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1.
Pediatr Transplant ; : e13592, 2019 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of the study was to analyze the profile of infections in children with BMF following alloHCT. METHODS: Data of 169 consecutive children with inherited and acquired BMF treated with alloHCT between 2012 and 2017 in Polish pediatric transplant departments were analyzed in registry-based retrospective study, with respect to the type of infection, and clinical outcome. RESULTS: At least 1 infection was diagnosed in 107/169 patients (60.4%). In total, 182 infections were diagnosed. The most common were VI (96; 52.7%), followed by BI (71; 39.0%), and FI (15; 8.2%), P < .001. The most common etiological factors of VI were as follows: CMV (38.5%), EBV (22.9%), and BK virus (24%); while of BI were as follows: Staphylococcus spp. (17; 23.9%), Enterococcus faecium (10; 14.1%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (9; 12.7%). No difference was found between the occurrence of infections with respect to donor type, graft source, and conditioning type. GvHD had no impact on the incidence of VI, BI, and FI. Fifteen FI were diagnosed in 12 patients, of which 14 FI were diagnosed in children transplanted for FA. Of total 107 children, 9 died (8.4%), of which 4 (3.7%) due to infections: bacterial sepsis (2) and invasive FI (2). CONCLUSION: Infections in children with BMF following alloHCT remain an important cause of morbidity. Children with FA had high incidence of FI. In our analysis, aGvHD had no impact on the occurrence on infections, although the study was not strong enough to prove such a difference.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622770

RESUMO

Despite the fact that the choice of donors and the number of sources of hematopoietic stem cells have increased, a sibling remains a preferred donor for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Transplant donation between siblings is a unique life experience that may have an impact on their future relationship. The aim of the study was to quantitatively measure the quality of life (QoL) in patients who underwent transplant and to describe the relationship between a recipient and a sibling donor after HSCT. We identified and invited 82 adults aged 18.0 to 38.7 years (median, 23.6) who underwent HSCT in our center and their sibling donors to participate in this survey. Forty-five patients (54.9%) and their siblings consented to take part in the study. The studied group consisted of 45 MSD-HSCT recipients (19 women and 26 men) aged 18.0 to 36.2 (median, 28.5) years, who underwent MSD-HSCT at the age of 5.8 to 16.3 (median, 11.9) years, and their sibling donors aged 21.0 to 36.0 (median, 31.0) years, who were aged 11.2 to 20.2 (median, 15.5) years at bone marrow harvesting. For QoL and sibling relationship assessment, we used the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Bone Marrow Transplantation (FACT-BMT) and the Adult Sibling Relationship Questionnaire (ASQR). Higher scores indicate better quality of life in each scale of the FACT-BMT and the more significant is the factor in a sibling relationship measured by the ASQR. The questionnaires were given to both subgroups, HSCT recipients and donors, and the results were compared with each other. The overall result of the FACT-BMT questionnaire was 117 ± 35.0. The highest QoL was found in the functional (25.0 ± 3.5) and social well-being (25.0 ± 3.5) subscales, whereas the worst was in the emotional well-being (18.0 ± 9.5) subscale. Statistically, the QoL score was not influenced by current age (P = .378), age at the moment of HSCT (P = .256), and sex (P = .117). Being a recipient or a donor of HSCT was not a significant factor associated with warmth (2.6 ± 0.5 versus 3.1 ± 0.5; P = .830) and conflict (2.0 ± 0.7 versus 2.1 ± 1.2; P = .886) within the sibling relationship, whereas recipients scored significantly lower in rivalry within the sibling relationship compared with HSCT donors (0.8 ± 0.3 versus 1.2 ± 0.2; P = .012). The FACT Treatment Outcome Index remained the only significant predictor of warmth in the sibling relationship between HSCT recipient and donor. QoL in adult patients after HSCT in childhood was good. Sibling donor-recipient relationship is unbalanced, with a higher level of rivalry presented among donors. Further multicenter studies based on a larger cohort of patients are necessary to assess all aspects of the sibling relationship after transplantation experience.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319153

RESUMO

Eligibility criteria for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) vary according to disease characteristics, response to treatment, and type of available donor. As the risk profile of the patient worsens, a wider degree of HLA mismatching is considered acceptable. A total of 138 children and adolescents who underwent HSCT from HLA-identical sibling donors (MSDs) and 210 who underwent HSCT from matched donors (MDs) (median age, 9 years; 68% male) in 10 countries were enrolled in the International-BFM ALL SCT 2007 prospective study to assess the impact of donor type in HSCT for pediatric ALL. The 4-year event-free survival (65 ± 5% vs 61 ± 4%; P = .287), overall survival (72 ± 4% versus 68 ± 4%; P = .235), cumulative incidence of relapse (24 ± 4% versus 25 ± 3%; P = .658) and nonrelapse mortality (10 ± 3% versus 14 ± 3%; P = .212) were not significantly different between MSD and MD graft recipients. The risk of extensive chronic (cGVHD) was lower in MD graft recipients than in MSD graft recipients (hazard ratio [HR], .38; P = .002), and the risks of severe acute GVHD (aGVHD) and cGVHD were higher in peripheral blood stem cell graft recipients than in bone marrow graft recipients (HR, 2.06; P = .026). Compared with the absence of aGVHD, grade I-II aGVHD was associated with a lower risk of graft failure (HR, .63; P = .042) and grade III-IV aGVHD was associated with a higher risk of graft failure (HR, 1.85; P = .020) and nonleukemic death (HR, 8.76; P < .0001), despite a lower risk of relapse (HR, .32; P = .021). Compared with the absence of cGVHD, extensive cGVHD was associated with a higher risk of nonleukemic death (HR, 8.12; P < .0001). Because the outcomes of transplantation from a matched donor were not inferior to those of transplantation from an HLA-identical sibling, eligibility criteria for transplantation might be reviewed in pediatric ALL and possibly in other malignancies as well. Bone marrow should be the preferred stem cell source, and the addition of MTX should be considered in MSD graft recipients.

5.
Ann Hematol ; 98(9): 2197-2211, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321454

RESUMO

Incidence and outcome of microbiologically documented bacterial/viral infections and invasive fungal disease (IFD) in children and adults after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) were compared in 650 children and 3200 adults in multicenter cross-sectional nationwide study. Infections were diagnosed in 60.8% children and 35.0% adults, including respectively 69.1% and 63.5% allo-HCT, and 33.1% and 20.8% auto-HCT patients. The incidence of bacterial infections was higher in children (36.0% vs 27.6%; p < 0.0001). Infections with Gram-negative bacteria were more frequent than Gram-positives in adults (64.6% vs 44.8%; p < 0.0001). Outcome of bacterial infections was better in children (95.5% vs 91.4%; p = 0.0011). The IFD incidence (25.3% vs 6.3%; p < 0.0001) and outcome (88.0% vs 74.9%; p < 0.0001) were higher in children. The incidence of viral infections was higher in children after allo-HCT (56.3% vs 29.3%; p < 0.0001), and auto-HCT (6.6% vs 0.8%; p < 0.0001). Outcome of viral infections was better in children (98.6% vs 92.3%; p = 0.0096). Infection-related mortality was 7.8% in children and 18.4% in adults (p < 0.0001). No child after auto-HCT died of infection. Adult age, mismatched transplants, acute leukemia, chronic GVHD, CMV reactivation, infection with Gram-negatives, and duration of infection > 21 days were risk factors for death from infection. In conclusion, pediatric patients have 2.9-fold higher incidence and 2.5-fold better outcome of infections than adults after HCT.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/epidemiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/epidemiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/epidemiologia , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Infecções Bacterianas/etiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/etiologia , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/etiologia , Leucemia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
6.
Ann Transplant ; 24: 374-382, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The objective of this study was the analysis of transplant outcomes and survival in children treated with allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) for non-malignant disorders, with a focus on risk factor analysis of transplant-related mortality (TRM). MATERIAL AND METHODS The treatment outcome was analyzed retrospectively in 10 consecutive years in 4 pediatric transplant centers in Poland. To compare the outcomes, patient data were analyzed according to the diagnosis, age at transplant, donor type, stem cell source, conditioning regimens, transplanted CD34+ cells dose, and pediatric TRM score. RESULTS From 183 analyzed patients, 27 (14.8%) died, all of them due to transplant-related complications. TRM occurred more frequently in matched unrelated donor (MUD) transplant recipients vs. matched sibling donor (MSD) transplant recipients (p=0.02); in peripheral blood (PB) recipients vs. bone marrow (BM) recipients (p=0.004); and in patients receiving >5×106/kg CD34+ cells (p<0.0001). OS differed significantly according to underlying disease comparing to other diagnoses. Lower survival was found in patients transplanted from MUD (p=0.02). OS was higher in patients receiving BM (p=0.001) and in those receiving ≤5×106/kg CD34+ cells (p<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed lower probability of TRM in BM recipients (p=0.04). The probability of TRM was higher in SCID patients (p=0.02) and in patients receiving >5×106/kg CD34+ cells (p=0.0001). CONCLUSIONS Underlying disease, stem cell source, and CD34+ dose higher than 5×106/kg were the most important risk factors for TRM, and they all affected OS.

7.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-8, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132917

RESUMO

The aim of this nationwide study was to describe the epidemiology and profile of bacterial infections (BI), invasive fungal disease (IFD) and viral infections (VI) in patients with de novo and relapsed/refractory (rel/ref) acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Within the studied group of 250 children with primary AML, at least one infectious complication (IC) was diagnosed in 76.0% (n = 190) children including 85.1% (n = 504) episodes of BI, 8.3% (n = 49) - IFD and 6.6% (n = 39) - VI. Among 61 patients with rel/ref AML, at least one IC was found in 67.2% (n = 41) of children including 78.8% (n = 78) of BI, 14.1% (n = 14) of IFD and 7.1% (n = 7) of VI. In all AML patients, within BI Gram-negative strains were predominant. Half of these strains were multi-drug resistant. Characteristics of IFD and VI were comparable for de novo and rel/ref AML. The infection-related mortality was significantly higher, while survival from infection was significantly lower in patients with rel/ref disease.

8.
Nat Protoc ; 14(3): 639-702, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787451

RESUMO

Constraint-based reconstruction and analysis (COBRA) provides a molecular mechanistic framework for integrative analysis of experimental molecular systems biology data and quantitative prediction of physicochemically and biochemically feasible phenotypic states. The COBRA Toolbox is a comprehensive desktop software suite of interoperable COBRA methods. It has found widespread application in biology, biomedicine, and biotechnology because its functions can be flexibly combined to implement tailored COBRA protocols for any biochemical network. This protocol is an update to the COBRA Toolbox v.1.0 and v.2.0. Version 3.0 includes new methods for quality-controlled reconstruction, modeling, topological analysis, strain and experimental design, and network visualization, as well as network integration of chemoinformatic, metabolomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and thermochemical data. New multi-lingual code integration also enables an expansion in COBRA application scope via high-precision, high-performance, and nonlinear numerical optimization solvers for multi-scale, multi-cellular, and reaction kinetic modeling, respectively. This protocol provides an overview of all these new features and can be adapted to generate and analyze constraint-based models in a wide variety of scenarios. The COBRA Toolbox v.3.0 provides an unparalleled depth of COBRA methods.


Assuntos
Modelos Biológicos , Software , Genoma , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Biologia de Sistemas
9.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-9, 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30392426

RESUMO

The objective of this nation-wide study was to evaluate the epidemiology and profile of bacterial (BI), viral (VI), and invasive fungal disease (IFD) in patients treated for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) between the years 2013-2015. In the analyzed period of time, within the studied group of 328 children diagnosed and treated for lymphomas, at least one infectious complication (IC) was diagnosed i.e. 39.3% children. In these patients there were 350 episodes of IC, therein 80.6% episodes of BI, 11.1% episodes of VI, and 8.3% episodes of IFD. In both groups, NHL and HL patients, a stable level of bacterial infections, with an increase in resistance rates, and increased levels of viral and fungal infections were observed. Profile of BI does not depend on lymphoma type, with predominance of Gram-negative bacteria and higher prevalence of MDR pathogens. The overall survival of lymphoma patients with IC was comparable for different types of infections.

10.
Oncol Lett ; 16(4): 4699-4706, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30214603

RESUMO

Activity of the enzyme thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) determines the anti-leukemic effect of thiopurines used in the chemotherapy of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML). TPMT status and its effects on treatment outcome have been studied extensively in ALL and autoimmune disorders, but few data is available on TPMT in AML. The present study assessed the genetic polymorphisms and activity of TPMT in children with AML at different treatment stages, and compared the results with those obtained for children with ALL. The study included 33 children with AML (0.7-19.7 years) treated with 6-thioguanine (6-TG) according to the AML-BFM 2004 Protocol. Blood samples were collected at diagnosis, during and following maintenance chemotherapy from 8, 10 and 17 patients with AML (the assay was performed at two time points in 2 patients), respectively. Blood samples from 105 children with ALL were obtained at diagnosis, during the maintenance chemotherapy and following the cessation of the chemotherapy from 16, 55 and 34 children, respectively. The activity of TPMT in red blood cells lysates was measured using an enzymatic reaction based on the conversion of 6-mercaptopurine into 6-methylmercaptopurine, involving S-adenozyl-L-methionine as the methyl group donor. TPMT mutations were determined using a polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Median TPMT activity at diagnosis, during maintenance chemotherapy and following chemotherapy was 43.1, 47,3 and 41.7 nmol 6-mMP g-1 Hb h-1, respectively. All patients with AML exhibited the homozygous TPMT*1/*1 genotype, with the exception of 1, who was a heterozygote with the TPMT*1/*3C genotype and demonstrated a TPMT activity level at diagnosis of 42.5 nmol 6-mMP g-1 Hb h-1. At each chemotherapy stage, the median TPMT activities in children with AML were significantly increased compared with the median TPMT activities in children with ALL. The preliminary results suggest that the TPMT activity in AML may be increased compared with that in ALL. Comprehensive studies on the association between thiopurine metabolism and treatment outcome in AML are required, with regard to the cytogenetic and molecular factors currently used for AML risk stratification.

11.
Transfus Apher Sci ; 57(3): 316-322, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29880247

RESUMO

The purpose of the survey was to evaluate the development and current use of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in Poland between 1989-2016. The data for analysis (indication, number of performed HSCT, HSCT type, donor type, and stem cell source, year) have been collected annually using a standardized form. In Poland, between 1989-2016, the number of pediatric transplant beds grew from one to 40 and number and rate of transplants increased annually from 1/year (0.8/10 million) to 186/year (248/10 million). During the analyzed time period 2506 HSCTs were performed, including 1718 (68.6%) allogeneic transplants (allo-HSCT) with142 in 2016 and 788 (31.4%) autologous transplants (auto-HSCT) with 44 in 2016. Among 1718 allo-HSCT, 74% were performed for malignancy (ALL 47.2%, AML 26.2%, MDS 10.8%, CML 8.1%, NHL/HD 6.1%, others 2.5%), and 26% for non-malignant disorders (SAA 41%, congenital immunodeficiencies 35.4%, hereditary bone marrow failure 16%, metabolic disorders 7%). Among 788 auto-HSCTs, 30.8% were done for hematological malignancy (NHL 41.2%, AML 23.9%, HD 17.7%, ALL 15.6%, other 1.5%), while the remaining 69.2% for solid tumors (neuroblastoma 59.8%, Ewing's sarcoma 20.4%, other 19.8%). In Poland, between 1989-2016, the infrastructure indispensable to perform HSCT in every child with indication for this therapeutic procedure was created, and HSCT became an important part of pediatric treatment, especially in pediatric oncology, hematology, and in primary immunodeficiencies.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polônia
12.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 24(9): 1848-1855, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29772352

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is beneficial for pediatric patients with relapsed or (very) high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in remission. A total of 1115 consecutive patients were included in the ALL SCT 2003 BFM study and the ALL SCT 2007 I-BFM study and were stratified according to relapse risk (standard versus high versus very high risk of relapse) and donor type (matched sibling versus matched donor versus mismatched donor). A total of 148 patients (60% boys; median age, 8.7 years; B cell precursor ALL, 75%) were transplanted from mismatched donors, which was defined as either less than 9/10 HLA-compatible donors or less than 5/6 unrelated cord blood after myeloablative conditioning regimen (total body irradiation based, 67%) for high relapse risk (HRR; n = 42) or very HRR (VHRR) disease (n = 106). The stem cell source was either bone marrow (n = 31), unmanipulated peripheral stem cells (n = 28), T cell ex vivo depleted peripheral stem cells (n = 59), or cord blood (n = 25). The median follow-up was 5.1 years. The 4-year rates of overall survival (OS) and event-free survival were 56% ± 4% and 52% ± 4%, respectively, for the entire cohort. Patients transplanted from mismatched donors for HRR disease obtained remarkable 4-year OS and event-free survival values of 82% ± 6% and 80% ± 6%, respectively, whereas VHRR patients obtained values of 45% ± 5% and 42% ± 5% (P < .001), respectively. The cumulative incidence of relapse was 29% ± 4% and that of nonrelapse mortality 19% ± 3%. The cumulative incidence of limited and extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease was 13% ± 3% and 15% ± 4%, respectively, among the 120 patients living beyond day 100. Multivariate analysis showed that OS was lower for transplanted VHRR patients (P = .002; hazard ratio [HR], 3.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.60 to 8.20) and for patients beyond second complete remission (CR2) versus first complete remission (P < .001; HR, 3.68; 95% CI, 1.79 to 7.56); relapse occurred more frequently in patients with VHRR disease (P = .026; HR, 3.30; 95% CI, 1.16 to 9.60) and for those beyond CR2 (P = .005; HR, 4.16; 95% CI, 1.52 to 10.59). Nonrelapse mortality was not significantly higher for cytomegalovirus-positive recipients receiving cytomegalovirus-negative grafts (P = .12; HR, 1.96; 95% CI, .84 to 4.58). HSCT with a mismatched donor is feasible in pediatric ALL patients but leads to inferior results compared with HSCT with better matched donors, at least for patients transplanted for VHRR disease. The results are strongly affected by disease status. The main cause of treatment failure is still relapse, highlighting the urgent need for interventional strategies after HSCT for patients with residual leukemia before and/or after transplantation.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29683955

RESUMO

Acute pancreatitis in children acute lymphoblastic leukemia is commonly caused by drugs, for example, L-Asparaginase, pegapargase, steroids. The incidence of this complication is estimated at 6.7% to 18%. Although the majority of drug-induced acute pancreatitis cases are mild, severe cases can rarely occur. This work presents a case of successful management of a child with drug-induced necrotizing pancreatitis during acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy. This case illustrates that comprehensive care and immediate intensive treatment can rescue patient despite poor prognosis. Administration of octreotide may serve a role in limiting the severity of the disease.

14.
Hum Immunol ; 79(6): 403-412, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29605688

RESUMO

Serious risks in unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) including graft versus host disease (GvHD) and mortality are associated with HLA disparity between donor and recipient. The increased risks might be dependent on disparity in not-routinely-tested multiple polymorphisms in genetically dense MHC region, being organized in combinations of two extended MHC haplotypes (Ehp). We assessed the clinical role of donor-recipient Ehp disparity levels in N = 889 patients by the population-based detection of HLA allele phase mismatch. We found increased GvHD incidences and mortality rates with increasing Ehp mismatch level even with the same HLA mismatch level. In multivariate analysis HLA mismatch levels were excluded from models and Ehp disparity level remained independent prognostic factor for high grade acute GvHD (p = 0.000037, HR = 10.68, 95%CI 5.50-32.5) and extended chronic GvHD (p < 0.000001, HR = 15.51, CI95% 5.36-44.8). In group with single HLA mismatch, patients with double Ehp disparity had worse 5-year overall survival (45% vs. 56%, p = 0.00065, HR = 4.05, CI95% 1.69-9.71) and non-relapse mortality (40% vs. 31%, p = 0.00037, HR = 5.63, CI95% 2.04-15.5) than patients with single Ehp disparity. We conclude that Ehp-linked factors contribute to the high morbidity and mortality in recipients given HLA-mismatched unrelated transplant and Ehp matching should be considered in clinical HSCT.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/diagnóstico , Haplótipos/genética , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Histocompatibilidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/imunologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/mortalidade , Antígenos HLA/imunologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/mortalidade , Humanos , Lactente , Isoantígenos/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo Genético , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
15.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 120: 1-9, 2018 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29705215

RESUMO

Treosulfan (TREO), a structural analog of busulfan, is currently studied as a myeloablative agent in conditioning regimens before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in pediatric patients. High exposure to TREO (>1650 mg∗h/mL) might be related to early toxicity, especially skin toxicity and mucositis. The aim of the present study was to investigate a potential relationship between exposure to TREO and its monoepoxytransformer (S,S-EBDM), as well as variability of the pharmacokinetics of these entities by means of a population pharmacokinetic approach with a non-linear mixed-effects analysis. The study included data from 14 children with malignant and non-malignant diseases treated with TREO in daily doses 10-14 g/m2. The parent-metabolite population pharmacokinetic model was developed in NONMEM 7.3 software. Upon the constructed model, an extensive simulation was performed to assess the correlation between exposure to TREO and S,S-EBDM. It was found that TREO and S,S-EBDM pharmacokinetics was best described with 2-compartmental and 1-compartmental linear models, respectively. The vast majority (>65%) of TREO was transformed to S,S-EBDM. Overall, a considerable interpatient variability of pharmacokinetic parameters was observed, especially the clearance of S,S-EBDM. A weak correlation was found between the exposure to TREO and S,S-EBDM (r = 0.1681, p < 0.0001). Also, patients with an exposure to TREO above 1650 mg∗h/mL were most likely to have also a high exposure to S,S-EBDM (35.38 µM∗h vs. 43.14 µM∗h, p < 0.0001). In summary, a parent-metabolite population pharmacokinetic model for TREO and S,S-EBDM was developed for the first time. It was shown that there is a weak correlation between exposure to TREO and S,S-EBDM. Therefore therapeutic drug monitoring of not only prodrug but also its active epoxide might be needed.


Assuntos
Bussulfano/análogos & derivados , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Modelos Biológicos , Agonistas Mieloablativos/farmacocinética , Pró-Fármacos/farmacocinética , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Ativação Metabólica , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Bussulfano/administração & dosagem , Bussulfano/efeitos adversos , Bussulfano/farmacocinética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Agonistas Mieloablativos/administração & dosagem , Dinâmica não Linear , Polônia , Pró-Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Pró-Fármacos/efeitos adversos , Software , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/efeitos adversos
16.
Clin Pharmacokinet ; 57(10): 1255-1265, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29557088

RESUMO

Treosulfan is a prodrug that undergoes a highly pH- and temperature-dependent nonenzymatic conversion to the monoepoxide {(2S,3S)-1,2-epoxy-3,4-butanediol 4-methanesulfonate [S,S-EBDM]} and diepoxide {(2S,3S)-1,2:3,4-diepoxybutane [S,S-DEB]}. Currently, treosulfan is tested in clinical trials as an alternative to busulfan in conditioning prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Of note, the optimal dosing of the prodrug is still unresolved, especially in infants. In this paper, the pharmacokinetics of treosulfan, together with its biologically active epoxides, is comprehensively reviewed for the first time, with the focus on conditioning prior to HSCT. Most of the insightful data presented in this review comes from studies that have been conducted in the last 3 years. The article widely discusses the volume of distribution and total clearance of treosulfan. In particular, the interindividual variability of these key parameters in infants, children above 1 year of age, and adults is analyzed, including possible covariates. A clinically important aspect of the formation rate-limited elimination of S,S-EBDM and S,S-DEB is described, including the correlation between the exposure of the prodrug and S,S-EBDM in children. The significance of the elimination half-life of treosulfan and its epoxides for successful conditioning prior to HSCT is also raised. Furthermore, the organ disposition of treosulfan and S,S-EBDM in rats is discussed in the context of the clinical toxicity and myeloablative activity of treosulfan versus busulfan. Moreover, perspectives for future therapeutic drug monitoring of treosulfan are presented. The review is intended to be helpful to pharmacists and doctors in the comprehension of the clinical pharmacokinetics of treosulfan.

17.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 59(10): 2342-2351, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29424258

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to evaluate the long-term neurodevelopmental consequences of currently applied acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) therapy containing chemotherapy alone or combined with 12 Gy radiotherapy. Seventy-nine children aged 6.3-21.7 years diagnosed with ALL and treated according to ALL IC-BFM 2002 have been studied. The control group consisted of 23 children newly diagnosed with ALL. We assessed subcortical gray matter volume using automatic MRI segmentation and cognitive performance to identify differences between three therapeutic schemes and patients prior to treatment. Irradiated patients had smaller selected subcortical volumes than those treated with chemotherapy alone and than the controls, while the chemotherapy group had similar volumes as the control one. In neurocognitive assessment, irradiated children performed worse in major domains than the control group. There were no significant results for patients after high dose chemotherapy without radiotherapy. There was a significant relationship between full scale IQ together with verbal learning and volumes of hippocampus, amygdala, and pallidum. In all children treated for ALL, both decreased volume of selected subcortical structures and cognitive impairment were observed, especially in children who were irradiated.

18.
Br J Haematol ; 180(1): 82-89, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29193007

RESUMO

Relapse remains the major cause of treatment failure in children with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (allo-SCT). Prognosis is considered dismal but data on risk factors and outcome are lacking from prospective studies. We analysed 242 children with recurrence of ALL after first allo-SCT enrolled in the Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster (BFM) ALL-SCT-BFM 2003 and ALL-SCT-BFM international 2007 studies. Median time from allo-SCT to relapse was 7·7 months; median follow-up from relapse after allo-SCT until last follow-up was 3·4 years. The 3-year event-free survival (EFS) was 15% and overall survival (OS) was 20%. The main cause of death was disease progression or relapse (86·5%). The majority of children (48%) received salvage therapy without second allo-SCT, 26% of the children underwent a second allo-SCT and 25% received palliative treatment only. In multivariate analyses, age, site of relapse, time to relapse and type of salvage therapy were identified as significant prognostic factors for OS and EFS, whereas factors associated with first SCT were not statistically significant. Combined approaches incorporating novel immunotherapeutic treatment options and second allo-SCT hold promise to improve outcome in children with post allo-SCT relapse.


Assuntos
Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/diagnóstico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/mortalidade , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Recidiva , Indução de Remissão , Retratamento , Terapia de Salvação , Análise de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Transplante Homólogo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol ; 74(1): 79-89, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28975382

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There is an increasing interest in use of treosulfan (TREO), a structural analogue of busulfan, as an agent in conditioning regimens prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), both in pediatric and adult populations. The aim of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model and to establish limited sampling strategies (LSSs) enabling accurate estimation of exposure to this drug. METHODS: The study included 15 pediatric patients with malignant and non-malignant diseases, undergoing conditioning regimens prior to HSCT including TREO administered as a 1 h or 2 h infusion at daily doses of 10, 12, or 14 g/m2. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed by means of non-linear mixed-effect modeling approach in Monolix® software. Multivariate regression analysis and Bayesian method were used to develop 2- and 3-point strategies for estimation of exposure to TREO. RESULTS: Pharmacokinetics of TREO was best described with a two-compartmental linear model with proportional residual error. Following sampling schedules allowed accurate estimation of exposure to TREO: 1 h and 6 h or 1 h, 2 h, and 6 h for a TREO dose 12 g/m2 in a 1 h infusion, or at 2 h and 6 h or 2 h, 4 h, and 8 h for a TREO dose of 12 g/m2 and 14 g/m2 in a 2 h infusion. CONCLUSIONS: A two-compartmental population pharmacokinetic model of TREO was developed and successfully used to establish 2- and 3-point LSSs for accurate and precise estimation of TREO AUC0→∞.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/farmacocinética , Bussulfano/análogos & derivados , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Modelos Biológicos , Pró-Fármacos/farmacocinética , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Adolescente , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/administração & dosagem , Bussulfano/administração & dosagem , Bussulfano/sangue , Bussulfano/farmacocinética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Infusões Intravenosas , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pró-Fármacos/administração & dosagem
20.
Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 34(4): 199-205, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29040012

RESUMO

Children with Down syndrome (DS) have a 20-fold increased risk of developing leukemia compared with the general population. The aim of the study was to analyze the outcome of patients diagnosed with Down syndrome and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in Poland between the years 2003 and 2010. A total of 1848 children were diagnosed with ALL (810 females and 1038 males). Of those, 41 (2.2%) had DS. The children were classified into three risk groups: a standard-risk group-14 patients, an intermediate-risk group-24, a high-risk group-3. All patients were treated according to ALLIC 2002 protocol. The median observation time of all patients was 6.1 years, and in patients with DS 5.3 years. Five-year overall survival (OS) was the same in all patients (86% vs 86%, long-rank test, p = .9). The relapse-free survival (RFS) was calculated as 73% in patients with DS and 81% in patients without DS during a median observation time (long-rank test, p = .3). No statistically significant differences were found in the incidence of nonrelapse mortality between those two groups of patients (p = .72). The study was based on children with ALL and Down syndrome who were treated with an identical therapy schedule as ALL patients without DS, according to risk group. This fact can increase the value of the presented results.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Síndrome de Down/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Down/mortalidade , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/mortalidade , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Síndrome de Down/complicações , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Taxa de Sobrevida
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