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1.
Chronobiol Int ; : 1-9, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792442

RESUMO

Epidemiologic studies investigating the association between birth season and risk of mortality in adulthood are limited and have yielded inconclusive results. We aimed to examine the relationship between birth month and all-cause and cause-specific mortality, after controlling for potential confounders, including lifestyle and medical factors, in a population-based cohort study in Japan. We included 28,884 subjects (13,262 men and 15,622 women) from Takayama City, aged 35 years or older without cancer, stroke, and ischemic heart disease, who were born in Japan at baseline. Participants who were enrolled in 1992 were followed up for over 16 years. Information including place of birth, lifestyles, and medical history was obtained from a baseline questionnaire. We performed a Cox proportional hazards analysis to determine the association between birth month and all-cause and cause-specific mortality after adjusting for potential confounders. During the follow-up period (mean follow-up: 14.1 years), 5,303 deaths (2,881 men and 2,422 women) were identified. After controlling for multiple covariates, it was found that being born in April or June was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality compared to being born in January (hazard ratio [HR] 1.138; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.006-1.288 and HR 1.169; 95% CI, 1.028-1.329, respectively). The HRs for cardiovascular mortality were significantly higher in participants born in March and May (HR 1.285; 95% CI, 1.056-1.565 and HR 1.293; 95% CI, 1.040-1.608, respectively). Our findings indicate that an individual's birth month may be an indicator of the susceptibility to mortality in later life.

2.
Cancer Med ; 10(6): 2153-2163, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650323

RESUMO

Prior studies reported the association of reproductive factors with breast cancer (BC), but the evidence is inconsistent. We conducted a pooled analysis of nine cohort studies in Japan to evaluate the impact of six reproductive factors (age at menarche/age at first birth/number of births/age at menopause/use of female hormones/breastfeeding) on BC incidence. We conducted analyses according to menopausal status at the baseline or at the diagnosis. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated by applying Cox proportional-hazards model in each study. These hazard ratios were integrated using a random-effects model. Among 187,999 women (premenopausal: 61,113, postmenopausal: 126,886), we observed 873 premenopausal and 1,456 postmenopausal cases. Among premenopausal women, use of female hormones significantly increased BC incidence (HR: 1.53 [1.04-2.25]). Although P value for trend was not significant for age at first birth and number of births (P for trend: 0.15 and 0.30, respectively), women giving first birth at ages ≥36 experienced significantly higher BC incidence than at ages 21-25 years, and women who had ≥2 births experienced significantly lower BC incidence than nulliparous women. Among postmenopausal women, more births significantly decreased BC incidence (P for trend: 0.03). Although P value for trend was not significant for age at first birth and age at menopause (P for trend: 0.30 and 0.37, respectively), women giving first birth at ages 26-35 years experienced significantly higher BC incidence than at ages 21-25 years, and women with age at menopause: ≥50 years experienced significantly higher BC incidence than age at menopause: ≤44 years. BC incidence was similar according to age at menarche or breastfeeding history among both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. In conclusion, among Japanese women, use of female hormones increased BC incidence in premenopausal women, and more births decreased BC incidence in postmenopausal women.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33728985

RESUMO

Background: Anger is a common problem in society, and anger's relationship with mortality, in particular with cardiovascular mortality, has been studied mainly in male western population. There are no prospective studies in Japan, about the association between anger and mortality. Methods: This study examined the association of anger with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a Japanese community. Data came from the Takayama Study, which recruited residents aged ≥35 years in 1992 from Takayama City in Gifu, Japan. The current study used information on anger that was obtained from the second survey in 2002. A total of 11,902 healthy participants aged ≥45 years completed a self-administered questionnaire. Anger was assessed using the Spielberger Trait Anger Scale. Results: The main causes of deaths during the follow-up period from 2002 to 2013 were 460 for neoplasm, 254 for cardiovascular, and 435 for other causes. After adjusting for potential confounders, we found a significant positive association between the trait anger score and the risk of cardiovascular mortality for women, with a hazard ratio for high versus low score of trait anger of 1.81 (95% confidence interval 0.91-3.63, p for trend = 0.04), but not for men. Conclusions: Data suggest that for Japanese women, high trait anger score may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. Potential gender differences in the association between trait anger and mortality should be further studied from the cultural context.

4.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 15: 2527-2538, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116469

RESUMO

Purpose: Managing and preventing disease exacerbations are key goals of COPD care. Oscillating positive expiratory pressure (OPEP) devices have been shown to improve clinical outcomes when added to COPD standard of care. This retrospective database study compared real-world resource use and disease exacerbation among patients with COPD or chronic bronchitis prescribed either of two commonly used OPEP devices. Patients and methods: Patients using the Aerobika® (Trudell Medical International, London, ON, Canada) or Acapella® (Smiths Medical, Wampsville, New York, USA) OPEP device for COPD or chronic bronchitis were identified from hospital claims linked to medical and prescription claims between September 2013 and April 2018; the index date was the first hospital visit with an OPEP device. Severe disease exacerbation, defined as an inpatient visit with a COPD or chronic bronchitis diagnosis, and all-cause healthcare resource utilization over 30 days and 12 months post-discharge were compared in propensity score (PS)-matched Aerobika device and Acapella device users. Results: In total, 619 Aerobika device and 1857 Acapella device users remained after PS matching. After discharge from the index visit, Aerobika device users were less likely to have ≥1 severe exacerbation within 30 days (12.0% vs 17.4%, p=0.01) and/or 12 months (39.6% vs 45.3%, p=0.01) and had fewer 12-month severe exacerbations (mean, 0.7 vs 0.9 per patient per year, p=0.01), with significantly longer time to first severe exacerbation than Acapella users (log-rank p=0.01). Aerobika device users were also less likely to have ≥1 all-cause inpatient visit within 30 days (13.9% vs 20.3%, p<0.001) and 12 months (44.9% vs 51.8%, p=0.003) than Acapella users. Conclusion: Patients receiving the Aerobika OPEP device, compared to the Acapella device, had lower rates of subsequent severe disease exacerbation and all-cause inpatient admission. This suggests that Aerobika OPEP device may be a beneficial add-on to usual care and that OPEP devices may vary in clinical effectiveness.

5.
Patient Prefer Adherence ; 14: 1463-1475, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903885

RESUMO

Purpose: Budesonide/formoterol pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) was removed from a Medicare Part D formulary, and patients switched to fluticasone-based dry powder inhaler (DPI) therapies. This study describes the experience, satisfaction, and disease control among patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who switched due to removal from the formulary. Patients and Methods: A patient survey was conducted among adults with asthma or COPD who used budesonide/formoterol pMDI for ≥3 months prior to the formulary block and the new medication for ≥3 weeks after switching, recruited by providers in a research panel. Survey comprised both validated instruments (PASAPQ, OEQ, ACQ-6, and CAT) and stand-alone questions. Patient characteristics, switch experience, device and treatment satisfaction, onset of effect, and disease control were compared between disease (asthma and COPD) and medication (once and twice daily) cohorts. Minimal significance for group differences: P≤0.05. Results: Among 100 patients, 93% received communication from their doctor or nurse about the switch and 73% received training on using the new inhaler. Patients used their new treatment for an average of 7 months prior to completing the survey. Patient satisfaction with the new therapy was high (PASAPQ; mean overall satisfaction: 6.2 for asthma; 6.0 for COPD; P=0.338). However, asthma was not well controlled (ACQ-6) in 62% of patients with asthma, and 56% of patients with COPD reported high/very high impact of their illness on their lives (CAT). Sixty-eight percent and 70% of patients with asthma and COPD, respectively, required reliever medication (≥3 puffs) most days during the week prior to the survey. There were no significant differences in disease control (ACQ-6, CAT) between once-daily and twice-daily treatments (P>0.05 for both asthma and COPD). Conclusion: Even when reporting satisfaction with their new medication, objective measures showed substantial morbidity, regardless of DPI device or dosing regimen.

6.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761607

RESUMO

Smoking has been consistently associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in Western populations; however, evidence is limited and inconsistent in Asian people. To assess the association of smoking status, smoking intensity and smoking cessation with colorectal risk in the Japanese population, we performed a pooled analysis of 10 population-based cohort studies. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox's proportional hazards model and then pooled using a random-effects model. Among 363 409 participants followed up for 2 666 004 person-years, 9232 incident CRCs were identified. In men, compared with never smokers, ever smokers showed higher risk of CRC. The HRs (95% CI) were 1.19 (1.10-1.29) for CRC, 1.19 (1.09-1.30) for colon cancer, 1.28 (1.13-1.46) for distal colon cancer and 1.21 (1.07-1.36) for rectal cancer. Smoking was associated with risk of CRC in a dose-response manner. In women, compared with never smokers, ever smokers showed increased risk of distal colon cancer (1.47 [1.19-1.82]). There was no evidence of a significant gender difference in the association of smoking and CRC risk. Our results confirm that smoking is associated with an increased risk of CRC, both overall and subsites, in Japanese men and distal colon cancer in Japanese women.

7.
J Nutr ; 150(10): 2799-2805, 2020 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although endogenous advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have been implicated in the development of various chronic diseases, whether AGEs in foods represent a risk to human health remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to estimate the intake of Nε-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), a major AGE product, using a database of CML contents on LC-MS methods, and to examine CML's association with total and cause-specific mortality in Japanese adults. METHODS: The analysis included 13,355 men and 15,724 women, aged 35 years and older, from the Takayama study. They responded to a self-administered questionnaire in 1992. Their diet, including the CML intake, was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire at baseline. Mortality was ascertained during 16 years of follow-up. HRs and 95% CIs for mortality were estimated separately for men and women according to CMI quartiles. RESULTS: We noted 2901 deaths in men and 2438 deaths in women during the follow-up. In men, as compared with the lowest quartile of intake, the highest quartile of CML was inversely associated with the risks of both total and non-cancer, non-cardiovascular disease mortality after controlling for covariates [HR = 0.89 (95% CI, 0.79-1.00; P-trend = 0.047) and HR = 0.74 (95% CI, 0.58-0.94; P-trend = 0.03), respectively]. However, stratified analyses showed both inverse and positive associations between CML intake and cause-specific mortality in women, depending on their characteristics. For example, years of education had a modifying effect on both the CML intake and non-cancer, non-cardiovascular disease mortality in women. In men, the associations of CML intake with mortality depended on food sources. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the present study does not support a positive association between CML intake and mortality in Japanese adults. The potential relevance of the food source of CML to the link between dietary CML and mortality warrants further attention.

8.
Eur J Radiol ; 130: 109186, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712496

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate prescan findings of uterine position and intrapelvic motions that predict the non-diagnostic image quality of three-dimensional T2-weighted MRI (3D-T2WI) of the uterus. METHODS: This retrospective study included 287 women who underwent pelvic MRI including 3D-T2WI and short prescans consisting of 2D-T2WI and cine imaging. One radiologist classified 3D-T2WI of the uterus as being of diagnostic or non-diagnostic image quality and evaluated the prescans regarding uterine position and intrapelvic motions. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of non-diagnostic 3D-T2WI. The predictive ability of the prescans was verified by two independent MRI technologists. RESULTS: Non-diagnostic 3D T2WI was found in 42 patients (14.6 %) and was significantly associated with severe motions of urinary flow in the bladder (p < 0.001), small bowel (p = 0.039), and respiration (p < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis of uterine position and intrapelvic motions, risk factors for the non-diagnostic image quality were prominent urinary flow when the uterus contacted the bladder (p < 0.001, adjusted odds ratio = 35.1) and severe respiratory and small bowel motions when the uterus was surrounded by the bowel (p < 0.001, adjusted odds ratio = 68.4). No risk factors were found for the uterus contacting the vertebrae. With these predictors, the prescans demonstrated a sensitivity of 82.9 and 68.3 %, and specificity of 88.2 and 93.9 % for the non-diagnostic 3D-T2WI by the two technologists, respectively. CONCLUSION: Intrapelvic motions have a different effect on the image quality of 3D-T2WI depending on the uterine position, and short prescans may be useful in predicting time-consuming non-diagnostic 3D-T2WI of the uterus.

9.
Adv Ther ; 37(7): 3149, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535853

RESUMO

In the original article, it has been noticed that the abbreviation ''CLL'' is incorrectly published throughout the paper as the abbreviation "CCL". The correct abbreviation is "CLL".

10.
J Environ Public Health ; 2020: 7591263, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32508936

RESUMO

Background: A few studies related to pediatric behavior have measured secondhand smoke exposure in children using valid objective biochemical markers. We aimed at investigating the associations between current and cumulative exposure to tobacco smoke, measured both subjectively and objectively, and behavioral problems in children. Methods: Subjects were 437 Japanese children, aged 3-6 years in 2006. Exposure to tobacco smoke was evaluated from a parent-administered questionnaire and urinary cotinine concentrations. The cotinine concentrations were measured using first-void morning urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Children's behaviors were assessed by the parent-completed Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results: After multiple adjustments for covariates, higher total difficulty scores of children were significantly associated with the larger number of cigarettes parents smoke, more smokers among cohabiters, and more pack-years of exposure to tobacco smoke from parents and cohabiters. The total difficulty scores were 8.72, 9.09, and 10.52, respectively, for children in the low, middle, and high tertiles of creatinine-corrected cotinine concentrations in urine (p=0.002, trend p=0.005). There was no substantial sex difference in the positive associations between passive smoking and the SDQ scores. Conclusions: Exposure to tobacco smoke in early childhood may be involved in the development of pediatric behavioral problems. The importance of reducing the exposure of children to tobacco smoke, particularly in the home, was further emphasized for the prevention of psychological and behavioral problems in childhood.


Assuntos
Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Problema , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/urina , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Cotinina/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise
11.
J Neurovirol ; 26(4): 590-601, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572834

RESUMO

Although neuropsychological studies of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients have demonstrated heterogeneity in neurocognitive impairment and neuroimaging studies have reported diverse brain regions affected by HIV, it remains unclear whether individual differences in neurocognitive impairment are underpinned by their neural bases. Here, we investigated spatial distribution patterns of correlation between neurocognitive function and regional gray matter (GM) volume across patients with HIV. Thirty-one combination antiretroviral therapy-treated HIV-infected Japanese male patients and 33 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included in the analysis after strict exclusion criteria, especially for substance use. Fifteen neurocognitive tests were used, and volumetric magnetic resonance imaging was performed. We used voxel-based morphometry to compare GM volume between groups and identify regional GM volumes that correlated with neurocognitive tests across patients. Using the Frascati criteria, 10 patients were diagnosed with asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment, while the others were not diagnosed with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Patients showed a significantly lower performance in five neurocognitive tests as well as significantly reduced GM volume relative to controls, with volume-reduced regions spread diffusely across the whole brain. Different aspects of neurocognitive impairment (i.e., figural copy, finger tapping, and Pegboard) were associated with different GM regions. Our findings suggest a biological background constituting heterogeneity of neurocognitive impairment in HIV infection and support the clinical importance of considering individual differences for tailor-made medicine for people living with HIV.

12.
Adv Ther ; 37(7): 3129-3148, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399812

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Amidst a changing treatment landscape, real-world evidence on the burden of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is limited. The purpose of this study was to describe treatment patterns, adverse events (AEs), and economic burden among treated patients with CLL. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted with IQVIA PharMetrics® Plus. Patients at least 18 years old with CLL treatment between November 1, 2013 and May 31, 2018 were identified; index date was first observed CLL treatment. Patients had at least one CLL diagnosis pre-index and a second diagnosis anytime during the study period, at least 1-year pre- and at least 30-day post-index continuous enrollment and no pre-index CLL treatment. Analyses focused on patients receiving one of the four most common regimens observed. Outcomes included treatment patterns, frequency of incident AEs, and healthcare resource use and costs. Multivariable logistic regression and generalized linear modelling were used to evaluate risk of hospitalization and all-cause costs per patient per month (PPPM). RESULTS: A total of 1706 patients were included in the study (median [interquartile range] age 58 [55-62] years, 66% male, median Charlson Comorbidity Index 2 [2-3], median follow-up 16 [8-28] months). Common regimens, irrespective of treatment line, were bendamustine-rituximab (B-R, 27%), ibrutinib monotherapy (I, 27%), rituximab monotherapy (R, 19%), and fludarabine combined with cyclophosphamide and rituximab (FCR, 16%); 59% had at least one incident AE (B-R, 62%; I, 60%; R, 25%; FCR, 79%). Mean total all-cause healthcare cost over follow-up was $13,858 ± 14,626 PPPM. Increased number of AEs was associated with increased odds of hospitalization (odds ratio = 2.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.5-3.4) and increased mean cost PPPM (cost ratio = 1.2; 95% CI 1.1-1.2). CONCLUSION: This study highlights the treatment toxicity and associated economic burden among patients with CLL in the USA. As novel therapies are increasingly used, further research examining outcomes will inform the risks, benefits, and value of novel agents to prescribers and patients.

13.
J Epidemiol ; 2020 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32201400

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: Few studies have examined the association between seaweed intake and blood pressure in children. We conducted an intervention study to investigate whether seaweed intake affects blood pressure. METHODS: Subjects were children aged 4 to 5 years attending a preschool in Aichi Prefecture, Japan, in 2010. Among 99 students, 89 (89.9%) were enrolled in our study. Nori (dried laver), an edible seaweed widely consumed in Japan, was used as a dietary intervention. Children in the intervention group were asked to consume 1.76 grams per day of roasted nori in addition to standard meals for 10 weeks. Children in the control group consumed their usual diet. Before the intervention and at the 10th week of the intervention, children's blood pressure was measured three times successively using an automated sphygmomanometer with subjects in a sitting position. Changes in systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were compared between 55 children in the intervention group and 26 in the control group after adjustment for SBP and DBP before the intervention. RESULTS: Changes in SBP were -8.29 mmHg in the intervention group and +0.50 mmHg in the control group (p for difference in change = 0.051). Changes in DBP were -6.77 mmHg in the intervention group and -0.05 mmHg in the control group (p = 0.031). In girls, no difference in blood pressure changes was found between the intervention and control groups. CONCLUSION: Nori intake lowered DBP level in boys. Seaweed intake might have preventive effects on elevated blood pressure in childhood.

14.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 225: 113448, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31962275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Metofluthrin, profluthrin, tefluthrin, and transfluthrin are pyrethroid (PYR) insecticides increasingly used to control mosquitoes, flies, and moths in households and public places (hygiene-PYRs). Currently, there is limited data available concerning exposure to these novel hygiene-PYRs. The goal of this study was to monitor exposure to these hygiene-PYRs by analysing their urinary metabolites and to investigate the temporal and seasonal trends in the concentrations of these metabolites. METHODS: First morning urine samples were obtained from 50 Japanese children (four-six years old) in October of 2006, 2011, and 2015 (total = 150 children) in order to investigate temporal trends. Additionally, first-morning urine samples were collected from 44 three-year-old children in August-September of 2012 (summer) and in February of 2013 (winter) to investigate seasonal differences. The urinary concentrations of 2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzyl alcohol (FB-Al; a specific metabolite of transfluthrin), 4-methyl-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzyl alcohol (CH3-FB-Al; a common metabolite of tefluthrin and profluthrin), 4-methoxymethyl-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzyl alcohol (CH3OCH2-FB-Al; a specific metabolite of metofluthrin), and 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-1,4-benzenedimethanol (HOCH2-FB-Al; a common metabolite of metofluthrin, tefluthrin, and profluthrin) were measured using GC-MS/MS. RESULTS: For the investigated years, rapid increases in the detection rates of the hygiene-PYR metabolites were observed. In 2015, FB-Al was identified in 64% of the samples, CH3-FB-Al in 46%, CH3OCH2-FB-Al in 50%, and HOCH2-FB-Al in 83%. Significant increasing trends were found for the concentrations of all hygiene-PYR metabolites from 2006 to 2015 (Jonckheere-Terpstra test, p < 0.001). The concentrations of FB-Al and CH3OCH2-FB-Al were higher in summer than in winter (Mann Whitney-U test, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that, in Japanese children, exposure to hygiene-PYRs has increased over the past decade, and that children are exposed to higher levels of hygiene-PYRs in summer than in winter.

16.
Eur J Nutr ; 59(3): 1263-1271, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732850

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated the health benefits of polyphenols, but the associations between polyphenol intake and mortality including total and major causes of death remain unclear. We investigated the associations between subjects' total polyphenol intake and their mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and other causes of death in a population-based cohort study in Japan. METHODS: A total of 29,079 residents of Takayama City, Japan were analyzed. Their dietary intake was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in 1992. Mortality was ascertained over the subsequent 16 years. The dietary polyphenol intake was calculated by matching the subjects' food consumption data with our original polyphenol content database. RESULTS: A total of 5339 deaths occurred during the follow-up. After multivariable adjustment, the highest quartile of total polyphenol intake compared with the lowest quartile was significantly associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.82-0.99, p trend = 0.003). The subjects in the highest quartile showed significantly lower CVD mortality compared to those in the lowest quartile, and among the types of CVD mortality, a strong inverse association was observed for stroke mortality. Inverse associations were also observed for mortality from other causes, specifically digestive disease. The total polyphenol intake was not significantly associated with the risk of cancer mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this prospective study indicate that dietary total polyphenol intake in Japanese is inversely associated with all-cause mortality and mortality from cardiovascular and digestive diseases.

17.
J Nutr ; 150(2): 322-330, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Available evidence for associations between sugar intake and body weight is largely from short-term controlled trials and studies focusing on sugar-sweetened beverages. Studies on long-term weight change related to the intake of types of sugar are thus needed. OBJECTIVE: We examined the associations between weight change and the intake of various types of carbohydrates, including starch, total sugars, and free or naturally occurring sugars and saccharides (i.e., glucose, fructose, sucrose, and lactose), among Japanese men and women. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 14,971 residents of Takayama City in Japan who were aged 35-69 y at the first survey in 1992 and responded to a self-administrated questionnaire at the second survey in 2002. We excluded those with cancer, coronary artery disease, stroke, or diabetes on the first survey and those with missing information about body weight on both surveys, leaving 13,229 participants for analysis (5879 men and 7350 women). Mean (95% CI) values of 10-y weight change according to types of carbohydrates were estimated using linear regression models with adjustment for total energy intake and other dietary and lifestyle factors. Dietary intake was assessed at the first survey using a validated FFQ. RESULTS: Among men, free sugar intake was associated with weight gain and the estimated means (95% CIs) of weight change were -0.60 (-0.67, -0.54), -0.31 (-0.38, -0.24), -0.12 (-0.19, -0.05), and 0.20 (0.13, 0.27) kg from the first to fourth quartiles (P-trend = 0.002). Moreover, high intakes of sucrose and fructose were associated with weight gain (P-trend: 0.018 for sucrose and 0.001 for fructose). Among women, the intake of any type of carbohydrate was not significantly associated with weight change. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that high intakes of free sugars, sucrose, and fructose were associated with long-term weight gain among Japanese men.


Assuntos
Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Frutose/administração & dosagem , Açúcares/administração & dosagem , Ganho de Peso , Adulto , Bebidas , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
J Epidemiol ; 30(7): 309-313, 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association of alcohol drinking with bladder cancer risk remains unclear in East Asian populations. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) enzyme oxidizes alcohol-metabolized carcinogenic acetaldehyde into acetate. It is well known that the inactive ALDH2 carriers, specific to East Asian populations, have an increased risk of several cancer types because of increased exposure to acetaldehyde after alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to examine the association between alcohol drinking and bladder cancer risk using data from ten population-based prospective cohort studies in Japan, where approximately 40% of the population has inactive ALDH2 enzyme. METHODS: We analyzed 340,497 Japanese participants with average follow-up of 13.4 years. The association between alcohol drinking and bladder cancer risk was evaluated using Cox regression models within each study, and random-effects models were used to estimate pooled hazard ratios (HRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: During 4,729,071 person-years, 936 men and 325 women were newly diagnosed with bladder cancer. Our results showed no evidence of significant association between alcohol drinking and bladder cancer risk even among men who consumed alcohol of ≥69 g/week, with HR of 1.02 (95% CI, 0.79-1.33). The null result was observed consistently among women. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings do not support an association between alcohol drinking and bladder cancer risk in the Japanese, at least without consideration of the polymorphisms of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes.

20.
J Epidemiol ; 30(5): 213-218, 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between the number of teeth and mortality among community-dwelling people has been examined in many epidemiological studies. However, few Japanese studies have included cancer mortality as an endpoint. We prospectively investigated the association between number of remaining teeth and all-cause and cancer mortality in a Japanese community. METHODS: This study included participants in the Takayama Study who were aged 35-70 years old at baseline in 1992. Information on the number of remaining teeth was obtained from 11,273 participants via questionnaire at the second survey in 2002. The response rate was 66.9%. Deaths and their causes were ascertained during 11.8 years of follow-up. RESULTS: A total of 1,098 deaths (435 cancer-related and 235 cardiovascular-related) were identified during the follow-up period. After adjusting for covariates, participants with 0 to 9 teeth were at moderate but significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.39) and cancer mortality (HR 1.31; 95% CI, 1.03-1.67) compared to those with 20 or more teeth. With regard to cancer site, a significant association was observed for lung cancer (HR for 0-9 teeth vs. 20 or more teeth, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.08-2.83). This association was somewhat strengthened among never-smokers (HR 3.56; 95% CI, 1.02-12.45). CONCLUSIONS: We observed that a lower number of remaining teeth was significantly associated with increased risk from all-cause and lung cancer mortality. Further studies on the number of teeth and lung and other types of cancer are needed.

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