Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 356
Filtrar
1.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025002

RESUMO

The health benefits and risks of menopausal hormone therapy among women aged 50-59 years are examined in the Women's Health Initiative randomized, placebo-controlled trials using long-term follow-up data and a parsimonious statistical model that leverages data from older participants to increase precision. These trials enrolled 27,347 healthy post-menopausal women aged 50-79 at 40 U.S. clinical centers during 1993-1998, including 10,739 post-hysterectomy participants in a trial of conjugated equine estrogens, and 16,608 participants with uterus in the trial of these estrogens plus medroxyprogesterone acetate. Over an 18-year (median) follow-up period (1993-2016) risk for a global index, defined as the earliest of coronary heart disease, invasive breast cancer, stroke, pulmonary embolism, colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, hip fracture, and all-cause mortality, is reduced with conjugated equine estrogens with hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.82 (0.71, 0.95), and with nominally significant reductions for coronary heart disease, breast cancer, hip fracture and all-cause mortality. Corresponding global index hazard ratio estimates of 1.06 (0.95, 1.19) were non-significant for combined estrogens plus progestin, but increased breast cancer risk and reduced endometrial cancer risk were observed. These results, among women 50-59, substantially agree with the worldwide observational literature, with the exception of breast cancer for estrogens alone.

2.
J Hum Hypertens ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028995

RESUMO

Several serum inflammatory biomarkers have been associated with blood pressure and hypertension prevalence in cross-sectional studies. Few of these associations have been evaluated prospectively. We examined associations for 10 serum inflammatory biomarkers with incident hypertension among 471 postmenopausal women (mean age = 65) in the Buffalo OsteoPerio Study. Concentrations of C-reactive protein, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, adiponectin, and leptin were measured using multiplexed sandwich immunoassays on fasting serum samples collected at baseline (1997-2001). Incident hypertension (195 cases) was defined as physician-diagnosed hypertension and treatment with medication identified on annual mailed health surveys during follow-up (mean 10 years). Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) between log-transformed biomarkers (per 1-SD) and hypertension. When adjusted for age, leptin was significantly associated with hypertension risk (HR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.29), however, the association was attenuated and not significant after adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, including BMI. Significant (P < 0.10) interactions were observed for smoking (never, ever) with CRP (HR: never, 1.31; ever, 0.91; P = 0.06) and MCP-1 (HR: never, 0.59; ever, 5.11; P = 0.004); for BMI (<25, ≥25) with MCP-1(HR: <25, 3.45; ≥25, 0.95; P = 0.07); for systolic BP with IL-10 (HR: <120, 0.85; 120-139, 1.11; P = 0.07); and for diastolic BP with MCP-1 (HR: <80, 1.29; 80-89, 0.84; P = 0.03) and with adiponectin (HR: <80, 0.86; 80-89, 1.50; P = 0.03). This study adds needed understanding on prospective associations between several serum inflammatory biomarkers and hypertension risk in older postmenopausal women, among whom hypertension burden is substantial.

3.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966694

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recent studies suggest that both sex-specific genetic risk factors and those shared between dementia and stroke are involved in dementia pathogenesis. METHODS: We performed both single-variant and gene-based genome-wide association studies of >11,000 whole genome sequences from the Women's Health Initiative cohort to discover loci associated with dementia, with adjustment for age, ethnicity, stroke, and venous thromboembolism status. Evidence for prior evidence of association and differential gene expression in dementia-related tissues and samples was gathered for each locus. RESULTS: Our multiethnic studies identified significant associations between variants within APOE, MYH11, FZD3, SORCS3, and GOLGA8B and risk of dementia. Ten genes implicated by these loci, including MYH11, FZD3, SORCS3, and GOLGA8B, were differentially expressed in the context of Alzheimer's disease. DISCUSSION: Our association of MYH11, FZD3, SORCS3, and GOLGA8B with dementia is supported by independent functional studies in human subjects, model systems, and associations with shared risk factors for stroke and dementia.

4.
Hypertension ; 76(5): 1435-1443, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981366

RESUMO

Few studies have evaluated hypertension incidence in relation to walking, which is a common physical activity among adults. We examined the association between walking and hypertension incidence in 83 435 postmenopausal women who at baseline were aged 50 to 79 years, without known hypertension, heart failure, coronary heart disease, or stroke, and reported the ability to walk at least one block without assistance. Walking volume (metabolic equivalent hours per week) and speed (miles per hour) were assessed by questionnaire. Incident physician-diagnosed hypertension treated with medication was ascertained through annual questionnaires. During a mean 11-year follow-up, 38 230 hypertension cases were identified. After adjustment for covariates including nonwalking activities, a significant inverse association with hypertension was observed across categories of baseline walking volume (0 [referent], >0-3.5, 3.6-7.5, and >7.5 metabolic equivalent hours per week), hazard ratio: 1.00 (referent), 0.98, 0.95, 0.89; trend P<0.001. Faster walking speeds (<2, 2-3, 3-4, and >4 miles per hour) also were associated with lower hypertension risk, hazard ratio: 1.00 (referent), 1.07, 0.95, 0.86, 0.79; trend P<0.001. Further adjustment for walking duration (h/wk) had little impact on the association for walking speed (hazard ratio: 1.00 [referent], 1.08, 0.96, 0.86, 0.77; trend P<0.001). Significant inverse associations for walking volume and speed persisted after additional control for baseline blood pressure. Results for time-varying walking were comparable to those for baseline exposures. This study showed that walking at guideline-recommended volumes (>7.5 metabolic equivalent hours per week) and at faster speeds (≥2 miles per hour) is associated with lower hypertension risk in postmenopausal women. Walking should be encouraged as part of hypertension prevention in older adults.

5.
J Vasc Surg ; 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882349

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Few studies have prospectively examined the associations of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels with the risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), especially in women. Accounting for commonly recognized risk factors, we investigated the baseline Lp(a) levels and the risk of AAA among postmenopausal women participating in the ongoing national Women's Health Initiative. METHODS: Women's Health Initiative participants with baseline Lp(a) levels available who were beneficiaries of Medicare parts A and B fee-for-service at study enrollment or who had aged into Medicare at any point were included. Participants with missing covariate data or known AAA at baseline were excluded. Thoracic aneurysms were excluded owing to the different pathophysiology. The AAA cases and interventions were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th and 10th revision, codes and Current Procedural Terminology codes from claims data. Hazard ratios were computed using Cox proportional hazard models according to the quintiles of Lp(a). RESULTS: The mean age of the 6615 participants included in the analysis was 65.3 years. Of the 6615 participants, 66.6% were non-Hispanic white, 18.9% were black, 7% were Hispanic and 4.7% were Asian/Pacific Islander. Compared with the participants in the lowest Lp(a) quintile, those in higher quintiles were more likely to be overweight, black, and former or current smokers, to have hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and a history of cardiovascular disease, and to use menopausal hormone therapy and statins. During 65,476 person-years of follow-up, with a median of 10.4 years, 415 women had been diagnosed with an AAA and 36 had required intervention. More than one half had required intervention for a ruptured AAA. We failed to find a statistically significant association between Lp(a) levels and incident AAA. Additional sensitivity analyses stratified by race, with exclusion of statin users and alternative categorizations of Lp(a) using log-transformed levels, tertiles, and a cutoff of >50 mg/dL, were conducted, which did not reveal any significant associations. CONCLUSIONS: We found no statistically significant association between Lp(a) levels and the risk of AAA in a large and well-phenotyped sample of postmenopausal women. Women with high Lp(a) levels were more likely to be overweight, black, and former or current smokers, and to have hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and a history of cardiovascular disease, or to use hormone therapy and statins compared with those with lower Lp(a) levels. These findings differ from previous prospective, case-control, and meta-analysis studies that had supported a significant relationship between higher Lp(a) levels and an increased risk of AAA. Differences in the association could have resulted from study limitations or sex differences.

6.
JAMA Intern Med ; 2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730575

RESUMO

Importance: Repeated bone mineral density (BMD) testing to screen for osteoporosis requires resources. For patient counseling and optimal resource use, it is important for clinicians to know whether repeated BMD measurement (compared with baseline BMD measurement alone) improves the ability to discriminate between postmenopausal women who will and will not experience a fracture. Objective: To assess whether a second BMD measurement approximately 3 years after the initial assessment is associated with improved ability to estimate fracture risk beyond the baseline BMD measurement alone. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Women's Health Initiative is a prospective observational study. Participants in the present cohort study included 7419 women with a mean (SD) follow-up of 12.1 (3.4) years between 1993 and 2010 at 3 US clinical centers. Data analysis was conducted between May 2019 and December 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident major osteoporotic fracture (ie, hip, clinical spine, forearm, or shoulder fracture), hip fracture, baseline BMD, and absolute change in BMD were assessed. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AU-ROC) for baseline BMD, absolute change in BMD, and the combination of baseline BMD and change in BMD were calculated to assess incident fracture risk discrimination during follow-up. Results: Of 7419 participants, the mean (SD) age at baseline was 66.1 (7.2) years, the mean (SD) body mass index was 28.7 (6.0), and 1720 (23%) were nonwhite individuals. During the study follow-up (mean [SD] 9.0 [3.5] years after the second BMD measurement), 139 women (1.9%) experienced hip fractures, and 732 women (9.9%) experienced major osteoporotic fracture. In discriminating between women who experience hip fractures and those who do not, AU-ROC values were 0.71 (95% CI, 0.67-0.75) for baseline total hip BMD, 0.61 (95% CI, 0.56-0.65) for change in total hip BMD, and 0.73 (95% CI, 0.69-0.77) for the combination of baseline total hip BMD and change in total hip BMD. Femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD values had similar discrimination for hip fracture. For discrimination of major osteoporotic fracture, AU-ROC values were 0.61 (95% CI, 0.59-0.63) for baseline total hip BMD, 0.53 (95% CI, 0.51-0.55) for change in total hip BMD, and 0.61 (95% CI, 0.59-0.63) for the combination of baseline total hip BMD and change in total hip BMD. Femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD values had similar ability to discriminate between women who experienced major osteoporotic fracture and those who did not. Associations between change in bone density and fracture risk did not differ by subgroup, including diabetes, age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, or baseline BMD T score. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that a second BMD assessment approximately 3 years after the initial measurement was not associated with improved discrimination between women who did and did not experience subsequent hip fracture or major osteoporotic fracture beyond the baseline BMD value alone and should not routinely be performed.

7.
Int J Cancer ; 147(11): 3130-3138, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506420

RESUMO

In the Japanese atomic bomb survivors, risk of lung cancer has been shown to increase with greater acute exposure to ionizing radiation. Although similar findings have been observed in populations exposed to low-dose, protracted radiation, such studies lack information on cigarette smoking history, a potential confounder. In a cohort of 106 068 U.S. radiologic technologists, we examined the association between estimated cumulative lung absorbed dose from occupational radiation exposure and lung cancer mortality. Poisson regression models, adjusted for attained age, sex, birth cohort, pack-years smoked and years since quitting smoking, were used to calculate linear excess relative risks (ERR) per 100 mGy, using time-dependent cumulative lung absorbed dose, lagged 10 years. Mean cumulative absorbed dose to the lung was 25 mGy (range: 0-810 mGy). During the 1983 to 2012 follow-up, 1090 participants died from lung cancer. Greater occupational radiation lung dose was not associated with lung cancer mortality overall (ERR per 100 mGy: -0.02, 95% CI: <0-0.13). However, significant dose-response relationships were observed for some subgroups, which might be false-positive results given the number of statistical tests performed. As observed in other studies of radiation and smoking, the interaction between radiation and smoking appeared to be sub-multiplicative with an ERR per 100 mGy of 0.41 (95% CI: 0.01-1.15) for those who smoked <20 pack-years and -0.03 (95% CI: <0-0.15) for those who smoked ≥20 pack-years. Our study provides some evidence that greater protracted radiation exposure in the low-dose range is positively associated with lung cancer mortality.

8.
Periodontol 2000 ; 83(1): 213-233, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385885

RESUMO

Epidemiologic and cancer control studies on the association of periodontal disease and cancer risk mostly suggest a positive association with overall cancer risk and certain specific types of cancer. These findings are generally consistent among cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. In this paper, we review epidemiologic studies and current knowledge on periodontal disease and cancer, with a focus on those studies conducted in the years following the Joint European Federation of Periodontology/American Academy of Periodontology Workshop on "Periodontitis and Systemic Diseases" in November 2012. This review also explores the role of chronic inflammation as a biologically plausible mechanistic link between periodontal disease and risk of cancer. Furthermore, it highlights studies that have examined the potential importance of certain periodontal pathogens in this association.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Doenças Periodontais , Periodontite , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Periodontia
9.
Int J Cancer ; 147(10): 2717-2724, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32390249

RESUMO

Physical activity is associated with decreased risk for many cancers. Studies on the association between physical activity and risk of bladder cancer are limited, and findings are inconsistent. Postmenopausal women (mean age = 63.3) were recruited into the Women's Health Initiative from 1993 to 1998. Self-reported baseline information on physical activity and other covariates were available in 141 288 participants. Incident bladder cancer cases were collected through 2018 and centrally adjudicated. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were determined by Cox proportional hazard regression models. Effect modification due to smoking was assessed. During an average of 18.5 years of follow-up, 817 bladder cancer cases were identified. Compared to physically inactive women, those who engaged in ≥15 MET-hours/week of total physical activity, ≥8.75 MET-hours/week of walking or ≥11.25 MET-hours/week of moderate to vigorous physical activity had lower risk of bladder cancer (HR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.59-0.94, P for linear trend = .02; HR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.63-0.98, P for linear trend = .03; and HR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.61-0.94, P for linear trend = .02, respectively). No effect modification was found by smoking status (P for interaction = .06, 0.91 and 0.27, respectively). We found that total physical activity, walking and moderate to vigorous physical activity were inversely associated with bladder cancer incidence among postmenopausal women in a dose-response manner. Physical activity may play a potential role in the primary prevention of bladder cancer. Further studies with objective measurements of physical activity are needed to confirm these findings.

10.
Br J Cancer ; 123(2): 316-324, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) arises from cholangiocytes in the intrahepatic bile duct and is the second most common type of liver cancer. Cholangiocytes express both oestrogen receptor-α and -ß, and oestrogens positively modulate cholangiocyte proliferation. Studies in women and men have reported higher circulating oestradiol is associated with increased ICC risk, further supporting a hormonal aetiology. However, no observational studies have examined the associations between exogenous hormone use and reproductive factors, as proxies of endogenous hormone levels, and risk of ICC. METHODS: We harmonised data from 1,107,498 women who enroled in 12 North American-based cohort studies (in the Liver Cancer Pooling Project, LCPP) and the UK Biobank between 1980-1998 and 2006-2010, respectively. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to generate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence internals (CI). Then, meta-analytic techniques were used to combine the estimates from the LCPP (n = 180 cases) and the UK Biobank (n = 57 cases). RESULTS: Hysterectomy was associated with a doubling of ICC risk (HR = 1.98, 95% CI: 1.27-3.09), compared to women aged 50-54 at natural menopause. Long-term oral contraceptive use (9+ years) was associated with a 62% increased ICC risk (HR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.03-2.55). There was no association between ICC risk and other exogenous hormone use or reproductive factors. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that hysterectomy and long-term oral contraceptive use may be associated with an increased ICC risk.

11.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(13): 1419-1428, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031879

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Observational studies of dietary fat intake and breast cancer have reported inconsistent findings. This topic was addressed in additional analyses of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Dietary Modification (DM) clinical trial that evaluated a low-fat dietary pattern influence on breast cancer incidence. METHODS: In the WHI DM trial, 48,835 postmenopausal women, ages 50-79 years, with no prior breast cancer, and a dietary fat intake of ≥ 32% of energy were randomly assigned at 40 US centers to a usual diet comparison group (60%) or dietary intervention group (40%). The goals were to reduce fat intake to 20% of energy and increase vegetable, fruit, and grain intake. Breast cancers were confirmed after central medical record review and serial National Death Index linkages to enhance mortality findings. RESULTS: During 8.5 years of dietary intervention, breast cancer incidence and deaths as a result of breast cancer were nonsignificantly lower in the intervention group, while deaths after breast cancer were statistically significantly lower both during intervention and through a 16.1-year (median) follow-up. Now, after a long-term, cumulative 19.6-year (median) follow-up, the significant reduction in deaths after breast cancer persists (359 [0.12%] v 652 [0.14%] deaths; hazard ratio [HR], 0.85; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.96; P = .01), and a statistically significant reduction in deaths as a result of breast cancer (breast cancer followed by death attributed to the breast cancer) emerged (132 [0.037%, annualized risk] v 251 [0.047%] deaths, respectively; HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.97; P = .02). CONCLUSION: Adoption of a low-fat dietary pattern associated with increased vegetable, fruit, and grain intake, demonstrably achievable by many, may reduce the risk of death as a result of breast cancer in postmenopausal women.

12.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 75(3): 537-544, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hearing loss (HL) and menopausal hormone therapy (conjugated equine estrogens [CEE] and/or medroxyprogesterone acetate [MPA]) are separately associated with cognitive decline and increased risk of incident cognitive impairment. Joint effects of HL and HT could be associated with additive or synergistic decline in global cognition and risk of incident cognitive impairment among postmenopausal women. METHODS: Using the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Memory Study, 7,220 postmenopausal women with measures of HL, global cognition (Modified Mini-Mental State Examination score), and cognitive impairment (centrally adjudicated diagnoses of mild cognitive impairment and dementia) from 1996 to 2009. Multivariable linear mixed-effects models were used to analyze rate of change in global cognition. Accelerated failure time models were used to evaluate time to incident cognitive impairment, stratified by HT. RESULTS: Within the CEE-Alone trial, observed adverse effects of CEE-Alone on change in global cognition did not differ by HL, and estimated joint effects of HL and CEE-Alone were not associated with incident cognitive impairment. Within the CEE+MPA trial, while HL did not independently accelerate time to cognitive impairment, the adverse effect of CEE+MPA on global cognition was heightened in older women with HL. Older women on CEE+MPA either with HL (time ratio [TR] = 0.82, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.71, 0.94) or with normal hearing (TR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.76, 0.97) had faster time to cognitive impairment than those with normal hearing and placebo. CONCLUSIONS: HL may accentuate the adverse effect of CEE+MPA, not CEE-Alone, on global cognitive decline, not incident cognitive impairment, among postmenopausal women on HT.

13.
Chronobiol Int ; 37(2): 260-271, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778080

RESUMO

Despite research indicating that sleep disorders influence reproductive health, the effects of sleep on reproductive hormone concentrations are poorly characterized. We prospectively followed 259 regularly menstruating women across one to two menstrual cycles (the BioCycle Study, 2005-2007), measuring fasting serum hormone concentrations up to eight times per cycle. Women provided information about daily sleep in diaries and chronotype and night/shift work on a baseline questionnaire. We evaluated percent differences in mean hormone concentrations, the magnitude of shifts in the timing and amplitude of hormone peaks, and the risk for sporadic anovulation associated with self-reported sleep patterns and night/shift work. We estimated chronotype scores - categorizing women below and above the interquartile range (IQR) as "morning" and "evening" chronotypes, respectively. For every hour increase in daily sleep duration, mean estradiol concentrations increased by 3.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.0, 5.9%) and luteal phase progesterone by 9.4% (CI 4.0, 15.2%). Receiving less than 7 hours of sleep per day was associated with slightly earlier rises in peak levels for several hormones. Women reporting night/shift work (n = 77) had lower testosterone relative to women employed without night/shift work (percent difference: -9.9%, CI -18.4, -0.4%). Women with morning chronotypes (n = 47) had earlier rises in estradiol during their cycles and potentially an earlier rise in luteinizing hormone. Compared to those who had intermediate chronotypes, women with evening chronotypes (n = 42) had a later luteinizing hormone peak of borderline statistical significance. A reduced risk for sporadic anovulation was suggested, but imprecise, for increasing hours of daily sleep leading up to ovulation (risk ratio 0.79, CI 0.59, 1.06), while an imprecise increased risk was observed for women with morning chronotypes (risk ratio 2.50, CI 0.93, 6.77). Sleep-related hormonal changes may not greatly alter ovarian function in healthy women, but have the potential to influence gynecologic health.

14.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(1): 171-177, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799808

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The use of relative and absolute effect estimates has important implications for the interpretation of study findings. Likewise, examining additive and multiplicative interaction can lead to differing conclusions about the joint effects of two exposure variables. The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between BMI and mortality on the relative and absolute scales and investigate interaction between BMI and age. METHODS: Data from 68,132 participants in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) study were used. The risk ratio and risk difference of BMI on mortality were estimated. A product term was also included to examine interaction between BMI and age on the multiplicative scale, and the relative excess risk of interaction was calculated to measure additive interaction. RESULTS: Results demonstrated that the mortality risk ratio decreased as women aged, but the mortality risk difference increased as women aged. Evidence of additive and multiplicative interaction between age and BMI was found. CONCLUSIONS: In postmenopausal women, the relative mortality risk associated with high BMI decreased with increasing age, but the absolute risk of high BMI increased with increasing age. This indicates the importance of considering the interaction between age and BMI to understand mortality risk in older women.

16.
J Card Fail ; 26(1): 2-12, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We assessed whether postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) was associated with incident heart failure (HF) and its subtypes and examined whether there was a modifying effect of age on the associations. METHODS AND RESULTS: Postmenopausal women aged 50-79 enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative HT trials were analyzed. The 16,486 women with a uterus were randomized to receive conjugated equine estrogens (CEE 0.625 mg/day) plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA 2.5 mg/day) or placebo, and 10,739 women with prior hysterectomy were randomized to receive CEE (0.625 mg/day) alone or placebo. Incident HF was defined as the first HF hospitalization. HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) or preserved EF (HFpEF) was defined as EF < 50% or ≥ 50%. During the intervention phase, median follow-up was 5.6 years in the CEE-plus-MPA trial and 7.2 years in the CEE-alone trial. During the cumulative follow-up of 18.9 years, women randomized to HT vs placebo in the 2 combined trials had incidence rates of 3.90 vs 3.89 per 1000 person-years for total HF; 1.25 vs 1.40 per 1000 person-years for HFrEF, and 1.88 vs 1.79 per 1000 person-years for HFpEF, respectively. There were no significant effects of HT on the risk of total incident HF or its subtypes in either trial, and age at randomization did not significantly modify the results. CONCLUSIONS: Postmenopausal HT did not alter the risk of hospitalization for HF or its subtypes during the intervention or cumulative 18.9 years of follow-up, and results did not vary significantly by age at randomization. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT0000611 https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00000611?cond=women%27s±health±initiative&rank=5.

17.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(2): 170-178, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance has been proposed as a mediator of the increased cancer incidence and mortality associated with obesity. However, prior studies included limited cancer deaths and had inconsistent findings. Therefore, we evaluated insulin resistance and cancer-specific and all-cause mortality in postmenopausal women participating in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). METHODS: Eligible were a subsample of 22 837 WHI participants aged 50-79 years enrolled at 40 US clinical centers from 1993 to 1998 who had baseline fasting glucose and insulin levels. Baseline insulin resistance was measured by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Cancers were verified by central medical record review and deaths verified by medical record and death certificate review enhanced by National Death Index queries. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for cancer-specific and all-cause mortality. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: During a median of 18.9 years of follow-up, 1820 cancer deaths and 7415 total deaths occurred. Higher HOMA-IR quartile was associated with higher cancer-specific mortality (Q4 vs Q1, HR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.09 to 1.47; Ptrend = .003) and all-cause mortality (Q4 vs Q1, HR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.51 to 1.76; Ptrend < .001). A sensitivity analysis for diabetes status did not change findings. Among women with body mass index less than 25 kg/m2, higher HOMA-IR quartile was associated with higher cancer mortality (Fine and Gray, P = .004). CONCLUSIONS: High insulin resistance, as measured by HOMA-IR, identifies postmenopausal women at higher risk for cancer-specific and all-cause mortality who could potentially benefit from early intervention.

18.
Int J Cancer ; 147(1): 65-75, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584193

RESUMO

Breast cancer has been suggested to potentially have prenatal origins. We examined associations between birth weight, body mass index (BMI) at four-time points over 25 years of adulthood, and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, with emphasis on whether the association between birth weight and risk of breast cancer was mediated by weight and height changes over the adult life course. Postmenopausal women (n = 70,397) aged 50-79 years without breast cancer at enrollment (1993-1998) were followed up to 25 years. Weight and height were measured at baseline. Birth weight, and weights at ages 18, 35 and 50 were self-reported. Breast cancer cases were centrally adjudicated. Compared to women with birth weight of 6-8 pounds, women with birth weight of <6 pounds had lower risk of breast cancer (HR = 0.88 95% CI: 0.79-0.99). 44% and 21% of the relationship between birth weight and breast cancer risk was mediated by adult height and weight at baseline, respectively. Birth weight of 8 pounds or more was not associated with risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Weight gain in adulthood was associated with increased risk of breast cancer regardless of time periods. In conclusion, lower birthweight was associated with lower risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, and this reduction in risk was significantly mediated by childhood or adolescent growth, especially by adult height. Our data suggest that reaching and maintaining a healthy weight during adulthood is key in the prevention of breast cancer.

19.
J Bone Miner Res ; 35(2): 261-268, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692127

RESUMO

Short sleep duration, recognized as a public health epidemic, is associated with adverse health conditions, yet little is known about the association between sleep and bone health. We tested the associations of usual sleep behavior and bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis. In a sample of 11,084 postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI; mean age 63.3 years, SD = 7.4), we performed a cross-sectional study of the association of self-reported usual hours of sleep and sleep quality (WHI Insomnia Rating Score) with whole body, total hip, femoral neck, and spine BMD using linear regression models. We also studied the association of sleep duration and quality with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-defined low bone mass (T-score < -2.5 to <-1) and osteoporosis (T-score ≤ -2.5) using multinomial regression models. We adjusted for age, DXA machine, race, menopausal symptoms, education, smoking, physical activity, body mass index, alcohol use, physical function, and sleep medication use. In adjusted linear regression models, women who reported sleeping 5 hours or less per night had on average 0.012 to 0.018 g/cm2 significantly lower BMD at all four sites compared with women who reported sleeping 7 hours per night (reference). In adjusted multinomial models, women reporting 5 hours or less per night had higher odds of low bone mass and osteoporosis of the hip (odds ratio [OR] = 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-1.45, and 1.63; 1.15-2.31, respectively). We observed a similar pattern for spine BMD, where women with 5 hours or less per night had higher odds of osteoporosis (adjusted OR = 1.28; 95% CI 1.02-1.60). Associations of sleep quality and DXA BMD failed to reach statistical significance. Short sleep duration was associated with lower BMD and higher risk of osteoporosis. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the cross-sectional effects of sleep duration on bone health and explore associated mechanisms. © 2019 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

20.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 120(5): 885-892, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Riboflavin, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12 are key players in one-carbon metabolism as enzymatic cofactors, and deficiency of these nutrients may influence reproductive outcomes possibly through affecting reproductive hormones. OBJECTIVE: The goal was to investigate associations between dietary intakes of riboflavin, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12, and menstrual function among premenopausal women. DESIGN: This was a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study conducted at the University at Buffalo during 2005 to 2007. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: Participants were 259 healthy, regularly menstruating women (aged 18 to 44 years) with self-reported menstrual cycles between 21 and 35 days, who were not trying to conceive, and who had not used hormonal contraception during the past 3 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Intakes of B vitamins were assessed via 24-hour dietary recalls four times per menstrual cycle for two cycles. Serum reproductive hormones and plasma homocysteine were measured eight and three times, respectively, per cycle for two cycles. Anovulatory cycles were determined by progesterone concentrations ≤5 ng/mL (15.9 nmol/L) and no observed serum luteinizing hormone peak during the mid or late luteal phase visit. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Weighted linear mixed regressions were used to evaluate associations between cycle-averaged B vitamin intakes and hormones and homocysteine, and generalized linear regressions for associations with anovulation. Models were adjusted for age, race, body mass index, physical activity, alternate Mediterranean diet score, intakes of total energy, protein, fiber, and folate, and percentage of energy intake from fat. RESULTS: Higher intakes of riboflavin (per 0.1 mg increase in intake) were inversely correlated with estradiol (-0.87%, 95% CI -1.67 to -0.06) and homocysteine levels (-0.61%, 95% CI -1.10 to -0.12). Higher vitamin B-6 intakes were suggestive of higher follicle-stimulating hormone, although the results were not statistically significant (0.63% difference, 95% CI -0.03 to 1.29, per 0.1 mg increase in intake; P=0.06). Small increases in testosterone and decreases in homocysteine were found with vitamin B-12 intake. No associations were observed between intake of B vitamins and a risk of sporadic anovulation. CONCLUSIONS: Higher intakes of riboflavin were associated with a small decrease in serum estradiol among healthy, regularly menstruating women. Higher intakes of riboflavin and vitamin B-12 were associated with lower plasma homocysteine concentrations. Overall, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12 that are one-carbon nutrients do not appear to influence the ovarian cycle among premenopausal women.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA