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1.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 10(7): 2436-2440, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568117

RESUMO

Primary health care is a comprehensive care with a wide range of essential services for people living in the rural and hard-to-reach areas. However, the primary healthcare delivery system in India is still in its initial stages and lacks human resources. With the COVID-19 pandemic around the corner, there has been a diversion of resources for controlling corona pandemic leading to undermining availability and accessibility of health services. This article highlights a few case scenarios and the multidimensional impact of lockdown on primary healthcare services. The article suggests certain appropriate measures that can be implemented as the lockdown simply cannot stop the transmission with no definite treatment and vaccine. There should be a multipronged strategy for breaking the chain of transmission and for future preparedness in case of such situations and to strengthen our primary healthcare system.

2.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 10(4): 1515-1519, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34123884

RESUMO

The concept of Herd immunity is a key factor for epidemic control. According to it only a proportion of entire population needs to be immune either via natural infection or vaccination. The idea of herd immunity via natural infection rather than vaccination is a bit controversial, as it is not clear how long will the antibodies last, and whether re-infection or re-activation of the virus can occur after the antibodies starts weaning from the body. It has been suggested that coronavirus will likely become similar to a seasonal flu once the herd immunity is attained. Till then, it will continue causing outbreaks year-round and there could be multiple waves of virus transmission before achieving herd immunity. Therefore, the public needs to learn to live with it, and continue practising the best prevention measures, including wearing of masks, physical distancing, hand hygiene, and avoidance of gathering.

3.
Chemosphere ; 282: 130954, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082315

RESUMO

Humanity is struggling against a major problem for a proper management of generated municipal solid waste. The collected waste causes natural issues like uncontrollable emission of greenhouse gases and others. Even though, escalation of waste results in minimizing the areas accessible for disposing the waste. Creating awareness in the society to use organic products like biofuels, biofertilizers and biogas is a need of an hour. Biochemical processes such as composting, vermicomposting, anaerobic digestion, and landfilling play important role in valorizing biomass and solid waste for production of biofuels, biosurfactants and biopolymer. This paper covers the details of biomass and solid waste characteristics and its composition. It is also focused to provide updated information about reutilization of biomass for value creation. Technologies and products obtained through bio-routes are discussed in current review paper together with the integrated system of solid waste management. It also covers challenges, innovations and perspectives in this field.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Anaerobiose , Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Resíduos Sólidos/análise
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32154300

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Disaster can occur at any time any place. Disaster preparedness plays an important role to reduce the loss of a community/country. The aim of this interventional study was to ascertain the impact of a video-based educational intervention program on improvement in knowledge and attitude of paramedical students in a hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A pre-post study (interventional study design) was conducted on paramedic students. Our study period was 6 months which was divided into Phases I, II, and III. For administrative purpose, we included all paramedical students, and our sample size was 119. The baseline assessment of knowledge and attitude of paramedic students was done by a pretested questionnaire (Observation 1) with having a baseline scoring. After that, intervention Phase 1 was implemented, and later, end line observation (Observation 2) was made. Changes in knowledge and attitude were observed by the score difference (Observation 2-Observation 1). Descriptive statistics were calculated, and the mean of cumulative score was compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. We applied Mann-Whitney U-test for finding associations between dependent variables with an independent variable using SPSS version 22 (IBM, Chicago, USA) software. RESULTS: Our baseline results showed that most of our participants had average knowledge (54.6%), followed by poor knowledge (24.4%). Approximately one-fifth (21.0%) of the participants had good knowledge regarding disaster preparedness. A significant improvement was observed in cumulative score (P < 0.005). A significant difference was observed in knowledge and attitude with respect to age and courses (P < 0.05). Forty percent of the students responded that they would like to get trained by that mock drill, and 26.1% were interested in disaster preparedness workshops in the future. CONCLUSION: Our present study results indicate that the overall knowledge and attitude level of the students was average and required improvement. A similar result was reported in some studies conducted globally for the same purpose. All of our students perceived that training for disaster preparedness is necessary for all health facilities, and it is important to have an emergency plan and disaster management committee. Regarding training methods, most of our students liked our interactive audiovisual method. However, their preferred methods were mock drill and workshops. It can be arranged in the future for them.

5.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 9(12): 5837-5845, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33681004

RESUMO

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) risks the affected mother-child duos not only with respect to adverse perinatal outcomes but also for chronic diseases later in life. Therefore, in 2014, the Government of India (GoI) mandated universal GDM screening for all pregnant women as a part of essential obstetric care within the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) programme. Later in 2018, the domain experts from GoI envisaged pan India implementation of GDM screening services within its RCH framework by 2023. As Uttarakhand-a hilly, EAG state of north India-would also be part of this nation-wide drive; prior identification of RCH services coverage in the State assumes paramount importance, as it reflects probable executability of GDM screening services within its delivery platform. Therefore, the present review aims to assess the readiness of Uttarakhand maternal health functionary system in view of GDM national guidelines implementation at both state and district levels. In this regard, freely accessible, full-text GoI documents pertaining to GDM implementation guidelines and maternal health program of India and Uttarakhand available in public domain in English language were reviewed. The present review favors the pilot implementation in district Dehradun prior to implementing in all districts of the state. It may, however, require overall improvement in maternal health programmatic services in all parts of the State for much efficient service delivery. Effective implementation of GDM guidelines requires urgent correction in the background performance of RCH program.

6.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 8(11): 3469-3474, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803638

RESUMO

The current trend of conducting research and publishing the same to fulfill the academic or professional requirements can jeopardise what research actually means in health sciences. Rather than highlighting how many publications one can have, or showcase the expertise as a researcher, research can inform knowledge gaps and address the same in a replicable and scientific manner. More importantly, for low- and middle- income countries like India, research can be a powerful tool to assess healthcare problems at the primary care and develop innovative solutions to strengthen health systems at the grass root level. It can be argued that, enriching research portfolio for an individual is a misleading approach whereas research has much more to offer to the society at large. In the context of in primary care, academic and implementation research is important for several distinct reasons. The practice-based research can inform better practice through communicating the concerns or findings from research with key stakeholders of primary care. If the primary care practitioners are equipped with fundamental research skills, it may help them to become better critics and evidence-based practitioners. Publishing research findings in a good scientific journal is not an easy job. A lot of time and resources are often required from the submission process to publication. There are many obstacles for publishing a research, some are inherent some are man-made. In this article we describe our experiences about the bottlenecks that we have faced while conducting medical research and we have also prescribed some possible solutions which can help to the researchers in future while conducting medical research.

7.
J Clin Diagn Res ; 9(9): LC15-8, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26500927

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: UTI is a well known entity amongst young girls, and the majority of girls have recurrent infections within one year. Anything that disturbs the usual vaginal environment would result in conditions favouring the production of unwanted microorganisms leading to infections of this very sensitive area. Studies have shown that, there is an evident relation of UTI's among students and practices of personal hygiene. AIM: To determine association between the behavioural risk factors and UTI among nursing girls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study was undertaken amongst unmarried nursing students of a Medical College Hospital. A predesigned pretested questionnaire was used to know the personal hygiene of students and to find out its association with UTI in the last three months. Chi-square test was used to analyse the data. RESULTS: A significant association was observed between perineal hygiene and UTI. The major risk factors of UTI identified were incorrect perineal washing technique, use of synthetic/silk innerwears, not sundrying the innerwears, improper menstrual hygiene. CONCLUSION: There are still major gaps in the knowledge regarding causation of UTI among the nursing students. This calls for an urgent need for educational talks periodically addressing these gaps.

8.
J Clin Diagn Res ; 8(8): JC01-4, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25302220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: First few years of life is the most crucial period of life as this age is known for accelerated growth and development, warranting regular monitoring. During this period about 40% of physical growth and 80% of mental development occurs. Any adverse influences during this period may result in severe limitations in their development. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the field practice area of Rural Health Training Centre. Mothers of children between 0-3 years of age were enquired about the morbidity in the past two months. RESULTS: Diarrhea (47.9%) followed by ARI (22.21%), Pica (13%) and Worm Infestation (9.21%) were the commonest morbidities found in the study population. Morbidities were found to be common in males as compared to females. Amongst the nutritional deficiencies anaemia & Vitamin B deficiencies were the commonest. CONCLUSION: There was considerable sickness load amongst the toddlers. Morbidity can be reduced by improvement in the health care system at peripheral level.

9.
Int J Prev Med ; 5(6): 741-8, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25013694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Weaning plays a major role in determining the nutritional status of a child. Poor weaning practices during infancy and early childhood, resulting in malnutrition, contribute to impairment of cognitive and social development, poor school performance and reduced productivity in later life. The objective of this study is to know weaning practices of mothers of difficult terrain. METHODS: Cross-sectional study was conducted in all villages under Rural Health Training Center, the field practice area of Department of Community Medicine. A total of 500 mothers with children within 3 years of age were included in the study. Pre-tested pre-designed semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information on weaning practices. RESULTS: Majority of children (51.57%) were weaned at >6 months and were observed to be more under nourished (79.34%) as compared with those between 4 months and 6 months (61.50%). Majority of boys were weaned earlier than girls irrespective of the age of the weaning. Malnutrition was found in majority of those children who were weaned inadequately in terms of both frequency and amount. CONCLUSIONS: The present study revealed suboptimal weaning practices among the mothers of hilly region. Thus, appropriate educational strategies should be directed particularly on counteracting various myths related to infant feeding Moreover, promotion of appropriate feeding should target not only on maternal caregivers, but also on other family members, particularly husbands and grandmothers, taking into account the social and cultural situation of the area.

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