Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 51
Filtrar
1.
Mutagenesis ; 35(6): 491-497, 2020 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33367858

RESUMO

Disruption of telomere length (TL) homeostasis in peripheral blood lymphocytes has been previously assessed as a potential biomarker of breast cancer (BC) risk. The present study addressed the relationship between lymphocyte TL (LTL), prognosis and clinicopathological features in the BC patients since these associations are insufficiently explored at present. LTL was measured in 611 BC patients and 154 healthy controls using the monochrome multiplex quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction assay. In addition, we genotyped nine TL-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms that had been identified through genome-wide association studies. Our results showed that the patients had significantly (P = 0.001, Mann-Whitney U-test) longer LTL [median (interquartile range); 1.48 (1.22-1.78)] than the healthy controls [1.27 (0.97-1.82)]. Patients homozygous (CC) for the common allele of hTERT rs2736108 or the variant allele (CC) of hTERC rs16847897 had longer LTL. The latter association remained statistically significant in the recessive genetic model after the Bonferroni correction (P = 0.004, Wilcoxon two-sample test). We observed no association between LTL and overall survival or relapse-free survival of the patients. LTL did not correlate with cancer staging based on Union for International Cancer Control (UICC), The tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging system classification, tumour grade or molecular BC subtypes. Overall, we observed an association between long LTL and BC disease and an association of the hTERC rs16847897 CC genotype with increased LTL. However, no association between LTL, clinicopathological features and survival of the patients was found.

2.
Carcinogenesis ; 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319241

RESUMO

One of the principal mechanisms of chemotherapy resistance in highly frequent solid tumors like colorectal cancer (CRC) is the decreased activity of drug transport into tumor cells due to low expression of important membrane proteins, such as solute carrier (SLC) transporters. Sequence complementarity is a major determinant for target gene recognition by microRNAs (miRNAs). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in target sequences transcribed into messenger RNA may therefore alter miRNA binding to these regions by either creating a new site or destroying an existing one. miRSNPs may explain the modulation of expression levels in association with increased/decreased susceptibility to common diseases as well as in chemoresistance and the consequent interindividual variability in drug response. In the present study, we investigated whether miRSNPs in SLC transporter genes may modulate CRC susceptibility and patient's survival. Using an in silico approach for functional predictions, we analyzed twenty-six miRSNPs in nine SLC genes in a cohort of 1368 CRC cases and 698 controls from the Czech Republic. After correcting for multiple tests, we found several miRSNPs significantly associated with patient's survival. SNPs in SLCO3A1, SLC22A2, and SLC22A3 genes were defined as prognostic factors in the classification and regression tree analysis. In contrast, we did not observe any significant association between miRSNPs and CRC risk. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study investigating miRSNPs potentially affecting miRNA binding to SLC transporter genes and their impact on CRC susceptibility or patient's prognosis.

3.
Mutat Res ; 858-860: 503253, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198934

RESUMO

Genomic instability is a characteristic of a majority of human malignancies. Chromosomal instability is a common form of genomic instability that can be caused by defects in mitotic checkpoint genes. Chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood are also indicative of genotoxic exposure and potential cancer risk. We evaluated associations between inherited genetic variants in 33 mitotic checkpoint genes and the frequency of chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in the presence and absence of environmental genotoxic exposure. Associations with both chromosome and chromatid type of aberrations were evaluated in two cohorts of healthy individuals, namely an exposed and a reference group consisting of 607 and 866 individuals, respectively. Binary logistic and linear regression analyses were performed for the association studies. Bonferroni-corrected significant p-value was 5 × 10-4 for 99 tests based on the number of analyzed genes and phenotypes. In the reference group the most prominent associations were found with variants in CCNB1, a master regulator of mitosis, and in genes involved in kinetochore function, including CENPH and TEX14, whereas in the exposed group the main association was found with variants in TTK, also an important gene in kinetochore function. How the identified variants may affect the fidelity of mitotic checkpoint remains to be investigated, however, the present study suggests that genetic variation may partly explain interindividual variation in the formation of CAs.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(15)2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756484

