Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 66
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679650

RESUMO

Cytokines are essential regulatory components of the immune system, and their aberrant levels have been linked to many disease states. Despite increasing evidence that cytokines operate in concert, many of the physiological interactions between cytokines, and the shared genetic architecture that underlies them, remain unknown. Here, we aimed to identify and characterize genetic variants with pleiotropic effects on cytokines. Using three population-based cohorts (n = 9,263), we performed multivariate genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for a correlation network of 11 circulating cytokines, then combined our results in meta-analysis. We identified a total of eight loci significantly associated with the cytokine network, of which two (PDGFRB and ABO) had not been detected previously. In addition, conditional analyses revealed a further four secondary signals at three known cytokine loci. Integration, through the use of Bayesian colocalization analysis, of publicly available GWAS summary statistics with the cytokine network associations revealed shared causal variants between the eight cytokine loci and other traits; in particular, cytokine network variants at the ABO, SERPINE2, and ZFPM2 loci showed pleiotropic effects on the production of immune-related proteins, on metabolic traits such as lipoprotein and lipid levels, on blood-cell-related traits such as platelet count, and on disease traits such as coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes.

2.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223692, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: GlycA is a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy biomarker that predicts risk of disease from myriad causes. It is heterogeneous; arising from five circulating glycoproteins with dynamic concentrations: alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT), alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), haptoglobin (HP), transferrin (TF), and alpha-1-antichymotrypsin (AACT). The contributions of each glycoprotein to the disease and mortality risks predicted by GlycA remain unknown. METHODS: We trained imputation models for AAT, AGP, HP, and TF from NMR metabolite measurements in 626 adults from a population cohort with matched NMR and immunoassay data. Levels of AAT, AGP, and HP were estimated in 11,861 adults from two population cohorts with eight years of follow-up, then each biomarker was tested for association with all common endpoints. Whole blood gene expression data was used to identify cellular processes associated with elevated AAT. RESULTS: Accurate imputation models were obtained for AAT, AGP, and HP but not for TF. While AGP had the strongest correlation with GlycA, our analysis revealed variation in imputed AAT levels was the most predictive of morbidity and mortality for the widest range of diseases over the eight year follow-up period, including heart failure (meta-analysis hazard ratio = 1.60 per standard deviation increase of AAT, P-value = 1×10-10), influenza and pneumonia (HR = 1.37, P = 6×10-10), and liver diseases (HR = 1.81, P = 1×10-6). Transcriptional analyses revealed association of elevated AAT with diverse inflammatory immune pathways. CONCLUSIONS: This study clarifies the molecular underpinnings of the GlycA biomarker's associated disease risk, and indicates a previously unrecognised association between elevated AAT and severe disease onset and mortality.

3.
Diabetologia ; 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584131

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Metabolomics technologies have identified numerous blood biomarkers for type 2 diabetes risk in case-control studies of middle-aged and older individuals. We aimed to validate existing and identify novel metabolic biomarkers predictive of future diabetes in large cohorts of young adults. METHODS: NMR metabolomics was used to quantify 229 circulating metabolic measures in 11,896 individuals from four Finnish observational cohorts (baseline age 24-45 years). Associations between baseline metabolites and risk of developing diabetes during 8-15 years of follow-up (392 incident cases) were adjusted for sex, age, BMI and fasting glucose. Prospective metabolite associations were also tested with fasting glucose, 2 h glucose and HOMA-IR at follow-up. RESULTS: Out of 229 metabolic measures, 113 were associated with incident type 2 diabetes in meta-analysis of the four cohorts (ORs per 1 SD: 0.59-1.50; p< 0.0009). Among the strongest biomarkers of diabetes risk were branched-chain and aromatic amino acids (OR 1.31-1.33) and triacylglycerol within VLDL particles (OR 1.33-1.50), as well as linoleic n-6 fatty acid (OR 0.75) and non-esterified cholesterol in large HDL particles (OR 0.59). The metabolic biomarkers were more strongly associated with deterioration in post-load glucose and insulin resistance than with future fasting hyperglycaemia. A multi-metabolite score comprised of phenylalanine, non-esterified cholesterol in large HDL and the ratio of cholesteryl ester to total lipid in large VLDL was associated with future diabetes risk (OR 10.1 comparing individuals in upper vs lower fifth of the multi-metabolite score) in one of the cohorts (mean age 31 years). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Metabolic biomarkers across multiple molecular pathways are already predictive of the long-term risk of diabetes in young adults. Comprehensive metabolic profiling may help to target preventive interventions for young asymptomatic individuals at increased risk.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3346, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431621

RESUMO

Predicting longer-term mortality risk requires collection of clinical data, which is often cumbersome. Therefore, we use a well-standardized metabolomics platform to identify metabolic predictors of long-term mortality in the circulation of 44,168 individuals (age at baseline 18-109), of whom 5512 died during follow-up. We apply a stepwise (forward-backward) procedure based on meta-analysis results and identify 14 circulating biomarkers independently associating with all-cause mortality. Overall, these associations are similar in men and women and across different age strata. We subsequently show that the prediction accuracy of 5- and 10-year mortality based on a model containing the identified biomarkers and sex (C-statistic = 0.837 and 0.830, respectively) is better than that of a model containing conventional risk factors for mortality (C-statistic = 0.772 and 0.790, respectively). The use of the identified metabolic profile as a predictor of mortality or surrogate endpoint in clinical studies needs further investigation.

5.
BMJ Open ; 9(Suppl 3): 106-117, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273021

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics is high throughput and cost-effective, with the potential to improve the understanding of disease and risk. We examine the circulating metabolic profile by quantitative NMR metabolomics of a sample of Australian 11-12 year olds children and their parents, describe differences by age and sex, and explore the correlation of metabolites in parent-child dyads. DESIGN: The population-based cross-sectional Child Health CheckPoint study nested within the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. SETTING: Blood samples collected from CheckPoint participants at assessment centres in seven Australian cities and eight regional towns; February 2015-March 2016. PARTICIPANTS: 1180 children and 1325 parents provided a blood sample and had metabolomics data available. This included 1133 parent-child dyads (518 mother-daughter, 469 mother-son, 68 father-daughter and 78 father-son). OUTCOME MEASURES: 228 metabolic measures were obtained for each participant. We focused on 74 biomarkers including amino acid species, lipoprotein subclass measures, lipids, fatty acids, measures related to fatty acid saturation, and composite markers of inflammation and energy homeostasis. RESULTS: We identified differences in the concentration of specific metabolites between childhood and adulthood and in metabolic profiles in children and adults by sex. In general, metabolite concentrations were higher in adults than children and sex differences were larger in adults than in children. Positive correlations were observed for the majority of metabolites including isoleucine (CC 0.33, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.38), total cholesterol (CC 0.30, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.35) and omega 6 fatty acids (CC 0.28, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.34) in parent-child comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: We describe the serum metabolite profiles from mid-childhood and adulthood in a population-based sample, together with a parent-child concordance. Differences in profiles by age and sex were observed. These data will be informative for investigation of the childhood origins of adult non-communicable diseases and for comparative studies in other populations.

6.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 39(4): 665-674, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816800

RESUMO

Objective- Loss-of-function (LOF) variants in the ANGPTL3 (angiopoietin-like protein 3) have been associated with low levels of plasma lipoproteins and decreased coronary artery disease risk. We aimed to determine detailed metabolic effects of genetically induced ANGPTL3 deficiency in fasting and postprandial state. Approach and Results- We studied individuals carrying S17X LOF mutation in ANGPTL3 (6 homozygous and 32 heterozygous carriers) and 38 noncarriers. Nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics was used to quantify 225 circulating metabolic measures. We compared metabolic differences between LOF carriers and noncarriers in fasting state and after a high-fat meal. In fasting, ANGPTL3 deficiency was characterized by similar extent of reductions in LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol (0.74 SD units lower concentration per LOF allele [95% CI, 0.42-1.06]) as observed for many TRL (triglyceride-rich lipoprotein) measures, including VLDL (very-low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol (0.75 [95% CI, 0.45-1.05]). Within most lipoprotein subclasses, absolute levels of cholesterol were decreased more than triglycerides, resulting in the relative proportion of cholesterol being reduced within TRLs and their remnants. Further, ß-hydroxybutyrate was elevated (0.55 [95% CI, 0.21-0.89]). Homozygous ANGPTL3 LOF carriers showed essentially no postprandial increase in TRLs and fatty acids, without evidence for adverse compensatory metabolic effects. Conclusions- In addition to overall triglyceride- and LDL cholesterol-lowering effects, ANGPTL3 deficiency results in reduction of cholesterol proportion within TRLs and their remnants. Further, ANGPTL3 LOF carriers had elevated ketone body production, suggesting enhanced hepatic fatty acid ß-oxidation. The detailed metabolic profile in human knockouts of ANGPTL3 reinforces inactivation of ANGPTL3 as a promising therapeutic target for decreasing cardiovascular risk.

7.
Circulation ; 138(22): 2499-2512, 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30524137

RESUMO

Background: Both statins and PCSK9 inhibitors lower blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels to reduce risk of cardiovascular events. To assess potential differences between metabolic effects of these two lipid-lowering therapies, we performed detailed lipid and metabolite profiling of a large randomized statin trial and compared the results with the effects of genetic inhibition of PCSK9, acting as a naturally occurring trial. Methods: 228 circulating metabolic measures were quantified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, including lipoprotein subclass concentrations and their lipid composition, fatty acids, and amino acids, for 5,359 individuals (2,659 on treatment) in the PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER) trial at 6-months post-randomization. The corresponding metabolic measures were analyzed in eight population cohorts (N=72,185) using PCSK9 rs11591147 as an unconfounded proxy to mimic the therapeutic effects of PCSK9 inhibitors. Results: Scaled to an equivalent lowering of LDL-C, the effects of genetic inhibition of PCSK9 on 228 metabolic markers were generally consistent with those of statin therapy (R 2=0.88). Alterations in lipoprotein lipid composition and fatty acid distribution were similar. However, discrepancies were observed for very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) lipid measures. For instance, genetic inhibition of PCSK9 had weaker effects on lowering of VLDL-cholesterol compared with statin therapy (54% vs. 77% reduction, relative to the lowering effect on LDL-C; P=2x10-7 for heterogeneity). Genetic inhibition of PCSK9 showed no significant effects on amino acids, ketones, or a marker of inflammation (GlycA) whereas statin treatment weakly lowered GlycA levels. Conclusions: Genetic inhibition of PCSK9 had similar metabolic effects to statin therapy on detailed lipid and metabolite profiles. However, PCSK9 inhibitors are predicted to have weaker effects on VLDL lipids compared with statins for an equivalent lowering of LDL-C, which potentially translate into smaller reductions in cardiovascular disease risk.

8.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 11(11): e002234, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30571186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Integration of systems-level biomolecular information with electronic health records has led to recent interest in the glycoprotein acetyls (GlycA) biomarker-a serum- or plasma-derived nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy signal that represents the abundance of circulating glycated proteins. GlycA predicts risk of diverse outcomes, including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and all-cause mortality; however, the underlying detailed associations of GlycA's morbidity and mortality risk are currently unknown. METHODS: We used 2 population-based cohorts totaling 11 861 adults from the Finnish general population to test for an association with 468 common incident hospitalization and mortality outcomes during an 8-year follow-up. Further, we utilized 900 angiography patients to test for GlycA association with mortality risk and potential utility for mortality risk discrimination during 12-year follow-up. RESULTS: New associations with GlycA and incident alcoholic liver disease, chronic renal failure, glomerular diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory polyarthropathies, and hypertension were uncovered, and known incident disease associations were replicated. GlycA associations for incident disease outcomes were in general not attenuated when adjusting for hsCRP (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein). Among 900 patients referred to angiography, GlycA had hazard ratios of 4.87 (95% CI, 2.45-9.65) and 5.00 (95% CI, 2.38-10.48) for 12-year risk of mortality in the fourth and fifth quintiles by GlycA levels, demonstrating its prognostic potential for identification of high-risk individuals. When modeled together, both hsCRP and GlycA were attenuated but remained significant. CONCLUSIONS: GlycA was predictive of myriad incident diseases across many major internal organs and stratified mortality risk in angiography patients. Both GlycA and hsCRP had shared and independent contributions to mortality risk, suggesting chronic inflammation as an etiological factor. GlycA may be useful in improving risk prediction in specific disease settings.


Assuntos
Ciências Biocomportamentais , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Nefropatias , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico por imagem , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Nefropatias/sangue , Nefropatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
9.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2018 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30420679

RESUMO

According to the current dogma, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) decreases high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (C) and increases low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-C. However, detailed insight into the effects of CETP on lipoprotein subclasses is lacking. Therefore, we used a Mendelian randomization approach based on a genetic score for serum CETP concentration (rs247616, rs12720922 and rs1968905) to estimate causal effects per unit (µg/mL) increase in CETP on 159 standardized metabolic biomarkers, primarily lipoprotein subclasses. Metabolic biomarkers were measured by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in 5672 participants of the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study. Higher CETP concentrations were associated with less large HDL (largest effect XL-HDL-C, P = 6 × 10-22) and more small VLDL components (largest effect S-VLDL cholesteryl esters, P = 6 × 10-6). No causal effects were observed with LDL subclasses. All these effects were replicated in an independent cohort from European ancestry (MAGNETIC NMR GWAS; n ~20,000). Additionally, we assessed observational associations between ELISA-measured CETP concentration and metabolic measures. In contrast to results from Mendelian randomization, observationally, CETP concentration predominantly associated with more VLDL, IDL and LDL components. Our results show that CETP is an important causal determinant of HDL and VLDL concentration and composition, which may imply that the CETP inhibitor anacetrapib decreased cardiovascular disease risk through specific reduction of small VLDL rather than LDL. The contrast between genetic and observational associations might be explained by a high capacity of VLDL, IDL and LDL subclasses to carry CETP, thereby concealing causal effects on HDL.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30352818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether associations between circulating metabolites and prostate cancer are causal is unknown. We report on the largest study of metabolites and prostate cancer (2,291 cases and 2,661 controls) and appraise causality for a subset of the prostate cancer-metabolite associations using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The case-control portion of the study was conducted in nine UK centres with men aged 50-69 years who underwent prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for prostate cancer within the Prostate testing for cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) trial. Two data sources were used to appraise causality: a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of metabolites in 24,925 participants and a GWAS of prostate cancer in 44,825 cases and 27,904 controls within the Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome (PRACTICAL) consortium. RESULTS: Thirty-five metabolites were strongly associated with prostate cancer (p <0.0014, multiple-testing threshold). These fell into four classes: i) lipids and lipoprotein subclass characteristics (total cholesterol and ratios, cholesterol esters and ratios, free cholesterol and ratios, phospholipids and ratios, and triglyceride ratios); ii) fatty acids and ratios; iii) amino acids; iv) and fluid balance. Fourteen top metabolites were proxied by genetic variables, but MR indicated these were not causal. CONCLUSIONS: We identified 35 circulating metabolites associated with prostate cancer presence, but found no evidence of causality for those 14 testable with MR. Thus, the 14 MR-tested metabolites are unlikely to be mechanistically important in prostate cancer risk. IMPACT: The metabolome provides a promising set of biomarkers that may aid prostate cancer classification.

11.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 15249, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30323304

RESUMO

Using targeted NMR spectroscopy of 227 fasting serum metabolic traits, we searched for novel metabolic signatures of renal function in 926 type 2 diabetics (T2D) and 4838 non-diabetic individuals from four independent cohorts. We furthermore investigated longitudinal changes of metabolic measures and renal function and associations with other T2D microvascular complications. 142 traits correlated with glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) after adjusting for confounders and multiple testing: 59 in diabetics, 109 in non-diabetics with 26 overlapping. The amino acids glycine and phenylalanine and the energy metabolites citrate and glycerol were negatively associated with eGFR in all the cohorts, while alanine, valine and pyruvate depicted opposite association in diabetics (positive) and non-diabetics (negative). Moreover, in all cohorts, the triglyceride content of different lipoprotein subclasses showed a negative association with eGFR, while cholesterol, cholesterol esters (CE), and phospholipids in HDL were associated with better renal function. In contrast, phospholipids and CEs in LDL showed positive associations with eGFR only in T2D, while phospholipid content in HDL was positively associated with eGFR both cross-sectionally and longitudinally only in non-diabetics. In conclusion, we provide a wide list of kidney function-associated metabolic traits and identified novel metabolic differences between diabetic and non-diabetic kidney disease.

12.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30325021

RESUMO

Lycopene and green tea consumption have been observationally associated with reduced prostate cancer risk, but the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. We investigated the effect of factorial randomisation to a 6-month lycopene and green tea dietary advice or supplementation intervention on 159 serum metabolite measures in 128 men with raised PSA levels (but prostate cancer-free), analysed by intention-to-treat. The causal effects of metabolites modified by the intervention on prostate cancer risk were then assessed by Mendelian randomization, using summary statistics from 44,825 prostate cancer cases and 27,904 controls. The systemic effects of lycopene and green tea supplementation on serum metabolic profile were comparable to the effects of the respective dietary advice interventions (R2 = 0.65 and 0.76 for lycopene and green tea respectively). Metabolites which were altered in response to lycopene supplementation were acetate (ß (standard deviation difference versus placebo): 0.69; 95% CI= 0.24, 1.15; p=0.003), valine (ß: -0.62; -1.03, -0.02; p=0.004), pyruvate (ß: -0.56; -0.95, -0.16; p=0.006), and docosahexaenoic acid (ß: -0.50; -085, -0.14; p=0.006). Valine and diacylglycerol were lower in the lycopene dietary advice group (ß: -0.65; -1.04, -0.26; p=0.001 and ß: -0.59; -1.01, -0.18; p=0.006). A genetically instrumented SD increase in pyruvate increased the odds of prostate cancer by 1.29 (1.03, 1.62; p=0.027). An intervention to increase lycopene intake altered the serum metabolome of men at risk of prostate cancer. Lycopene lowered levels of pyruvate, which our Mendelian randomization analysis suggests may be causally related to reduced prostate cancer risk. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

13.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 8620, 2018 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29872056

RESUMO

Diet may modify metabolomic profiles towards higher or lower cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We aimed to identify metabolite profiles associated with high adherence to dietary recommendations - the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) - and the extent to which metabolites associated with AHEI also predict incident CVD. Relations between AHEI score and 80 circulating lipids and metabolites, quantified by nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics, were examined using linear regression models in the Whitehall II study (n = 4824, 55.9 ± 6.1 years, 28.0% women) and were replicated in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study (n = 1716, 37.7 ± 5.0 years, 56.3% women). We used Cox models to study associations between metabolites and incident CVD over the 15.8-year follow-up in the Whitehall II study. After adjustment for confounders, higher AHEI score (indicating healthier diet) was associated with higher degree of unsaturation of fatty acids (FA) and higher ratios of polyunsaturated FA, omega-3 and docosahexaenoic acid relative to total FA in both Whitehall II and Young Finns studies. A concordance of associations of metabolites with higher AHEI score and lower CVD risk was observed in Whitehall II. Adherence to healthy diet seems to be associated with specific FA that reduce risk of CVD.

