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Am Surg ; : 31348221074224, 2022 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35344395


BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating event with a complicated recovery. Through the use of an interdisciplinary team a comprehensive care plan was developed, utilizing all available best practices, to prevent secondary complications. Previous work has shown the benefit of single system protocols or interventions. This study aimed to assess changes in outcomes after implementation of a comprehensive protocol. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study performed at an ACS Level I trauma center. It was based on data abstract from the institutions trauma registry over a 10 year period. Patients with quadriplegia after a traumatic injury were included. Data on hospital outcomes and complications was collected and compared before and after the use of the Spinal cord injury protocol. RESULTS: 58 patients were evaluated. Overall, there was a reduction in complications after the implementation, with significant reductions in pneumonia (47% vs 16%; P = .02) and decubitus ulcers (47% to 11%; P = .005). ICU length of stay decreased by 7 days and hospital length of stay decreased 13 days. There was no difference in mortality. Hospital costs also decreased a mean of $42,000. CONCLUSIONS: A comprehensive SCI protocol can reduce secondary complications in quadriplegic patients. This study found significant decreases in pneumonia and decubitus ulcer rates after implementation of the protocol. Lengths of stay and cost were also significantly reduced. Future research using comprehensive SCI protocols is needed to further assess its effects on outcomes for this specific patient population. Similar centers should consider adoption of comprehensive SCI protocols.

Am Surg ; 88(5): 953-958, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35275764


BACKGROUND: The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) has developed a grading system for emergency general surgery (EGS) conditions. We sought to validate the AAST EGS grades for patients undergoing urgent/emergent colorectal resection. METHODS: Patients enrolled in the "Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma Multicenter Colorectal Resection in EGS-to anastomose or not to anastomose" study undergoing urgent/emergent surgery for obstruction, ischemia, or diverticulitis were included. Baseline demographics, comorbidity severity as defined by Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), procedure type, and AAST grade were prospectively collected. Outcomes included length of stay (LOS) in-hospital mortality, and surgical complications (superficial/deep/organ-space surgical site infection, anastomotic leak, stoma complication, fascial dehiscence, and need for further intervention). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to describe outcomes and risk factors for surgical complication or mortality. RESULTS: There were 367 patients, with a mean (± SD) age of 62 ± 15 years. 39% were women. The median interquartile range (IQR) CCI was 4 (2-6). Overall, the pathologies encompassed the following AAST EGS grades: I (17, 5%), II (54, 15%), III (115, 31%), IV (95, 26%), and V (86, 23%). Management included laparoscopic (24, 7%), open (319, 87%), and laparoscopy converted to laparotomy (24, 6%). Higher AAST grade was associated with laparotomy (P = .01). The median LOS was 13 days (8-22). At least 1 surgical complication occurred in 33% of patients and the mortality rate was 14%. Development of at least 1 surgical complication, need for unplanned intervention, mortality, and increased LOS were associated with increasing AAST severity grade. On multivariable analysis, factors predictive of in-hospital mortality included AAST organ grade, CCI, and preoperative vasopressor use (odds ratio (OR) 1.9, 1.6, 3.1, respectively). The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma emergency general surgery grade was also associated with the development of at least 1 surgical complication (OR 2.5), while CCI, preoperative vasopressor use, respiratory failure, and pneumoperitoneum were not. CONCLUSION: The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma emergency general surgery grading systems display construct validity for mortality and surgical complications after urgent/emergent colorectal resection. These results support incorporation of AAST EGS grades for quality benchmarking and surgical outcomes research.

Neoplasias Colorretais , Cirurgia Geral , Laparoscopia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 28(1): 91-98, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726499


The cost of diabetes care in the United States continues to rise, with insulin costs growing rapidly. Accessibility and affordability of these life-saving medications are concerns for providers and patients that need to be addressed. Availability of biosimilar insulin products may help address these issues by introducing additional competition to the insulin market, but they may also face adoption challenges from patients and health care providers alike. In addition, policymakers at state and federal levels are examining and addressing rising insulin costs through legislative and administrative actions. The purpose of this paper is to review the current US diabetes landscape, highlight the differences between biosimilar insulins and follow-on insulins and considerations for successful adoption of biosimilar insulins, and review the current policy landscape regarding rising insulin costs. DISCLOSURES: This Viewpoints article was supported by Sandoz, Inc. Wagner and Patel are employees of Sandoz, Inc. White was employed by Sandoz, Inc., at the time of this study.