RESUMO

The phenotypic effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the development of sporadic solid cancers are still scarce. The aim of this review was to summarise and analyse published data on the associations between SNPs in mismatch repair genes and various cancers. The mismatch repair system plays a unique role in the control of the genetic integrity and it is often inactivated (germline and somatic mutations and hypermethylation) in cancer patients. Here, we focused on germline variants in mismatch repair genes and found the outcomes rather controversial: some SNPs are sometimes ascribed as protective, while other studies reported their pathological effects. Regarding the complexity of cancer as one disease, we attempted to ascertain if particular polymorphisms exert the effect in the same direction in the development and treatment of different malignancies, although it is still not straightforward to conclude whether polymorphisms always play a clear positive role or a negative one. Most recent and robust genome-wide studies suggest that risk of cancer is modulated by variants in mismatch repair genes, for example in colorectal cancer. Our study shows that rs1800734 in MLH1 or rs2303428 in MSH2 may influence the development of different malignancies. The lack of functional studies on many DNA mismatch repair SNPs as well as their interactions are not explored yet. Notably, the concerted action of more variants in one individual may be protective or harmful. Further, complex interactions of DNA mismatch repair variations with both the environment and microenvironment in the cancer pathogenesis will deserve further attention.

5.
Cells ; 9(6)2020 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599894

RESUMO

Colorectal carcinogenesis (CRC) is caused by the gradual long-term accumulation of both genetic and epigenetic changes. Recently, epigenetic alterations have been included in the classification of the CRC molecular subtype, and this points out their prognostic impact. As epigenetic modifications are reversible, they may represent relevant therapeutic targets. DNA methylation, catalyzed by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), regulates gene expression. For many years, the deregulation of DNA methylation has been considered to play a substantial part in CRC etiology and evolution. Despite considerable advances in CRC treatment, patient therapy response persists as limited, and their profit from systemic therapies are often hampered by the introduction of chemoresistance. In addition, inter-individual changes in therapy response in CRC patients can arise from their specific (epi)genetic compositions. In this review article, we summarize the options of CRC treatment based on DNA methylation status for their predictive value. This review also includes the therapy outcomes based on the patient's methylation status in CRC patients. In addition, the current challenge of research is to develop therapeutic inhibitors of DNMT. Based on the essential role of DNA methylation in CRC development, the application of DNMT inhibitors was recently proposed for the treatment of CRC patients, especially in patients with DNA hypermethylation.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(15)2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722130

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a serious health problem worldwide. Approximately half of patients will develop distant metastasis after CRC resection, usually with very poor prognosis afterwards. Because patient performance after distant metastasis surgery remains very heterogeneous, ranging from death within 2 years to a long-term cure, there is a clinical need for a precise risk stratification of patients to aid pre- and post-operative decisions. Furthermore, around 20% of identified CRC cases are at IV stage disease, known as a metastatic CRC (mCRC). In this review, we overview possible molecular and clinicopathological biomarkers that may provide prognostic and predictive information for patients with distant metastasis. These may comprise sidedness of the tumor, molecular profile and epigenetic characteristics of the primary tumor and arising metastatic CRC, and early markers reflecting cancer cell resistance in mCRC and biomarkers identified from transcriptome. This review discusses current stage in employment of these biomarkers in clinical practice as well as summarizes current experience in identifying predictive biomarkers in mCRC treatment.

7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(9)2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380676

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a malignant disease with an incidence of over 1.8 million new cases per year worldwide. CRC outcome is closely related to the respective stage of CRC and is more favorable at less advanced stages. Detection of early colorectal adenomas is the key to survival. In spite of implemented screening programs showing efficiency in the detection of early precancerous lesions and CRC in asymptomatic patients, a significant number of patients are still diagnosed in advanced stages. Research on CRC accomplished during the last decade has improved our understanding of the etiology and development of colorectal adenomas and revealed weaknesses in the general approach to their detection and elimination. Recent studies seek to find a reliable non-invasive biomarker detectable even in the blood. New candidate biomarkers could be selected on the basis of so-called liquid biopsy, such as long non-coding RNA, microRNA, circulating cell-free DNA, circulating tumor cells, and inflammatory factors released from the adenoma into circulation. In this work, we focused on both genetic and epigenetic changes associated with the development of colorectal adenomas into colorectal carcinoma and we also discuss new possible biomarkers that are detectable even in adenomas prior to cancer development.

8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(7)2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252452

RESUMO

Oxidative stress with subsequent premutagenic oxidative DNA damage has been implicated in colorectal carcinogenesis. The repair of oxidative DNA damage is initiated by lesion-specific DNA glycosylases (hOGG1, NTH1, MUTYH). The direct evidence of the role of oxidative DNA damage and its repair is proven by hereditary syndromes (MUTYH-associated polyposis, NTHL1-associated tumor syndrome), where germline mutations cause loss-of-function in glycosylases of base excision repair, thus enabling the accumulation of oxidative DNA damage and leading to the adenoma-colorectal cancer transition. Unrepaired oxidative DNA damage often results in G:C>T:A mutations in tumor suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes and widespread occurrence of chromosomal copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity. However, the situation is more complicated in complex and heterogeneous disease, such as sporadic colorectal cancer. Here we summarized our current knowledge of the role of oxidative DNA damage and its repair on the onset, prognosis and treatment of sporadic colorectal cancer. Molecular and histological tumor heterogeneity was considered. Our study has also suggested an additional important source of oxidative DNA damage due to intestinal dysbiosis. The roles of base excision repair glycosylases (hOGG1, MUTYH) in tumor and adjacent mucosa tissues of colorectal cancer patients, particularly in the interplay with other factors (especially microenvironment), deserve further attention. Base excision repair characteristics determined in colorectal cancer tissues reflect, rather, a disease prognosis. Finally, we discuss the role of DNA repair in the treatment of colon cancer, since acquired or inherited defects in DNA repair pathways can be effectively used in therapy.

9.
Mutagenesis ; 35(3): 273-281, 2020 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922572

RESUMO

The chemotherapeutic efficacy in colorectal cancer (CRC) is limited due to the inter-individual variability in drug response and the development of tumour resistance. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are crucial in the development of resistance by the efflux of anticancer agents from cancer cells. In this study, we identified 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 11 ABC transporter genes acting as an expression of quantitative trait loci (eQTLs), i.e. whose variation influence the expression of many downstream genes. These SNPs were genotyped in a case-control study comprising 1098 cases and 1442 healthy controls and analysed in relation to CRC development risk and patient survival. Considering a strict correction for multiple tests, we did not observe any significant association between SNPs and CRC risk. The rs3819720 polymorphism in the ABCB3/TAP2 gene was statistically significantly associated with shorter overall survival (OS) in the codominant, and dominant models [GA vs. GG, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.48; P = 0.002; AA vs. GG, HR = 1.70; P = 0.004 and GA + AA vs. GG, HR = 1.52; P = 0.0006]. Additionally, GA carriers of the same SNP displayed worse OS after receiving 5-FU based chemotherapy. The variant allele of rs3819720 polymorphism statistically significantly affected the expression of 36 downstream genes. Screening for eQTL polymorphisms in relevant genes such as ABC transporters that can regulate the expression of several other genes may help to identify the genetic background involved in the individual response to the treatment of CRC patients.

10.
Pharmacol Ther ; 206: 107447, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756363

RESUMO

5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is an essential component of systemic chemotherapy for colorectal cancer (CRC) in the palliative and adjuvant settings. Over the past four decades, several modulation strategies including the implementation of 5-FU-based combination regimens and 5-FU pro-drugs have been developed and tested to increase the anti-tumor activity of 5-FU and to overcome the clinical resistance. Despite the encouraging progress in CRC therapy to date, the patients' response rates to therapy continue to remain low and the patients' benefit from 5-FU-based therapy is frequently compromised by the development of chemoresistance. Inter-individual differences in the treatment response in CRC patients may originate in the unique genetic and epigenetic make-up of each individual. The critical element in the current trend of personalized medicine is the proper comprehension of causes and mechanisms contributing to the low or lack of sensitivity of tumor tissue to 5-FU-based therapy. The identification and validation of predictive biomarkers for existing 5-FU-based and new targeted therapies for CRC treatment will likely improve patients' outcomes in the future. Herein we present a comprehensive review summarizing options of CRC treatment and the mechanisms of 5-FU action at the molecular level, including both anabolic and catabolic ways. The main part of this review comprises the currently known molecular mechanisms underlying the chemoresistance in CRC patients. We also focus on various 5-FU pro-drugs developed to increase the amount of circulating 5-FU and to limit toxicity. Finally, we propose future directions of personalized CRC therapy according to the latest published evidence.

11.
Int J Cancer ; 146(2): 363-372, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209889

RESUMO

Interindividual differences in DNA repair systems may play a role in modulating the individual risk of developing colorectal cancer. To better ascertain the role of DNA repair gene polymorphisms on colon and rectal cancer risk individually, we evaluated 15,419 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 185 DNA repair genes using GWAS data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR) and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), which included 8,178 colon cancer, 2,936 rectum cancer cases and 14,659 controls. Rs1800734 (in MLH1 gene) was associated with colon cancer risk (p-value = 3.5 × 10-6 ) and rs2189517 (in RAD51B) with rectal cancer risk (p-value = 5.7 × 10-6 ). The results had statistical significance close to the Bonferroni corrected p-value of 5.8 × 10-6 . Ninety-four SNPs were significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk after Binomial Sequential Goodness of Fit (BSGoF) procedure and confirmed the relevance of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) and homologous recombination pathways for colon and rectum cancer, respectively. Defects in MMR genes are known to be crucial for familial form of colorectal cancer but our findings suggest that specific genetic variations in MLH1 are important also in the individual predisposition to sporadic colon cancer. Other SNPs associated with the risk of colon cancer (e.g., rs16906252 in MGMT) were found to affect mRNA expression levels in colon transverse and therefore working as possible cis-eQTL suggesting possible mechanisms of carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Retais/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Variação Biológica da População/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colo/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/genética , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Reto/patologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adulto Jovem
12.
Cancer Med ; 9(4): 1473-1484, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869529

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The TLR3/cGAS-STING-IFN signaling has recently been reported to be disturbed in colorectal cancer due to deregulated expression of the genes involved. Our study aimed to investigate the influence of potential regulatory variants in these genes on the risk of sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) in a Czech cohort of 1424 CRC patients and 1114 healthy controls. METHODS: The variants in the TLR3, CGAS, TMEM173, IKBKE, and TBK1 genes were selected using various online bioinformatic tools, such as UCSC browser, HaploReg, Regulome DB, Gtex Portal, SIFT, PolyPhen2, and miRNA prediction tools. RESULTS: Logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and sex detected a nominal association between CRC risk and three variants, CGAS rs72960018 (OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.11-2.53, P-value = .01), CGAS rs9352000 (OR: 2.02, 95% CI: 1.07-3.84, P-value = .03) and TMEM173 rs13153461 (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.03-2.27, P-value = .03). Their cumulative effect revealed a threefold increased CRC risk in carriers of 5-6 risk alleles compared to those with 0-2 risk alleles. Epistatic interactions between these genes and the previously genotyped IFNAR1, IFNAR2, IFNA, IFNB, IFNK, IFNW, IRF3, and IRF7 genes, were computed to test their effect on CRC risk. Overall, we obtained nine pair-wise interactions within and between the CGAS, TMEM173, IKBKE, and TBK1 genes. Two of them remained statistically significant after Bonferroni correction. Additional 52 interactions were observed when IFN variants were added to the analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that epistatic interactions and a high number of risk alleles may play an important role in CRC carcinogenesis, offering novel biological understanding for the CRC management.

13.
Mutagenesis ; 34(4): 323-330, 2019 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586183

RESUMO

Non-specific structural chromosomal aberrations (CAs) observed in peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy individuals can be either chromosome-type aberrations (CSAs) or chromatid-type aberrations (CTAs) depending on the stage of cell division they are induced in and mechanism of formation. It is important to study the genetic basis of chromosomal instability as it is a marker of genotoxic exposure and a predictor of cancer risk. For that purpose, we conducted two genome-wide association studies (GWASs) on healthy individuals in the presence and absence of apparent genotoxic exposure from the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The pre-GWAS cytogenetic analysis reported the frequencies of CSA, CTA and total CA (CAtot). We performed both linear and binary logistic regression analysis with an arbitrary cut-off point of 2% for CAtot and 1% for CSA and CTA. Using the statistical threshold of 1.0 × 10-5, we identified five loci with in silico predicted functionality in the reference group and four loci in the exposed group, with no overlap between the associated regions. A meta-analysis on the two GWASs identified further four loci with moderate associations in each of the studies. From the reference group mainly loci within genes related to DNA damage response/repair were identified. Other loci identified from both the reference and exposed groups were found to be involved in the segregation of chromosomes and chromatin modification. Some of the discovered regions in each group were implicated in tumourigenesis and autism.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Frequência do Gene , Genética Populacional , Mutagênicos/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Análise Citogenética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
14.
Mutat Res ; 781: 100-129, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416571

RESUMO

The development of minimally invasive and low-cost assay enabling early diagnosis, treatment response and prognosis in cancer patients may provide a promising alternative to tumor biopsy. Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is probably the most promising tool among all components of liquid biopsy. This review includes studies exploring cfDNA as the diagnostic, prognostic or predictive biomarker for all types of cancer. In this article, we systematically reviewed the relevant literature from PubMed about cfDNA. All articles presented higher cfDNA concentration in cancer patients when compared with patients with benign disease or healthy individuals. Most of the articles showed a connection between cfDNA and prognosis. The presence of high cfDNA level in serum or plasma was associated with worse overall patient's survival. This review supports the idea that the cfDNA analysis represents a promising research area and hopefully in the future, could be applied as a new biomarker for cancer detection, prognosis determination and prediction of the response to therapy.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/genética , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/genética , Humanos , Biópsia Líquida/métodos , Neoplasias/patologia , Prognóstico
15.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 38(10): 1891-1899, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367996

RESUMO

There is increasing evidence indicating a role for Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum) in colorectal cancer (CRC) development and prognosis. This study evaluated F. nucleatum as a prognostic biomarker, by assessing its association with post-diagnosis survival from CRC. From September 2008 to April 2012 CRC patients (n = 190) were recruited from three hospitals within the Czech Republic. F. nucleatum DNA copies were measured in adjacent non-malignant and colorectal tumor tissues using quantitative real-time PCR. Cox Proportional Hazards (HR) models were applied to evaluate the association between F. nucleatum DNA and overall survival, adjusting for key confounders. Risk prediction modeling was conducted to evaluate the ability to predict survival based on F. nucleatum status. High, compared with low, levels of F. nucleatum in colorectal tumor tissues were associated with poorer overall survival (adjusted HR 1.68, 95% CI 1.02-2.77), which was slightly attenuated after additional adjustment for microsatellite instability status. However, inclusion of F. nucleatum in risk prediction models did not improve the ability to identify patients who died beyond known prognostic factors such as disease pathology staging. Although the increased presence of F. nucleatum was associated with poorer prognosis in CRC patients, this may have limited clinical relevance as a prognostic biomarker.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Infecções por Fusobacterium/microbiologia , Fusobacterium nucleatum/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , República Tcheca , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Medição de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
16.
Br J Cancer ; 121(4): 344-350, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31312029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telomeres, repetitive DNA capping ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, are important in the maintenance of genomic integrity. Perturbed telomeres are common features of many human malignancies, including colorectal cancer. METHODS: Telomere length (TL), measured by a Monochrome Multiplex Real-Time qPCR, was investigated in tumour tissues, adjacent mucosa, and blood from patients with colorectal cancer with different clinicopathological features and its impact on patient survival. TL was also measured in a limited number of liver metastases, non-cancerous liver tissues or corresponding tissues from the same patients. RESULTS: TL in tumour tissues was shorter than in the adjacent mucosa (P < 0.0001). Shorter TL was observed in tumours with lower stage than in those with advanced stages (P = 0.001). TL was shorter in tumours at the proximal than at the distal sites of the colon (P < 0.0001). Shorter TL was also associated with microsatellite instability (P = 0.001) and mucinous tumour histology (P < 0.0001). Patients with a smaller TL ratio between tumour tissues and the adjacent mucosa were associated with increased overall survival (P = 0.022). Metastasised tumours had shorter telomeres than the adjacent non-cancerous liver tissues (P = 0.0005). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the results demonstrate differences in TL between tumours and the adjacent mucosa, between tumours located at different sites and association with patient survival.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Telômero , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Prognóstico
17.
Mol Aspects Med ; 69: 107-122, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189073

RESUMO

New non-invasive approaches that can complement and improve on current strategies for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and management are urgently needed. A growing number of publications have documented that components of tumors, which are shed into the circulation, can be detected in the form of liquid biopsies and can be used to detect CRC at early stages, to predict response to certain therapies and to detect CRC recurrence in a minimally invasive way. The analysis of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), tumor-derived cells (CTC, circulating tumor cells) or circulating microRNA (miRNA) in blood and other body fluids, have a great potential to improve different aspects of CRC management. The challenge now is to find which types of components, biofluids and detection methods would be the most suitable to be applied in the different steps of CRC detection and treatment. This chapter will provide an up to date review on ctDNA, CTCs and circulating miRNAs as new biomarkers for CRC, either for clinical management or early detection, highlighting their advantages and limitations.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , MicroRNA Circulante , DNA Tumoral Circulante , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Humanos , Biópsia Líquida/métodos , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes , Prognóstico
19.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216666, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091244

RESUMO

Mucins and their glycosylation have been suggested to play an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis. We examined potentially functional genetic variants in the mucin genes or genes involved in their glycosylation with respect to colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and clinical outcome. We genotyped 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering 123 SNPs through pairwise linkage disequilibrium (r2>0.80) in the MUC1, MUC2, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC6, and B3GNT6 genes in a hospital-based case-control study of 1532 CRC cases and 1108 healthy controls from the Czech Republic. We also analyzed these SNPs in relation to overall survival and event-free survival in a subgroup of 672 patients. Among patients without distant metastasis at the time of diagnosis, two MUC4 SNPs, rs3107764 and rs842225, showed association with overall survival (HR 1.40, 95%CI 1.08-1.82, additive model, log-rank p = 0.004 and HR 0.64, 95%CI 0.42-0.99, recessive model, log-rank p = 0.01, respectively) and event-free survival (HR 1.31, 95%CI 1.03-1.68, log-rank p = 0.004 and HR 0.64, 95%CI 0.42-0.96, log-rank p = 0.006, respectively) after adjustment for age, sex and TNM stage. Our data suggest that genetic variation especially in the transmembrane mucin gene MUC4 may play a role in the survival of CRC and further studies are warranted.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Mucina-4/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , República Tcheca , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Genótipo , Glicosilação , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucina-4/metabolismo , Mucinas/genética , Mucinas/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Fatores de Risco
20.
Mol Aspects Med ; 69: 73-92, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028771

RESUMO

Colorectal carcinogenesis is a multistep process involving the accumulation of genetic alterations over time that ultimately leads to disease progression and metastasis. Binding of transcription factors to gene promoter regions alone cannot explain the complex regulation pattern of gene expression during this process. It is the chromatin structure that allows for a high grade of regulatory flexibility for gene expression. Posttranslational modifications on histone proteins such as acetylation, methylation, or phosphorylation determine the accessibility of transcription factors to DNA. DNA methylation, a chemical modification of DNA that modulates chromatin structure and gene transcription acts in concert with these chromatin conformation alterations. Another epigenetic mechanism regulating gene expression is represented by small non-coding RNAs. Only very recently epigenetic alterations have been included in molecular subtype classification of colorectal cancer (CRC). In this chapter, we will provide examples of the different epigenetic players, focus on their role for epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastatic processes and discuss their prognostic value in CRC.


Assuntos
Cromatina/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Cromatina/metabolismo , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Epistasia Genética , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA