, estimate non-linear dose response, and identify potential windows of susceptibility. The examination of neurobehavioral domains is particularly challenging given that traits emerge and change over time and subclinical nuances of neurobehavior are often unrecognized. To date, only a handful of epidemiological studies examining neurodevelopment have utilized multi-pollutant models in the investigation of heavy metals and EDCs. However, these studies were successful in identifying contaminants of importance from the exposure mixtures. Summary and Outlook Investigators are encouraged to broaden their focus to include more environmentally relevant mixtures of chemicals using advanced statistical approaches, particularly to aid in identifying potential mechanisms underlying associations.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/induzido quimicamente , Ratos
18.
Environ Int ; 139: 105694, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Experimental studies in rodents suggest that polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) may contribute to depressive symptoms. Few studies have examined the impact of these chemicals on depression in adults. OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between serum PBDE and PFAS concentrations during pregnancy and repeated measures of depressive symptoms in women assessed from pregnancy to 8 years postpartum. METHODS: This study was based on 377 women from the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment Study, a birth cohort in Cincinnati, OH (USA). PBDEs (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, and ∑PBDEs) and PFAS (perfluorooctanoate [PFOA], perfluorooctane sulfonate [PFOS], perfluorohexane sulfonate [PFHxS], perfluorononanoate [PFNA]) were quantified in maternal serum at 16 ± 3 weeks gestation. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) at ~20 weeks gestation and up to seven times during postpartum visits (4 weeks, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 8 years). We used linear mixed models to estimate covariate-adjusted associations between chemical concentrations and repeated measures of BDI-II. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate the relative risk ratios of having a medium or high depression trajectory. RESULTS: We found that a 10-fold increase in BDE-28 at 16 ± 3 weeks gestation was associated with significantly increased BDI-II scores (ß = 2.5 points, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.8, 4.2) from pregnancy to 8 years postpartum. Significant positive associations were also observed with BDE-47, -100, -153, and ∑PBDEs. A 10-fold increase in ∑PBDEs was associated with a 4.6-fold increased risk (95% CI 1.8, 11.8) of a high trajectory for BDI-II compared to a low trajectory. We observed no significant associations between PFAS and BDI-II scores. CONCLUSION: PBDEs during pregnancy were associated with more depressive symptoms among women in this cohort.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Adulto , Depressão , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Idade Gestacional , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/toxicidade , Humanos , Gravidez
19.
Environ Res ; 184: 109255, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087441

RESUMO

Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are a group of chemicals used as flame retardants and plasticizers that replaced polybrominated diphenyl ethers in consumer products such as furniture and electronics. To characterize exposure to OPEs during fetal development, we measured urinary OPE metabolite concentrations in women twice during pregnancy (16 and 26 weeks' gestation) and at delivery (n = 357). We also previously quantified house dust OPE parent compound concentrations at 20 weeks' gestation (n = 317). Diphenyl phosphate (DPHP) had the highest geometric mean urinary concentrations (1.5-2.3 µg/g creatinine), followed by bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCIPP; 0.75-0.99 µg/g creatinine), and bis(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (BCEP; 0.72-0.97 µg/g creatinine), while dibutyl phosphate (DNBP) had the lowest concentrations (0.25-0.28 µg/g creatinine). Urinary OPE metabolites were moderately correlated with each other at 26 weeks (rs: 0.23-0.38, p < 0.001) while the correlations at 16 weeks and delivery were slightly weaker. Intra-class correlations for urinary metabolites measured at three time points were poor (0.16-0.34), indicating high variability within individuals. Dust concentrations of OPE parent compounds were associated with BCEP, BDCIPP, and DPHP concentrations in urine at some but not all time points. In linear mixed models of urinary OPE metabolite concentrations, household size was inversely associated with BCEP concentrations, and being non-white was associated with lower BDCIPP and DPHP concentrations. Urine samples collected in the summer had the highest OPE metabolite concentrations. This study highlights the need to collect multiple urine samples during pregnancy to define exposure patterns and investigate potential periods of susceptibility.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais , Ésteres , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Retardadores de Chama , Organofosfatos , Estudos de Coortes , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Previsões , Humanos , Organofosfatos/toxicidade , Plastificantes , Gravidez
20.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124701, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499316

RESUMO

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, a class of flame retardants and endocrine disruptors, have been substituted in new products by organophosphate (OPFR) and replacement brominated flame retardants (RBFR). OPFRs and RBFRs readily migrate from consumer products into dust where humans are exposed via incidental ingestion and inhalation. We quantified concentrations and loadings of OPFRs and RBFRs in house dust samples (n = 317) collected from the homes of Cincinnati women between 2003 and 2006 and examined their associations with demographic and house characteristics. Tris-(1-chloro-2-propyl)-phosphate (TCIPP, geometric mean [GM]: 2140 ng g-1, range: 70.1-166,000 ng g-1), tris-(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)-phosphate (TDCIPP, GM: 1840 ng g-1, range: 55.2-228,000 ng g-1), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP, GM: 1070 ng g-1, range: 34.1-62,100 ng g-1), 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EH-TBB, GM: 59.5 ng g-1, range: 2.82-7800 ng g-1), and bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP, GM: 121 ng g-1, range 2.17-13,600 ng g-1) were all detected in >90% of dust samples; tris-(2-chloroethyl)-phosphate (TCEP, GM: 669 ng g-1, range: 56.8-160,000 ng g-1) was detected in 80.1% of samples. Concentrations of EH-TBB and BEH-TEBP increased in house dust from 2003 to 2006. The number of people living in the home, race, education, floor type, and year of sample collection were associated with some OPFR and RBFR concentrations and loadings. This study suggests that OPFRs and RBFRs were ubiquitous in house dust during the PBDE phase-out and justifies more research on the consequences of exposure to these environmental chemicals.


Assuntos
Poeira/análise , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Organofosfatos/análise , Adulto , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Feminino , Halogenação , Humanos , Ohio
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