Medicamentos Biossimilares/economia , Medicamentos Biossimilares/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/economia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/economia , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Redução de Custos , Humanos , Seguro Saúde , Medicare , Formulação de Políticas , Estados Unidos
Am Surg ; : 31348211062653, 2021 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34961353


BACKGROUND: Tele-consults provide access to specialized care for a specific question and single point in time. eICU models utilize remote monitoring and ordering but have significant financial burden. We developed a virtual intensive care unit (VICU) for daily input of an intensivist working with local physicians. The purpose was to expand the acute care ability of the critical access hospital (CAH). The study evaluates the impact on the CAH and system. METHODS: The CAH developed an ICU team, led by a hospitalist, who staffed the intensive care unit (ICU). The CAH ICU team rounds daily via a secure video link to provide care in consultation with intensivists based at a university, tertiary care center (TC). A retrospective analysis was conducted 6 months before and after implementation (4/2018-3/2019). Fisher's exact test was used to compare pre- and post-intervention with significance at P < .04. RESULTS: After VICU implementation, there were 265 initial daily and 35 follow-up consults. Monthly transfers to a higher level of care decreased from 63 to 57 (P = .03). Transfers to TC increased from 49.6 to 62.0% (P = .001). Critical access hospital average monthly census and average monthly inpatient days increased (69 to 130 (P < .0001) and 158 to 319 (P < .0001), respectively). Critical access hospital physicians report increased comfort to admit ICU and non-ICU patients due to the program. The total startup cost was $5180. CAH hired 11 providers. There were no unanticipated deaths. DISCUSSION: VICU implementation resulted in new CAH jobs. The CAH experienced increased inpatient census and revenues (ICU and non-ICU) while decreasing patients transferred out of the system.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 89(6): 1023-1031, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890337


OBJECTIVE: Evidence comparing stoma creation (STM) versus anastomosis after urgent or emergent colorectal resection is limited. This study examined outcomes after colorectal resection in emergency general surgery patients. METHODS: This was an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma-sponsored prospective observational multicenter study of patients undergoing urgent/emergent colorectal resection. Twenty-one centers enrolled patients for 11 months. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were recorded. χ, Mann-Whitney U test, and multivariable logistic regression models were used to describe outcomes and risk factors for surgical complication/mortality. RESULTS: A total of 439 patients were enrolled (ANST, 184; STM, 255). The median (interquartile range) age was 62 (53-71) years, and the median Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) was 4 (1-6). The most common indication for surgery was diverticulitis (28%). Stoma group was older (64 vs. 58 years, p < 0.001), had a higher CCI, and were more likely to be immunosuppressed. Preoperatively, STM patients were more likely to be intubated (57 vs. 15, p < 0.001), on vasopressors (61 vs. 13, p < 0.001), have pneumoperitoneum (131 vs. 41, p < 0.001) or fecal contamination (114 vs. 33, p < 0.001), and had a higher incidence of elevated lactate (149 vs. 67, p < 0.001). Overall mortality was 13%, which was higher in STM patients (18% vs. 8%, p = 0.02). Surgical complications were more common in STM patients (35% vs. 25%, p = 0.02). On multivariable analysis, management with an open abdomen, intraoperative blood transfusion, and larger hospital size were associated with development of a surgical complication, while CCI, preoperative vasopressor use, steroid use, open abdomen, and intraoperative blood transfusion were independently associated with mortality. CONCLUSION: This study highlights a tendency to perform fecal diversion in patients who are acutely ill at presentation. There is a higher morbidity and mortality rate in STM patients. Independent predictors of mortality include CCI, preoperative vasopressor use, steroid use, open abdomen, and intraoperative blood transfusion. Following adjustment by clinical factors, method of colon management was not associated with surgical complications or mortality. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic study, level IV.

Colectomia/métodos , Cirurgia Colorretal/educação , Doença Diverticular do Colo/cirurgia , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Idoso , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Colectomia/educação , Colectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Emergências , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos