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1.
Diabetes Care ; 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753805

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes in the prevalence of depressive symptoms, loneliness, and insomnia among older adults with type 2 diabetes from 2016 to 2020 and to assess risk factors for these conditions including demographics, multimorbidity, BMI, treatment group, and pre-coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) measure scores. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a prospective, observational study of participants from the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) cohort study. Data were from two assessments before COVID-19 (visit 1: April 2016-June 2018 and visit 2: February 2018-February 2020) and one assessment during COVID-19 (visit 3: July-December 2020). Surveys were administered to assess depressive symptoms, loneliness, and insomnia. RESULTS: The study included 2829 adults (63.2% female, 60.6% White, mean [SD] age 75.6 [6.0] years). The prevalence of mild or greater depressive symptoms did not change significantly between the two prepandemic visits (P = 0.88) but increased significantly from pre- to during COVID-19 (19.3% at V2 to 30.4% at V3; P < 0.001). Higher odds of mild or greater depressive symptoms at V3 were associated with being female (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.4 [95% CI 1.1-1.7]), identifying as non-Hispanic White (OR 1.4 [95% CI 1.1-1.7]), having obesity (OR 1.3 [95% CI 1.0-1.5]), and reporting mild or greater depressive symptoms at V1 (OR 4.0 [95% CI 2.9-5.4]), V2 (OR 4.4 [95% CI 3.2-5.9]), or both visits (OR 13.4 [95% CI 9.7-18.4]). The prevalence of loneliness increased from 12.3% at V1 to 22.1% at V3 (P < 0.001), while the prevalence of insomnia remained stable across visits at 31.5-33.3%. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of mild or greater depressive symptoms in older adults with diabetes was more than 1.6 times higher during COVID-19 than before the pandemic.

3.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 21(1): 210, 2021 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disease surveillance of diabetes among youth has relied mainly upon manual chart review. However, increasingly available structured electronic health record (EHR) data have been shown to yield accurate determinations of diabetes status and type. Validated algorithms to determine date of diabetes diagnosis are lacking. The objective of this work is to validate two EHR-based algorithms to determine date of diagnosis of diabetes. METHODS: A rule-based ICD-10 algorithm identified youth with diabetes from structured EHR data over the period of 2009 through 2017 within three children's hospitals that participate in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study: Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati, OH, Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, WA, and Children's Hospital Colorado, Denver, CO. Previous research and a multidisciplinary team informed the creation of two algorithms based upon structured EHR data to determine date of diagnosis among diabetes cases. An ICD-code algorithm was defined by the year of occurrence of a second ICD-9 or ICD-10 diabetes code. A multiple-criteria algorithm consisted of the year of first occurrence of any of the following: diabetes-related ICD code, elevated glucose, elevated HbA1c, or diabetes medication. We assessed algorithm performance by percent agreement with a gold standard date of diagnosis determined by chart review. RESULTS: Among 3777 cases, both algorithms demonstrated high agreement with true diagnosis year and differed in classification (p = 0.006): 86.5% agreement for the ICD code algorithm and 85.9% agreement for the multiple-criteria algorithm. Agreement was high for both type 1 and type 2 cases for the ICD code algorithm. Performance improved over time. CONCLUSIONS: Year of occurrence of the second ICD diabetes-related code in the EHR yields an accurate diagnosis date within these pediatric hospital systems. This may lead to increased efficiency and sustainability of surveillance methods for incidence of diabetes among youth.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Adolescente , Algoritmos , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças
4.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-11, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511138

RESUMO

Adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet is inversely associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk. Metabolic changes due to DASH adherence and their potential relationship with incident T2DM have not been described. The objective is to determine metabolite clusters associated with adherence to a DASH-like diet in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study cohort and explore if the clusters predicted 5-year incidence of T2DM. The current study included 570 non-diabetic multi-ethnic participants aged 40­69 years. Adherence to a DASH-like diet was determined a priori through an eighty-point scale for absolute intakes of the eight DASH food groups. Quantitative measurements of eighty-seven metabolites (acylcarnitines, amino acids, bile acids, sterols and fatty acids) were obtained at baseline. Metabolite clusters related to DASH adherence were determined through partial least squares (PLS) analysis using R. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression was used to explore the associations between metabolite clusters and incident T2DM. A group of acylcarnitines and fatty acids loaded strongly on the two components retained under PLS. Among strongly loading metabolites, a select group of acylcarnitines had over 50 % of their individual variance explained by the PLS model. Component 2 was inversely associated with incident T2DM (OR: 0·89; (95 % CI 0·80, 0·99), P-value = 0·043) after adjustment for demographic and metabolic covariates. Component 1 was not associated with T2DM risk (OR: 1·02; (95 % CI 0·88, 1·19), P-value = 0·74). Adherence to a DASH-type diet may contribute to reduced T2DM risk in part through modulations in acylcarnitine and fatty acid physiology.

5.
Mol Metab ; 54: 101342, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563731

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Identify and characterize circulating metabolite profiles associated with adiposity to inform precision medicine. METHODS: Untargeted plasma metabolomic profiles in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRASFS) Mexican American cohort (n = 1108) were analyzed for association with anthropometric (body mass index, BMI; waist circumference, WC; waist-to-hip ratio, WHR) and computed tomography measures (visceral adipose tissue, VAT; subcutaneous adipose tissue, SAT; visceral-to-subcutaneous ratio, VSR) of adiposity. Genetic data, inclusive of genome-wide array-based genotyping, whole exome sequencing (WES) and whole genome sequencing (WGS), were evaluated to identify the genetic contributors. Phenotypic and genetic association signals were replicated across ancestries. Transcriptomic data were analyzed to explore the relationship between genetic and metabolomic data. RESULTS: A partially characterized metabolite, tentatively named metabolonic lactone sulfate (X-12063), was consistently associated with BMI, WC, WHR, VAT, and SAT in IRASFS Mexican Americans (PMA <2.02 × 10-27). Trait associations were replicated in IRASFS African Americans (PAA < 1.12 × 10-07). Expanded analyses revealed associations with multiple phenotypic measures of cardiometabolic health, e.g. insulin sensitivity (SI), triglycerides (TG), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in both ancestries. Metabolonic lactone sulfate levels were heritable (h2 > 0.47), and a significant genetic signal at the ZSCAN25/CYP3A5 locus (PMA = 9.00 × 10-41, PAA = 2.31 × 10-10) was observed, highlighting a putative functional variant (rs776746, CYP3A5∗3). Transcriptomic analysis in the African American Genetics of Metabolism and Expression (AAGMEx) cohort supported the association of CYP3A5 with metabolonic lactone sulfate levels (PFDR = 6.64 × 10-07). CONCLUSIONS: Variant rs776746 is associated with a decrease in the transcript levels of CYP3A5, which in turn is associated with increased metabolonic lactone sulfate levels and poor cardiometabolic health.

6.
Atherosclerosis ; 333: 32-38, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a risk factor for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). However, data on the association of asymptomatic PAD with AAA are limited. We explored the association of symptomatic and asymptomatic PAD with AAA. METHODS: We primarily assessed a prospective association of symptomatic (based on clinical history) and asymptomatic (ankle-brachial index ≤0.9) PAD at baseline (1987-89 [ages 45-64 years]) with incident AAA in a biracial community-based cohort, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. We secondarily investigated a cross-sectional association of PAD with ultrasound-based AAA (diameter≥3.0 cm) (2011-13 [ages 67-91 years]). RESULTS: Of 14,148 participants (55.1% female, 25.5% black, 0.9% with symptomatic PAD) in our prospective analysis (median follow-up 22.5 years), 530 (3.7%) developed incident AAA. Symptomatic PAD had a higher hazard ratio (HR) of incident AAA [4.91 (95%CI 2.88-8.37)], as did asymptomatic PAD with ABI≤0.9 [2.33 (1.55-3.51)], compared to the reference ABI>1.1-1.2 in demographically-adjusted models. Crude 15-year cumulative incidence of AAA in these three groups were 12.3%, 3.9%, and 1.5%, respectively. The associations remained significant after accounting for other potential confounders [corresponding HR 2.96 (95%CI 1.73-5.07) and 1.52 (95%CI 1.00-2.30), respectively]. The cross-sectional analysis demonstrated similar patterns with ultrasound-based AAA [odds ratio 2.46 (95%CI 1.26-4.81) for symptomatic PAD and 3.98 (1.96-8.08) for asymptomatic PAD in a demographically-adjusted model]. CONCLUSIONS: Our prospective and cross-sectional data show elevated risk of AAA in both symptomatic and asymptomatic PAD. Our data support the current recommendation of AAA screening in symptomatic PAD patients and suggest the potential extension to asymptomatic PAD patients as well.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal , Aterosclerose , Doença Arterial Periférica , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/epidemiologia , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Ultrassonografia
7.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34310039

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A data-driven index of dementia risk based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the Alzheimer's Disease Pattern Similarity (AD-PS) score, was estimated for participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. METHODS: AD-PS scores were generated for 839 cognitively non-impaired individuals with a mean follow-up of 4.86 years. The scores and a hypothesis-driven volumetric measure based on several brain regions susceptible to AD were compared as predictors of incident cognitive impairment in different settings. RESULTS: Logistic regression analyses suggest the data-driven AD-PS scores to be more predictive of incident cognitive impairment than its counterpart. Both biomarkers were more predictive of incident cognitive impairment in participants who were White, female, and apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) ε4 carriers. Random forest analyses including predictors from different domains ranked the AD-PS scores as the most relevant MRI predictor of cognitive impairment. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the AD-PS scores were the stronger MRI-derived predictors of incident cognitive impairment in cognitively non-impaired individuals.

8.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(8): 1294-1308, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34258889

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) study previously reported that intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) reduced incident depressive symptoms and improved health-related quality of life (HRQOL) over nearly 10 years of intervention compared with a control group (the diabetes support and education group [DSE]) in participants with type 2 diabetes and overweight or obesity. The present study compared incident depressive symptoms and changes in HRQOL in these groups for an additional 6 years following termination of the ILI in September 2012. METHODS: A total of 1,945 ILI participants and 1,900 DSE participants completed at least one of four planned postintervention assessments at which weight, mood (via the Patient Health Questionnaire-9), antidepressant medication use, and HRQOL (via the Medical Outcomes Scale, Short Form-36) were measured. RESULTS: ILI participants and DSE participants lost 3.1 (0.3) and 3.8 (0.3) kg [represented as mean (SE); p = 0.10], respectively, during the 6-year postintervention follow-up. No significant differences were observed between groups during this time in incident mild or greater symptoms of depression, antidepressant medication use, or in changes on the physical component summary or mental component summary scores of the Short Form-36. In both groups, mental component summary scores were higher than physical component summary scores. CONCLUSIONS: Prior participation in the ILI, compared with the DSE group, did not appear to improve subsequent mood or HRQOL during 6 years of postintervention follow-up.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Qualidade de Vida , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Sobrepeso/terapia , Perda de Peso
9.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(23): 2939-2959, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112321

RESUMO

ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities) initiated community-based surveillance in 1987 for myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease (CHD) incidence and mortality and created a prospective cohort of 15,792 Black and White adults ages 45 to 64 years. The primary aims were to improve understanding of the decline in CHD mortality and identify determinants of subclinical atherosclerosis and CHD in Black and White middle-age adults. ARIC has examined areas including health disparities, genomics, heart failure, and prevention, producing more than 2,300 publications. Results have had strong clinical impact and demonstrate the importance of population-based research in the spectrum of biomedical research to improve health.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Cardiologia , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Vigilância da População/métodos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(3): 893-906, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Choline is an essential nutrient; however, the associations of choline and its related metabolites with cardiometabolic risk remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: We examined the associations of circulating choline, betaine, carnitine, and dimethylglycine (DMG) with cardiometabolic biomarkers and their potential dietary and nondietary determinants. METHODS: The cross-sectional analyses included 32,853 participants from 17 studies, who were free of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, chronic kidney diseases, and inflammatory bowel disease. In each study, metabolites and biomarkers were log-transformed and standardized by means and SDs, and linear regression coefficients (ß) and 95% CIs were estimated with adjustments for potential confounders. Study-specific results were combined by random-effects meta-analyses. A false discovery rate <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: We observed moderate positive associations of circulating choline, carnitine, and DMG with creatinine [ß (95% CI): 0.136 (0.084, 0.188), 0.106 (0.045, 0.168), and 0.128 (0.087, 0.169), respectively, for each SD increase in biomarkers on the log scale], carnitine with triglycerides (ß = 0.076; 95% CI: 0.042, 0.109), homocysteine (ß = 0.064; 95% CI: 0.033, 0.095), and LDL cholesterol (ß = 0.055; 95% CI: 0.013, 0.096), DMG with homocysteine (ß = 0.068; 95% CI: 0.023, 0.114), insulin (ß = 0.068; 95% CI: 0.043, 0.093), and IL-6 (ß = 0.060; 95% CI: 0.027, 0.094), but moderate inverse associations of betaine with triglycerides (ß = -0.146; 95% CI: -0.188, -0.104), insulin (ß = -0.106; 95% CI: -0.130, -0.082), homocysteine (ß = -0.097; 95% CI: -0.149, -0.045), and total cholesterol (ß = -0.074; 95% CI: -0.102, -0.047). In the whole pooled population, no dietary factor was associated with circulating choline; red meat intake was associated with circulating carnitine [ß = 0.092 (0.042, 0.142) for a 1 serving/d increase], whereas plant protein was associated with circulating betaine [ß = 0.249 (0.110, 0.388) for a 5% energy increase]. Demographics, lifestyle, and metabolic disease history showed differential associations with these metabolites. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating choline, carnitine, and DMG were associated with unfavorable cardiometabolic risk profiles, whereas circulating betaine was associated with a favorable cardiometabolic risk profile. Future prospective studies are needed to examine the associations of these metabolites with incident cardiovascular events.


Assuntos
Betaína/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Carnitina/sangue , Colina/sangue , Sarcosina/análogos & derivados , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Creatinina/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Humanos , Sarcosina/sangue
11.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251423, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34014961

RESUMO

Relative to European Americans, African Americans have lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) concentrations, higher 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D3) concentrations and bone mineral density (BMD), and paradoxically reduced burdens of calcified atherosclerotic plaque (subclinical atherosclerosis). To identify genetic factors contributing to vitamin D and BMD measures, association analysis of >14M variants was conducted in a maximum of 697 African American-Diabetes Heart Study participants with type 2 diabetes (T2D). The most significant association signals were detected for VDBP on chromosome 4; variants rs7041 (ß = 0.44, SE = 0.019, P = 9.4x10-86) and rs4588 (ß = 0.17, SE = 0.021, P = 3.5x10-08) in the group-specific component (vitamin D binding protein) gene (GC). These variants were found to be independently associated. In addition, rs7041 was also associated with bioavailable vitamin D (BAVD; ß = 0.16, SE = 0.02, P = 3.3x10-19). Six rare variants were significantly associated with 25OHD, including a non-synonymous variant in HSPG2 (rs116788687; ß = -1.07, SE = 0.17, P = 2.2x10-10) and an intronic variant in TNIK (rs143555701; ß = -1.01, SE = 0.18, P = 9.0x10-10), both biologically related to bone development. Variants associated with 25OHD failed to replicate in African Americans from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRASFS). Evaluation of vitamin D metabolism and bone mineral density phenotypes in an African American population enriched for T2D could provide insight into ethnic specific differences in vitamin D metabolism and bone mineral density.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Afro-Americanos/genética , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo Genético , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Vitamina D/sangue , Proteína de Ligação a Vitamina D/genética
12.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(7): 1195-1202, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33998167

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although increasing evidence suggests that visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is a major underlying cause of metabolic syndrome (MetS), few studies have measured VAT at multiple time points in diverse populations. VAT and insulin resistance were hypothesized to differ by MetS status within BMI category in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS) Family Study and, further, that baseline VAT and insulin resistance and increases over time are associated with incident MetS. METHODS: Generalized estimating equations were used for differences in body fat distribution and insulin resistance by MetS status. Mixed effects logistic regression was used for the association of baseline and change in adiposity and insulin resistance with incident MetS across 5 years, adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and family correlation. RESULTS: VAT and insulin sensitivity differed significantly by MetS status and BMI category at baseline. VAT and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) at baseline (VAT odds ratio [OR] = 1.16 [95% CI: 1.12-2.31]; HOMA-IR OR = 1.85 [95% CI: 1.32-2.58]) and increases over time (VAT OR = 1.55 [95% CI: 1.22-1.98]; HOMA-IR OR = 3.23 [95% CI: 2.20-4.73]) were associated with incident MetS independent of BMI category. CONCLUSIONS: Differing levels of VAT may be driving metabolic heterogeneity within BMI categories. Both overall and abdominal obesity (VAT) may play a role in the development of MetS. Increased VAT over time contributed additional risk.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Resistência à Insulina , Síndrome Metabólica , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia
13.
Hum Mol Genet ; 30(15): 1443-1456, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856023

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease and is highly correlated with metabolic disease. NAFLD results from environmental exposures acting on a susceptible polygenic background. This study performed the largest multiethnic investigation of exonic variation associated with NAFLD and correlated metabolic traits and diseases. An exome array meta-analysis was carried out among eight multiethnic population-based cohorts (n = 16 492) with computed tomography (CT) measured hepatic steatosis. A fixed effects meta-analysis identified five exome-wide significant loci (P < 5.30 × 10-7); including a novel signal near TOMM40/APOE. Joint analysis of TOMM40/APOE variants revealed the TOMM40 signal was attributed to APOE rs429358-T; APOE rs7412 was not associated with liver attenuation. Moreover, rs429358-T was associated with higher serum alanine aminotransferase, liver steatosis, cirrhosis, triglycerides and obesity; as well as, lower cholesterol and decreased risk of myocardial infarction and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in phenome-wide association analyses in the Michigan Genomics Initiative, United Kingdom Biobank and/or public datasets. These results implicate APOE in imaging-based identification of NAFLD. This association may or may not translate to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; however, these results indicate a significant association with advanced liver disease and hepatic cirrhosis. These findings highlight allelic heterogeneity at the APOE locus and demonstrate an inverse link between NAFLD and AD at the exome level in the largest analysis to date.

14.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 113(5): 1145-1156, 2021 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a diet-derived, gut microbial-host cometabolite, has been linked to cardiometabolic diseases. However, the relations remain unclear between diet, TMAO, and cardiometabolic health in general populations from different regions and ethnicities. OBJECTIVES: To examine associations of circulating TMAO with dietary and cardiometabolic factors in a pooled analysis of 16 population-based studies from the United States, Europe, and Asia. METHODS: Included were 32,166 adults (16,269 white, 13,293 Asian, 1247 Hispanic/Latino, 1236 black, and 121 others) without cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic kidney disease, or inflammatory bowel disease. Linear regression coefficients (ß) were computed for standardized TMAO with harmonized variables. Study-specific results were combined by random-effects meta-analysis. A false discovery rate <0.10 was considered significant. RESULTS: After adjustment for potential confounders, circulating TMAO was associated with intakes of animal protein and saturated fat (ß = 0.124 and 0.058, respectively, for a 5% energy increase) and with shellfish, total fish, eggs, and red meat (ß = 0.370, 0.151, 0.081, and 0.056, respectively, for a 1 serving/d increase). Plant protein and nuts showed inverse associations (ß = -0.126 for a 5% energy increase from plant protein and -0.123 for a 1 serving/d increase of nuts). Although the animal protein-TMAO association was consistent across populations, fish and shellfish associations were stronger in Asians (ß = 0.285 and 0.578), and egg and red meat associations were more prominent in Americans (ß = 0.153 and 0.093). Besides, circulating TMAO was positively associated with creatinine (ß = 0.131 SD increase in log-TMAO), homocysteine (ß = 0.065), insulin (ß = 0.048), glycated hemoglobin (ß = 0.048), and glucose (ß = 0.023), whereas it was inversely associated with HDL cholesterol (ß = -0.047) and blood pressure (ß = -0.030). Each TMAO-biomarker association remained significant after further adjusting for creatinine and was robust in subgroup/sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: In an international, consortium-based study, animal protein was consistently associated with increased circulating TMAO, whereas TMAO associations with fish, shellfish, eggs, and red meat varied among populations. The adverse associations of TMAO with certain cardiometabolic biomarkers, independent of renal function, warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Dieta , Metabolismo Energético , Metilaminas/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Saúde Global , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Oxidantes/sangue
15.
Diabetes Care ; 44(5): 1203-1210, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33707304

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We reevaluated the Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) intervention, incorporating diabetes subgroups, to identify whether intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) is associated with differential risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) by diabetes subgroup. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In the Look AHEAD trial, 5,145 participants, aged 45-76 years, with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and overweight or obesity were randomly assigned to 10 years of ILI or a control condition of diabetes support and education. The ILI focused on weight loss through decreased caloric intake and increased physical activity. To characterize diabetes subgroups, we applied k-means clustering to data on age of diabetes diagnosis, BMI, waist circumference, and glycated hemoglobin. We examined whether relative intervention effects on the trial's prespecified CVD outcomes varied among diabetes subgroups. RESULTS: We characterized four subgroups related to older age at diabetes onset (42% of sample), poor glucose control (14%), severe obesity (24%), and younger age at diabetes onset (20%). We observed interactions (all P < 0.05) between intervention and diabetes subgroups for three separate composite cardiovascular outcomes. Randomization to ILI was associated with increased risk for each cardiovascular outcome only among the poor-glucose-control subgroup (hazard ratio >1.32). Among the three other diabetes subgroups, ILI was not associated with increased risk for CVD. CONCLUSIONS: Among overweight and obese adults with T2D, a lifestyle intervention was associated with differential risk for CVD that was dependent on diabetes subgroup. Diabetes subgroups may be important to identify the patients who would achieve benefit and avoid harm from an ILI.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/terapia , Perda de Peso
16.
Diabetes ; 70(4): 996-1005, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33479058

RESUMO

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes in youth has increased substantially, yet the genetic underpinnings remain largely unexplored. To identify genetic variants predisposing to youth-onset type 2 diabetes, we formed ProDiGY, a multiethnic collaboration of three studies (TODAY, SEARCH, and T2D-GENES) with 3,006 youth case subjects with type 2 diabetes (mean age 15.1 ± 2.9 years) and 6,061 diabetes-free adult control subjects (mean age 54.2 ± 12.4 years). After stratifying by principal component-clustered ethnicity, we performed association analyses on ∼10 million imputed variants using a generalized linear mixed model incorporating a genetic relationship matrix to account for population structure and adjusting for sex. We identified seven genome-wide significant loci, including the novel locus rs10992863 in PHF2 (P = 3.2 × 10-8; odds ratio [OR] = 1.23). Known loci identified in our analysis include rs7903146 in TCF7L2 (P = 8.0 × 10-20; OR 1.58), rs72982988 near MC4R (P = 4.4 × 10-14; OR 1.53), rs200893788 in CDC123 (P = 1.1 × 10-12; OR 1.32), rs2237892 in KCNQ1 (P = 4.8 × 10-11; OR 1.59), rs937589119 in IGF2BP2 (P = 3.1 × 10-9; OR 1.34), and rs113748381 in SLC16A11 (P = 4.1 × 10-8; OR 1.04). Secondary analysis with 856 diabetes-free youth control subjects uncovered an additional locus in CPEB2 (P = 3.2 × 10-8; OR 2.1) and consistent direction of effect for diabetes risk. In conclusion, we identified both known and novel loci in the first genome-wide association study of youth-onset type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Adulto , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Canal de Potássio KCNQ1/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptor Tipo 4 de Melanocortina/genética
17.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(2): 372-387, 2021 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33231259

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Glycogen storage diseases are rare. Increased glycogen in the liver results in increased attenuation. OBJECTIVE: Investigate the association and function of a noncoding region associated with liver attenuation but not histologic nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. DESIGN: Genetics of Obesity-associated Liver Disease Consortium. SETTING: Population-based. MAIN OUTCOME: Computed tomography measured liver attenuation. RESULTS: Carriers of rs4841132-A (frequency 2%-19%) do not show increased hepatic steatosis; they have increased liver attenuation indicative of increased glycogen deposition. rs4841132 falls in a noncoding RNA LOC157273 ~190 kb upstream of PPP1R3B. We demonstrate that rs4841132-A increases PPP1R3B through a cis genetic effect. Using CRISPR/Cas9 we engineered a 105-bp deletion including rs4841132-A in human hepatocarcinoma cells that increases PPP1R3B, decreases LOC157273, and increases glycogen perfectly mirroring the human disease. Overexpression of PPP1R3B or knockdown of LOC157273 increased glycogen but did not result in decreased LOC157273 or increased PPP1R3B, respectively, suggesting that the effects may not all occur via affecting RNA levels. Based on electronic health record (EHR) data, rs4841132-A associates with all components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, rs4841132-A associated with decreased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and risk for myocardial infarction (MI). A metabolic signature for rs4841132-A includes increased glycine, lactate, triglycerides, and decreased acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that rs4841132-A promotes a hepatic glycogen storage disease by increasing PPP1R3B and decreasing LOC157273. rs4841132-A promotes glycogen accumulation and development of MetS but lowers LDL cholesterol and risk for MI. These results suggest that elevated hepatic glycogen is one cause of MetS that does not invariably promote MI.


Assuntos
Doença de Depósito de Glicogênio/etiologia , Glicogênio Hepático/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteína Fosfatase 1/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/análise , Feminino , Seguimentos , Doença de Depósito de Glicogênio/metabolismo , Doença de Depósito de Glicogênio/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(10): 1902-1911, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881403

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial was a randomized trial comparing effects of intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) and diabetes support and education (DSE) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) among individuals with overweight/obesity and type 2 diabetes. A secondary analysis was conducted to evaluate the association between change in weight and waist circumference (WC) and CVD outcomes. METHODS: Participants (N = 5,490) were classified into four categories based on change in weight and WC between baseline and year 1 (both increased, both decreased, etc.). Separate Cox proportional hazards regression models were fit for ILI and DSE (using group that reduced weight/WC as reference), and time to first occurrence of primary and secondary CVD outcomes from year 1 through a median of almost 10 years were compared. Second, time to first event among all four ILI groups relative to DSE was evaluated. RESULTS: Within DSE, CVD outcomes did not differ. ILI participants with increased WC had increased risk of primary outcomes, regardless of weight loss (hazard ratio: 1.55 [95% CI: 1.11-2.17]) or weight gain (hazard ratio: 1.76 [95% CI: 1.07-2.89]), and had increased risk of secondary outcomes (overall P < 0.01) relative to ILI participants who reduced both weight and WC and relative to DSE participants. CONCLUSIONS: In this secondary analysis, increased WC during the first year of ILI, independent of weight change, was associated with higher risk for subsequent cardiovascular outcomes.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Circunferência da Cintura/fisiologia , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Análise de Sobrevida
19.
Diabetes Care ; 43(10): 2418-2425, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737140

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Diabetes surveillance often requires manual medical chart reviews to confirm status and type. This project aimed to create an electronic health record (EHR)-based procedure for improving surveillance efficiency through automation of case identification. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Youth (<20 years old) with potential evidence of diabetes (N = 8,682) were identified from EHRs at three children's hospitals participating in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study. True diabetes status/type was determined by manual chart reviews. Multinomial regression was compared with an ICD-10 rule-based algorithm in the ability to correctly identify diabetes status and type. Subsequently, the investigators evaluated a scenario of combining the rule-based algorithm with targeted chart reviews where the algorithm performed poorly. RESULTS: The sample included 5,308 true cases (89.2% type 1 diabetes). The rule-based algorithm outperformed regression for overall accuracy (0.955 vs. 0.936). Type 1 diabetes was classified well by both methods: sensitivity (Se) (>0.95), specificity (Sp) (>0.96), and positive predictive value (PPV) (>0.97). In contrast, the PPVs for type 2 diabetes were 0.642 and 0.778 for the rule-based algorithm and the multinomial regression, respectively. Combination of the rule-based method with chart reviews (n = 695, 7.9%) of persons predicted to have non-type 1 diabetes resulted in perfect PPV for the cases reviewed while increasing overall accuracy (0.983). The Se, Sp, and PPV for type 2 diabetes using the combined method were ≥0.91. CONCLUSIONS: An ICD-10 algorithm combined with targeted chart reviews accurately identified diabetes status/type and could be an attractive option for diabetes surveillance in youth.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Algoritmos , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(9): 1678-1686, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841523

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to determine whether intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) aimed at weight loss lowers cancer incidence and mortality. METHODS: Data from the Look AHEAD trial were examined to investigate whether participants randomized to ILI designed for weight loss would have reduced overall cancer incidence, obesity-related cancer incidence, and cancer mortality, as compared with the diabetes support and education (DSE) comparison group. This analysis included 4,859 participants without a cancer diagnosis at baseline except for nonmelanoma skin cancer. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 11 years, 684 participants (332 in ILI and 352 in DSE) were diagnosed with cancer. The incidence rates of obesity-related cancers were 6.1 and 7.3 per 1,000 person-years in ILI and DSE, respectively, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.84 (95% CI: 0.68-1.04). There was no significant difference between the two groups in total cancer incidence (HR, 0.93; 95% CI: 0.80-1.08), incidence of nonobesity-related cancers (HR, 1.02; 95% CI: 0.83-1.27), or total cancer mortality (HR, 0.92; 95% CI: 0.68-1.25). CONCLUSIONS: An ILI aimed at weight loss lowered incidence of obesity-related cancers by 16% in adults with overweight or obesity and type 2 diabetes. The study sample size likely lacked power to determine effect sizes of this magnitude and smaller.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Neoplasias/etiologia , Obesidade/terapia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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