14.
Diabetologia ; 61(7): 1581-1591, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29728717

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESES: We aimed to quantify the association of individual circulating amino acids with macrovascular disease, microvascular disease and all-cause mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We performed a case-cohort study (N = 3587), including 655 macrovascular events, 342 microvascular events (new or worsening nephropathy or retinopathy) and 632 all-cause mortality events during follow-up, in a secondary analysis of the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE) study. For this study, phenylalanine, isoleucine, glutamine, leucine, alanine, tyrosine, histidine and valine were measured in stored plasma samples by proton NMR metabolomics. Hazard ratios were modelled per SD increase in each amino acid. RESULTS: In models investigating associations and potential mechanisms, after adjusting for age, sex and randomised treatment, phenylalanine was positively, and histidine inversely, associated with macrovascular disease risk. These associations were attenuated to the null on further adjustment for extended classical risk factors (including eGFR and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio). After adjustment for extended classical risk factors, higher tyrosine and alanine levels were associated with decreased risk of microvascular disease (HR 0.78; 95% CI 0.67, 0.91 and HR 0.86; 95% CI 0.76, 0.98, respectively). Higher leucine (HR 0.79; 95% CI 0.69, 0.90), histidine (HR 0.89; 95% CI 0.81, 0.99) and valine (HR 0.79; 95% CI 0.70, 0.88) levels were associated with lower risk of mortality. Investigating the predictive ability of amino acids, addition of all amino acids to a risk score modestly improved classification of participants for macrovascular (continuous net reclassification index [NRI] +35.5%, p < 0.001) and microvascular events (continuous NRI +14.4%, p = 0.012). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: We report distinct associations between circulating amino acids and risk of different major complications of diabetes. Low tyrosine appears to be a marker of microvascular risk in individuals with type 2 diabetes independently of fundamental markers of kidney function.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Nefropatias Diabéticas/sangue , Nefropatias Diabéticas/mortalidade , Retinopatia Diabética/sangue , Retinopatia Diabética/mortalidade , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(12): 2214-2223, 2018 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29648650

RESUMO

Fatty liver has been associated with unfavourable metabolic changes in circulation. To provide insights in fatty liver-related metabolic deviations, we compared metabolic association profile of fatty liver versus metabolic association profiles of genotypes increasing the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The cross-sectional associations of ultrasound-ascertained fatty liver with 123 metabolic measures were determined in 1810 (Nfatty liver = 338) individuals aged 34-49 years from The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. The association profiles of NAFLD-risk alleles in PNPLA3, TM6SF2, GCKR, and LYPLAL1 with the corresponding metabolic measures were obtained from a publicly available metabolomics GWAS including up to 24 925 Europeans. The risk alleles showed different metabolic effects: PNPLA3 rs738409-G, the strongest genetic NAFLD risk factor, did not associate with metabolic changes. Metabolic effects of GCKR rs1260326-T were comparable in many respects to the fatty liver associations. Metabolic effects of LYPLAL1 rs12137855-C were similar, but statistically less robust, to the effects of GCKR rs1260326-T. TM6SF2 rs58542926-T displayed opposite metabolic effects when compared with the fatty liver associations. The metabolic effects of the risk alleles highlight heterogeneity of the molecular pathways leading to fatty liver and suggest that the fatty liver-related changes in the circulating lipids and metabolites may vary depending on the underlying pathophysiological mechanism. Despite the robust cross-sectional associations on population level, the present results showing neutral or cardioprotective metabolic effects for some of the NAFLD risk alleles advocate that hepatic lipid accumulation by itself may not increase the level of circulating lipids or other metabolites.

16.
Alzheimers Dement ; 14(6): 723-733, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29519576

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Metabolite, lipid, and lipoprotein lipid profiling can provide novel insights into mechanisms underlying incident dementia and Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: We studied eight prospective cohorts with 22,623 participants profiled by nuclear magnetic resonance or mass spectrometry metabolomics. Four cohorts were used for discovery with replication undertaken in the other four to avoid false positives. For metabolites that survived replication, combined association results are presented. RESULTS: Over 246,698 person-years, 995 and 745 cases of incident dementia and Alzheimer's disease were detected, respectively. Three branched-chain amino acids (isoleucine, leucine, and valine), creatinine and two very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-specific lipoprotein lipid subclasses were associated with lower dementia risk. One high density lipoprotein (HDL; the concentration of cholesterol esters relative to total lipids in large HDL) and one VLDL (total cholesterol to total lipids ratio in very large VLDL) lipoprotein lipid subclass was associated with increased dementia risk. Branched-chain amino acids were also associated with decreased Alzheimer's disease risk and the concentration of cholesterol esters relative to total lipids in large HDL with increased Alzheimer's disease risk. DISCUSSION: Further studies can clarify whether these molecules play a causal role in dementia pathogenesis or are merely markers of early pathology.

17.
J Pediatr ; 195: 190-198.e3, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29397160

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study the effects of repeated, infancy-onset dietary counseling on a detailed metabolic profile. Effects of dietary saturated fat replacement on circulating concentrations of metabolic biomarkers still remain unknown. STUDY DESIGN: The Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project (STRIP) study is a longitudinal, randomized atherosclerosis prevention trial in which repeated dietary counseling aimed at reducing the proportion of saturated fat intake. Nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics quantified circulating metabolites from serum samples assessed at age 9 (n = 554), 11 (n = 553), 13 (n = 508), 15 (n = 517), 17 (n = 457), and 19 (n = 417) years. RESULTS: The intervention reduced dietary intake of saturated fat (mean difference in daily percentage of total energy intake: -2.1 [95% CI -1.9 to -2.3]) and increased intake of polyunsaturated fat (0.6 [0.5-0.7]). The dietary counseling intervention led to greater serum proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (P < .001), with greater proportions of both circulating omega-3 (P = .02) and omega-6 (P < .001) fatty acids. The proportion of saturated fatty acids in serum was lower for both boys and girls in the intervention group (P < .001), whereas the serum proportion of monounsaturated fat was lower for boys in the intervention group only (P < .001). The intervention also reduced circulating intermediate-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein lipid concentrations (P < .01). Dietary intervention effects on nonlipid biomarkers were minor except from greater concentrations of glutamine in the intervention group. CONCLUSIONS: Repeated dietary counseling from infancy to early adulthood yielded favorable effects on multiple circulating fatty acids and lipoprotein subclass lipids, particularly in boys. These molecular effects substantiate the beneficial role of saturated fat replacement on the metabolic risk profile. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00223600.

18.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 20(4): 663-673, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29226610

RESUMO

AIMS: We investigated the association between quantified metabolite, lipid and lipoprotein measures and incident heart failure hospitalisation (HFH) in the elderly, and examined whether circulating metabolic measures improve HFH prediction. METHODS AND RESULTS: Overall, 80 metabolic measures from the PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER) trial were measured by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (n = 5341; 182 HFH events during 2.7-year follow-up). We repeated the work in FINRISK 1997 (n = 7330; 133 HFH events during 5-year follow-up). In PROSPER, the circulating concentrations of 13 metabolic measures were found to be significantly different in those who were later hospitalised for heart failure after correction for multiple comparisons. These included creatinine, phenylalanine, glycoprotein acetyls, 3-hydroxybutyrate, and various high-density lipoprotein measures. In Cox models, two metabolites were associated with risk of HFH after adjustment for clinical risk factors and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP): phenylalanine [hazard ratio (HR) 1.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.53; P = 0.002] and acetate (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.68-0.98; P = 0.026). Both were retained in the final model after backward elimination. Compared to a model with established risk factors and NT-proBNP, this model did not improve the C-index but did improve the overall continuous net reclassification index (NRI 0.21; 95% CI 0.06-0.35; P = 0.007) due to improvement in classification of non-cases (NRI 0.14; 95% CI 0.12-0.17; P < 0.001). Phenylalanine was replicated as a predictor of HFH in FINRISK 1997 (HR 1.23, 95% CI 1.03-1.48; P = 0.023). CONCLUSION: Our findings identify phenylalanine as a novel predictor of incident HFH, although prediction gains are low. Further mechanistic studies appear warranted.

19.
Am J Epidemiol ; 186(9): 1084-1096, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29106475

RESUMO

Detailed metabolic profiling in large-scale epidemiologic studies has uncovered novel biomarkers for cardiometabolic diseases and clarified the molecular associations of established risk factors. A quantitative metabolomics platform based on nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has found widespread use, already profiling over 400,000 blood samples. Over 200 metabolic measures are quantified per sample; in addition to many biomarkers routinely used in epidemiology, the method simultaneously provides fine-grained lipoprotein subclass profiling and quantification of circulating fatty acids, amino acids, gluconeogenesis-related metabolites, and many other molecules from multiple metabolic pathways. Here we focus on applications of magnetic resonance metabolomics for quantifying circulating biomarkers in large-scale epidemiology. We highlight the molecular characterization of risk factors, use of Mendelian randomization, and the key issues of study design and analyses of metabolic profiling for epidemiology. We also detail how integration of metabolic profiling data with genetics can enhance drug development. We discuss why quantitative metabolic profiling is becoming widespread in epidemiology and biobanking. Although large-scale applications of metabolic profiling are still novel, it seems likely that comprehensive biomarker data will contribute to etiologic understanding of various diseases and abilities to predict disease risks, with the potential to translate into multiple clinical settings.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Causas de Morte , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Metabolômica/instrumentação , Medição de Risco/métodos
20.
Genome Biol ; 18(1): 146, 2017 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28764798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunometabolism plays a central role in many cardiometabolic diseases. However, a robust map of immune-related gene networks in circulating human cells, their interactions with metabolites, and their genetic control is still lacking. Here, we integrate blood transcriptomic, metabolomic, and genomic profiles from two population-based cohorts (total N = 2168), including a subset of individuals with matched multi-omic data at 7-year follow-up. RESULTS: We identify topologically replicable gene networks enriched for diverse immune functions including cytotoxicity, viral response, B cell, platelet, neutrophil, and mast cell/basophil activity. These immune gene modules show complex patterns of association with 158 circulating metabolites, including lipoprotein subclasses, lipids, fatty acids, amino acids, small molecules, and CRP. Genome-wide scans for module expression quantitative trait loci (mQTLs) reveal five modules with mQTLs that have both cis and trans effects. The strongest mQTL is in ARHGEF3 (rs1354034) and affects a module enriched for platelet function, independent of platelet counts. Modules of mast cell/basophil and neutrophil function show temporally stable metabolite associations over 7-year follow-up, providing evidence that these modules and their constituent gene products may play central roles in metabolic inflammation. Furthermore, the strongest mQTL in ARHGEF3 also displays clear temporal stability, supporting widespread trans effects at this locus. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a detailed map of natural variation at the blood immunometabolic interface and its genetic basis, and may facilitate subsequent studies to explain inter-individual variation in cardiometabolic disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/imunologia , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Metaboloma/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/imunologia , Aminoácidos/imunologia , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/patologia , Basófilos/imunologia , Basófilos/patologia , Plaquetas/imunologia , Plaquetas/patologia , Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Proteína C-Reativa/imunologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/imunologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/imunologia , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Seguimentos , Ontologia Genética , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Lipoproteínas/genética , Lipoproteínas/imunologia , Síndrome Metabólica/imunologia , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Metaboloma/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Troca de Nucleotídeo Guanina Rho/genética , Fatores de Troca de Nucleotídeo Guanina Rho/imunologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA