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1.
Fam Cancer ; 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31773425

RESUMO

Pre-test counseling about multigene panel testing involves many uncertainties. Ideally, counselees are informed about uncertainties in a way that enables them to make an informed decision about panel testing. It is presently unknown whether and how uncertainty is discussed during initial cancer genetic counseling. We therefore investigated whether and how counselors discuss and address uncertainty, and the extent of shared decision-making (SDM), and explored associations between counselors' communication and their characteristics in consultations on panel testing for cancer. For this purpose, consultations of counselors discussing a multigene panel with a simulated patient were videotaped. Simulated patients represented a counselee who had had multiple cancer types, according to a script. Before and afterwards, counselors completed a survey. Counselors' uncertainty expressions, initiating and the framing of expressions, and their verbal responses to scripted uncertainties of the simulated patient were coded by two researchers independently. Coding was done according to a pre-developed coding scheme using The Observer XT software for observational analysis. Additionally, the degree of SDM was assessed by two observers. Correlation and regression analyses were performed to assess associations of communicated uncertainties, responses and the extent of SDM, with counselors' background characteristics. In total, twenty-nine counselors, including clinical geneticists, genetic counselors, physician assistants-in-training, residents and interns, participated of whom working experience varied between 0 and 25 years. Counselors expressed uncertainties mainly regarding scientific topics (94%) and on their own initiative (95%). Most expressions were framed directly (77%), e.g. We don't know, and were emotionally neutral (59%; without a positive/negative value). Counselors mainly responded to uncertainties of the simulated patient by explicitly referring to the uncertainty (69%), without providing space for further disclosure (66%). More experienced counselors provided less space to further disclose uncertainty (p < 0.02), and clinical geneticists scored lower on SDM compared with other types of counselors (p < 0.03). Our findings that counselors mainly communicate scientific uncertainties and use space-reducing responses imply that the way counselors address counselees' personal uncertainties and concerns during initial cancer genetic counseling is suboptimal.

2.
Endoscopy ; 51(11): 1082-1093, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597170

RESUMO

ESGE recommends that individuals with Lynch syndrome should be followed in dedicated units that practice monitoring of compliance and endoscopic performance measures.Strong recommendation, low quality evidence, level of agreement 100 %.ESGE recommends starting colonoscopy surveillance at the age of 25 years for MLH1 and MSH2 mutation carriers and at the age of 35 years for MSH6 and PMS2 mutation carriers.Strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence, level of agreement 100 %. ESGE recommends the routine use of high-definition endoscopy systems in individuals with Lynch syndrome. Strong recommendation, high quality evidence, level of agreement 100 %. ESGE suggests the use of chromoendoscopy may be of benefit in individuals with Lynch syndrome undergoing colonoscopy; however routine use must be balanced against costs, training, and practical considerations.Weak recommendation, moderate quality evidence, level of agreement 89 %.ESGE recommends definition of familial risk of colorectal cancer as the presence of at least two first-degree relatives with colorectal cancer or at least one first-degree relative with colorectal cancer before the age of 50 years.Strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence, level of agreement 92 %.ESGE recommends colonoscopy surveillance in first-degree relatives of colorectal cancer patients in families that fulfill the definition of familial risk of colorectal cancer.Strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence, level of agreement 100 %.

3.
Endoscopy ; 51(9): 877-895, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342472

RESUMO

ESGE recommends that individuals with hereditary gastrointestinal polyposis syndromes should be surveilled in dedicated units that provide monitoring of compliance and endoscopic performance measures. Strong recommendation, moderate quality of evidence, level of agreement 90 %.ESGE recommends performing esophagogastroduodenoscopy, small-bowel examination, and/or colonoscopy earlier than the planned surveillance procedure if a patient is symptomatic. Strong recommendation, low quality of evidence, level of agreement 100 %.

4.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 38, 2019 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) is complex and cumbersome yet important for the clinical management of the disease. Exome sequencing may provide a genetic diagnosis in a significant number of patients in a single genetic test. METHODS: In May 2013, we implemented exome sequencing in routine diagnostics for patients suffering from PIDs. This study reports the clinical utility and diagnostic yield for a heterogeneous group of 254 consecutively referred PID patients from 249 families. For the majority of patients, the clinical diagnosis was based on clinical criteria including rare and/or unusual severe bacterial, viral, or fungal infections, sometimes accompanied by autoimmune manifestations. Functional immune defects were interpreted in the context of aberrant immune cell populations, aberrant antibody levels, or combinations of these factors. RESULTS: For 62 patients (24%), exome sequencing identified pathogenic variants in well-established PID genes. An exome-wide analysis diagnosed 10 additional patients (4%), providing diagnoses for 72 patients (28%) from 68 families altogether. The genetic diagnosis directly indicated novel treatment options for 25 patients that received a diagnosis (34%). CONCLUSION: Exome sequencing as a first-tier test for PIDs granted a diagnosis for 28% of patients. Importantly, molecularly defined diagnoses indicated altered therapeutic options in 34% of cases. In addition, exome sequencing harbors advantages over gene panels as a truly generic test for all genetic diseases, including in silico extension of existing gene lists and re-analysis of existing data.

5.
Genet Med ; 21(12): 2706-2712, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204389

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Biallelic pathogenic variants in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes cause a recessive childhood cancer predisposition syndrome known as constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD). Family members with a heterozygous MMR variant have Lynch syndrome. We aimed at estimating cancer risk in these heterozygous carriers as a novel approach to avoid complicated statistical methods to correct for ascertainment bias. METHODS: Cumulative colorectal cancer incidence was estimated in a cohort of PMS2- and MSH6-associated families, ascertained by the CMMRD phenotype of the index, by using mutation probabilities based on kinship coefficients as analytical weights in a proportional hazard regression on the cause-specific hazards. Confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained by bootstrapping at the family level. RESULTS: The estimated cumulative colorectal cancer risk at age 70 years for heterozygous PMS2 variant carriers was 8.7% (95% CI 4.3-12.7%) for both sexes combined, and 9.9% (95% CI 4.9-15.3%) for men and 5.9% (95% CI 1.6-11.1%) for women separately. For heterozygous MSH6 variant carriers these estimates are 11.8% (95% CI 4.5-22.7%) for both sexes combined, 10.0% (95% CI 1.83-24.5%) for men and 11.7% (95% CI 2.10-26.5%) for women. CONCLUSION: Our findings are consistent with previous reports that used more complex statistical methods to correct for ascertainment bias. These results underline the need for MMR gene-specific surveillance protocols for Lynch syndrome.

6.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(6): 1010-1014, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PMS2-associated Lynch syndrome is characterized by a relatively low colorectal cancer penetrance compared with other Lynch syndromes. However, age at colorectal cancer diagnosis varies widely, and a strong genetic anticipation effect has been suggested for PMS2 families. In this study, we examined proposed genetic anticipation in a sample of 152 European PMS2 families. METHODS: The 152 families (637 family members) that were eligible for analysis were mainly clinically ascertained via clinical genetics centers. We used weighted Cox-type random effects model, adjusted by birth cohort and sex, to estimate the generational effect on the age of onset of colorectal cancer. Probands and young birth cohorts were excluded from the analyses. Weights represented mutation probabilities based on kinship coefficients, thus avoiding testing bias. RESULTS: Family data across three generations, including 123 colorectal cancers, were analyzed. When compared with the first generation, the crude HR for anticipation was 2.242 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.162-4.328] for the second generation and 2.644 (95% CI, 1.082-6.464) for the third generation. However, after correction for birth cohort and sex, the effect vanished [HR = 1.302 (95% CI, 0.648-2.619) and HR = 1.074 (95% CI, 0.406-2.842) for second and third generations, respectively]. CONCLUSIONS: Our study did not confirm previous reports of genetic anticipation in PMS2-associated Lynch syndrome. Birth-cohort effect seems the most likely explanation for observed younger colorectal cancer diagnosis in subsequent generations, particularly because there is currently no commonly accepted biological mechanism that could explain genetic anticipation in Lynch syndrome. IMPACT: This new model for studying genetic anticipation provides a standard for rigorous analysis of families with dominantly inherited cancer predisposition.

7.
J Clin Oncol ; 36(29): 2961-2968, 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30161022

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lynch syndrome due to pathogenic variants in the DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 is predominantly associated with colorectal and endometrial cancer, although extracolonic cancers have been described within the Lynch tumor spectrum. However, the age-specific cumulative risk (penetrance) of these cancers is still poorly defined for PMS2-associated Lynch syndrome. Using a large data set from a worldwide collaboration, our aim was to determine accurate penetrance measures of cancers for carriers of heterozygous pathogenic PMS2 variants. METHODS: A modified segregation analysis was conducted that incorporated both genotyped and nongenotyped relatives, with conditioning for ascertainment to estimates corrected for bias. Hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% CIs were estimated for each cancer site for mutation carriers compared with the general population, followed by estimation of penetrance. RESULTS: In total, 284 families consisting of 4,878 first- and second-degree family members were included in the analysis. PMS2 mutation carriers were at increased risk for colorectal cancer (cumulative risk to age 80 years of 13% [95% CI, 7.9% to 22%] for males and 12% [95% CI, 6.7% to 21%] for females) and endometrial cancer (13% [95% CI, 7.0%-24%]), compared with the general population (6.6%, 4.7%, and 2.4%, respectively). There was no clear evidence of an increased risk of ovarian, gastric, hepatobiliary, bladder, renal, brain, breast, prostate, or small bowel cancer. CONCLUSION: Heterozygous PMS2 mutation carriers were at small increased risk for colorectal and endometrial cancer but not for any other Lynch syndrome-associated cancer. This finding justifies that PMS2-specific screening protocols could be restricted to colonoscopies. The role of risk-reducing hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for PMS2 mutation carriers needs further discussion.

8.
Gastroenterology ; 155(5): 1410-1415, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30063919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: It is important to identify individuals with Lynch syndrome because surveillance programs can reduce their morbidity and mortality from colorectal cancer (CRC). We assessed the diagnostic yield of immunohistochemistry to detect Lynch syndrome in patients with advanced and multiple adenomas within our national CRC screening program. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of all participants (n = 1101; 55% male; median age, 66 years; interquartile range, 61-70 years) referred to the Erasmus MC in The Netherlands after a positive result from a fecal immunohistochemical test, from December 2013 to December 2016. Colon tissues were collected from patients with advanced adenomas, ≥4 nonadvanced adenomas, or CRC, and analyzed by immunohistochemistry to identify patients with loss of mismatch repair (MMR) proteins (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, or PMS2): a marker of Lynch syndrome. Specimens from patients with loss of MLH1 were analyzed for MLH1 promoter hypermethylation. Patients with an MMR-deficient tumor or adenoma without MLH1 promoter hypermethylation were referred for genetic analysis. RESULTS: At colonoscopy, 456 patients (41%) (65% male; mean age, 67 years; interquartile range, 63-71 years) were found to have CRC and/or an adenoma eligible for analysis by immunohistochemistry. Of 56 CRCs, 7 (13%) had lost an MMR protein and 5 had hypermethylation of the MLH1 promoter. Analyses of tumor DNA revealed that 2 patients without MLH1 promoter hypermethylation had developed sporadic tumors. In total, 400 patients with adenomas were analyzed. Of the examined adenomas, 208 (52%) had a villous component and/or high-grade dysplasia: 186 (47%) had a villous component and 41 (10%) had high-grade dysplasia. Only 1 adenoma had lost an MMR protein. This adenoma was found to have 2 somatic mutations in MSH6. CONCLUSIONS: In a CRC screening program in The Netherlands for individuals aged 55 to 75 years, routine screening for Lynch syndrome by immunohistochemistry analysis of colon tissues from patients with advanced and multiple adenomas identified no individuals with this genetic disorder.

9.
Biomaterials ; 177: 14-26, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29885585

RESUMO

Small diameter vascular grafts from human placenta, decellularized with either Triton X-100 (Triton) or SDS and crosslinked with heparin were constructed and characterized. Graft biochemical properties, residual DNA, and protein composition were evaluated to compare the effect of the two detergents on graft matrix composition and structural alterations. Biocompatibility was tested in vitro by culturing the grafts with primary human macrophages and in vivo by subcutaneous implantation of graft conduits (n = 7 per group) into the flanks of nude rats. Subsequently, graft performance was evaluated using an aortic implantation model in Sprague Dawley rats (one month, n = 14). In situ graft imaging was performed using MRI angiography. Retrieved specimens were analyzed by electromyography, scanning electron microscopy, histology and immunohistochemistry to evaluate cell migration and the degree of functional tissue remodeling. Both decellularization methods resulted in grafts of excellent biocompatibility in vitro and in vivo, with low immunogenic potential. Proteomic data revealed removal of cytoplasmic proteins with relative enrichment of ECM proteins in decelluarized specimens of both groups. Noteworthy, LC-Mass Spectrometry analysis revealed that 16 proteins were exclusively preserved in Triton decellularized specimens in comparison to SDS-treated specimens. Aortic grafts showed high patency rates, no signs of thrombus formation, aneurysms or rupture. Conduits of both groups revealed tissue-specific cell migration indicative of functional remodeling. This study strongly suggests that decellularized allogenic grafts from the human placenta have the potential to be used as vascular replacement materials. Both detergents produced grafts with low residual immunogenicity and appropriate mechanical properties. Observed differences in graft characteristics due to preservation method had no impact on successful in vivo performance in the rodent model.

10.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 65(6): e26991, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29446530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Wnt/ß-catenin pathway plays a central role in the pathogenesis of most hepatoblastomas (HBs), that is, up to 60-80% carry activating CTNNB1 mutations. HBs can however also be the first manifestation of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). As this is a severe disease, it is important for the patient and related family members to firmly exclude FAP at an early stage. Current diagnosis largely depends on APC germline mutation detection on genomic DNA, which is associated with 10-20% false-negative results. Here, we establish and validate a tissue-based ß-catenin gene and immunohistochemical analysis, which complements germline mutation screening to exclude the diagnosis of FAP among HB patients. METHODS: Tumor tissues of 18 HB patients, including three FAP cases were subjected to CTNNB1 exon 3 mutational analysis and immunohistochemistry comparing staining patterns for total and exon 3 specific ß-catenin antibodies. RESULTS: Our novel tissue-based method reliably identified all three FAP patients. Their tumors were characterized by a wild-type exon 3 sequence and a comparable nuclear staining for both antibodies. In contrast, the non-FAP tumors carried missense CTNNB1 mutations combined with a clearly reduced staining for the exon 3 antibody, or complete loss of staining in case of lesions with exon 3 deletions. CONCLUSION: We have successfully established and validated a novel ß-catenin gene and immunohistochemical diagnostic method, which, when combined with routine germline DNA testing, allows the exclusion of the diagnosis of FAP among HB patients.

11.
Clin Cancer Res ; 24(7): 1594-1603, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29351919

RESUMO

Purpose: In many children with cancer and characteristics suggestive of a genetic predisposition syndrome, the genetic cause is still unknown. We studied the yield of pathogenic mutations by applying whole-exome sequencing on a selected cohort of children with cancer.Experimental Design: To identify mutations in known and novel cancer-predisposing genes, we performed trio-based whole-exome sequencing on germline DNA of 40 selected children and their parents. These children were diagnosed with cancer and had at least one of the following features: (1) intellectual disability and/or congenital anomalies, (2) multiple malignancies, (3) family history of cancer, or (4) an adult type of cancer. We first analyzed the sequence data for germline mutations in 146 known cancer-predisposing genes. If no causative mutation was found, the analysis was extended to the whole exome.Results: Four patients carried causative mutations in a known cancer-predisposing gene: TP53 and DICER1 (n = 3). In another 4 patients, exome sequencing revealed mutations causing syndromes that might have contributed to the malignancy (EP300-based Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, ARID1A-based Coffin-Siris syndrome, ACTB-based Baraitser-Winter syndrome, and EZH2-based Weaver syndrome). In addition, we identified two genes, KDM3B and TYK2, which are possibly involved in genetic cancer predisposition.Conclusions: In our selected cohort of patients, pathogenic germline mutations causative or likely causative of the cancer phenotype were found in 8 patients, and two possible novel cancer-predisposing genes were identified. Therewith, our study shows the added value of sequencing beyond a cancer gene panel in selected patients, to recognize childhood cancer predisposition. Clin Cancer Res; 24(7); 1594-603. ©2018 AACR.

12.
J Med Genet ; 55(10): 669-674, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29330337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In approximately 10% of all gastric cancer (GC) cases, a heritable cause is suspected. A subset of these cases have a causative germline CDH1 mutation; however, in most cases the cause remains unknown. Our objective was to assess to what extent these remaining cases may be explained by germline mutations in the novel candidate GC predisposing genes CTNNA1, MAP3K6 or MYD88. METHODS: We sequenced a large cohort of unexplained young and/or familial patients with GC (n=286) without a CDH1germline mutation for germline variants affecting CTNNA1, MAP3K6 and MYD88 using a targeted next-generation sequencing approach based on single-molecule molecular inversion probes. RESULTS: Predicted deleterious germline variants were not encountered in MYD88, but recurrently observed in CTNNA1 (n=2) and MAP3K6 (n=3) in our cohort of patients with GC. In contrast to deleterious variants in CTNNA1, deleterious variants in MAP3K6 also occur frequently in the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our results MAP3K6 should no longer be considered a GC predisposition gene, whereas deleterious CTNNA1 variants are confirmed as an infrequent cause of GC susceptibility. Biallelic MYD88 germline mutations are at most a very rare cause of GC susceptibility as no additional cases were identified.

13.
Fam Cancer ; 17(4): 507-515, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29147930

RESUMO

Lynch syndrome (LS) patients are at high risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). Phenotypic variability might in part be explained by common susceptibility loci identified in Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS). Previous studies focused mostly on MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 carriers, with conflicting results. We aimed to determine the role of GWAS SNPs in PMS2 mutation carriers. A cohort study was performed in 507 PMS2 carriers (124 CRC cases), genotyped for 24 GWAS SNPs, including SNPs at 11q23.1 and 8q23.3. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using a weighted Cox regression analysis to correct for ascertainment bias. Discrimination was assessed with a concordance statistic in a bootstrap cross-validation procedure. Individual SNPs only had non-significant associations with CRC occurrence with HRs lower than 2, although male carriers of allele A at rs1321311 (6p21.31) may have increased risk of CRC (HR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.0). A polygenic risk score (PRS) based on 24 HRs had an HR of 2.6 (95% CI 1.5-4.6) for the highest compared to the lowest quartile, but had no discriminative ability (c statistic 0.52). Previously suggested SNPs do not modify CRC risk in PMS2 carriers. Future large studies are needed for improved risk stratification among Lynch syndrome patients.

14.
Mol Cell Proteomics ; 17(3): 516-532, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29208752

RESUMO

Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a modality of renal replacement therapy in which the high volumes of available PD effluent (PDE) represents a rich source of biomarkers for monitoring disease and therapy. Although this information could help guide the management of PD patients, little is known about the potential of PDE to define pathomechanism-associated molecular signatures in PD.We therefore subjected PDE to a high-performance multiplex proteomic analysis after depletion of highly-abundant plasma proteins and enrichment of low-abundance proteins. A combination of label-free and isobaric labeling strategies was applied to PDE samples from PD patients (n = 20) treated in an open-label, randomized, two-period, cross-over clinical trial with standard PD fluid or with a novel PD fluid supplemented with alanyl-glutamine (AlaGln).With this workflow we identified 2506 unique proteins in the PDE proteome, greatly increasing coverage beyond the 171 previously-reported proteins. The proteins identified range from high abundance plasma proteins to low abundance cellular proteins, and are linked to larger numbers of biological processes and pathways, some of which are novel for PDE. Interestingly, proteins linked to membrane remodeling and fibrosis are overrepresented in PDE compared with plasma, whereas the proteins underrepresented in PDE suggest decreases in host defense, immune-competence and response to stress. Treatment with AlaGln-supplemented PD fluid is associated with reduced activity of membrane injury-associated mechanisms and with restoration of biological processes involved in stress responses and host defense.Our study represents the first application of the PDE proteome in a randomized controlled prospective clinical trial of PD. This novel proteomic workflow allowed detection of low abundance biomarkers to define pathomechanism-associated molecular signatures in PD and their alterations by a novel therapeutic intervention.

15.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 39(7): 566-569, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28859029

RESUMO

In 2003, van Grotel and colleagues reported an infant suffering a chemotherapy-resistant eRMS of the tongue, that was treated with subtotal tumor resection and brachytherapy after major medical ethical discussions. As no long-term sequelae of such a procedure have been described, perspectives were uncertain at that time. Now, after 15 years, we describe hypoplasia of the mandibula, compromised dentation, osteopenia, neuropsychological deficits, and moderate speech impairment as the most prominent late effects. Also, mandibular cysts and basal cell carcinomas in the irradiated area, eventually led to the diagnosis Gorlin syndrome.


Assuntos
Rabdomiossarcoma/terapia , Adolescente , Síndrome do Nevo Basocelular/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Nevo Basocelular/etiologia , Braquiterapia , Terapia Combinada , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Rabdomiossarcoma/complicações , Rabdomiossarcoma/radioterapia , Rabdomiossarcoma/cirurgia , Rabdomiossarcoma Embrionário , Neoplasias da Língua/complicações , Neoplasias da Língua/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Língua/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Língua/terapia
16.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 25(11): 1246-1252, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28875981

RESUMO

Recognition of individuals with a genetic predisposition to gastric cancer (GC) enables preventive measures. However, the underlying cause of genetic susceptibility to gastric cancer remains largely unexplained. We performed germline whole-exome sequencing on leukocyte DNA of 54 patients from 53 families with genetically unexplained diffuse-type and intestinal-type GC to identify novel GC-predisposing candidate genes. As young age at diagnosis and familial clustering are hallmarks of genetic tumor susceptibility, we selected patients that were diagnosed below the age of 35, patients from families with two cases of GC at or below age 60 and patients from families with three GC cases at or below age 70. All included individuals were tested negative for germline CDH1 mutations before or during the study. Variants that were possibly deleterious according to in silico predictions were filtered using several independent approaches that were based on gene function and gene mutation burden in controls. Despite a rigorous search, no obvious candidate GC predisposition genes were identified. This negative result stresses the importance of future research studies in large, homogeneous cohorts.


Assuntos
Exoma , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos CD , Caderinas/genética , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico
17.
Br J Cancer ; 116(12): 1621-1626, 2017 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28524158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sarcomas are rare and heterogeneous cancers. We assessed the contribution of DICER1 mutations to sarcoma development. METHODS: The coding region of DICER1 was sequenced in 67 sarcomas using a custom Fluidigm Access Array. The RNase III domains were Sanger sequenced in six additional sarcomas to identify hotspot DICER1 variants. RESULTS: The median age of sarcoma diagnosis was 45.7 years (range: 3 months to 87.4 years). A recurrent embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) of the broad ligament, first diagnosed at age 23 years, harboured biallelic pathogenic somatic DICER1 variants (1 truncating and 1 RNase IIIb missense). We identified nine other DICER1 variants. One somatic variant (p.L1070V) identified in a pleomorphic sarcoma and one germline variant (c.2257-7A>G) may be pathogenic, but the others are considered to be benign. CONCLUSIONS: We show that deleterious DICER1 mutations underlie the genetic basis of only a small fraction of sarcomas, in particular ERMS of the urogenital tract.


Assuntos
RNA Helicases DEAD-box/genética , DNA de Neoplasias/análise , Rabdomiossarcoma Embrionário/genética , Ribonuclease III/genética , Sarcoma de Ewing/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nat Chem Biol ; 13(7): 771-778, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28530711

RESUMO

Approved drugs are invaluable tools to study biochemical pathways, and further characterization of these compounds may lead to repurposing of single drugs or combinations. Here we describe a collection of 308 small molecules representing the diversity of structures and molecular targets of all FDA-approved chemical entities. The CeMM Library of Unique Drugs (CLOUD) covers prodrugs and active forms at pharmacologically relevant concentrations and is ideally suited for combinatorial studies. We screened pairwise combinations of CLOUD drugs for impairment of cancer cell viability and discovered a synergistic interaction between flutamide and phenprocoumon (PPC). The combination of these drugs modulates the stability of the androgen receptor (AR) and resensitizes AR-mutant prostate cancer cells to flutamide. Mechanistically, we show that the AR is a substrate for γ-carboxylation, a post-translational modification inhibited by PPC. Collectively, our data suggest that PPC could be repurposed to tackle resistance to antiandrogens in prostate cancer patients.


Assuntos
Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/análise , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Flutamida/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estrutura Molecular , Femprocumona/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
19.
PLoS Genet ; 13(5): e1006765, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28531214

RESUMO

Lynch syndrome (LS) is a hereditary cancer predisposition caused by inactivating mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Mutations in the MSH6 DNA MMR gene account for approximately 18% of LS cases. Many LS-associated sequence variants are nonsense and frameshift mutations that clearly abrogate MMR activity. However, missense mutations whose functional implications are unclear are also frequently seen in suspected-LS patients. To conclusively diagnose LS and enroll patients in appropriate surveillance programs to reduce morbidity as well as mortality, the functional consequences of these variants of uncertain clinical significance (VUS) must be defined. We present an oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis screen for the identification of pathogenic MSH6 VUS. In the screen, the MSH6 variant of interest is introduced into mouse embryonic stem cells by site-directed mutagenesis. Subsequent selection for MMR-deficient cells using the DNA damaging agent 6-thioguanine (6TG) allows the identification of MMR abrogating VUS because solely MMR-deficient cells survive 6TG exposure. We demonstrate the efficacy of the genetic screen, investigate the phenotype of 26 MSH6 VUS and compare our screening results to clinical data from suspected-LS patients carrying these variant alleles.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Fenótipo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Tioguanina/toxicidade
20.
Eur J Cancer ; 80: 48-54, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28544908

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recognising a tumour predisposition syndrome (TPS) in childhood cancer patients is of major clinical relevance. The presence of a TPS may be suggested by the type of tumour in the child. We present an overview of 23 childhood tumours that in themselves should be a reason to refer a child for genetic consultation. METHODS: We performed a PubMed search to review the incidence of TPSs in children for 85 tumour types listed in the International Classification of Childhood Cancer third edition (ICCC-3). The results were discussed during a national consensus meeting with representative clinical geneticists from all six academic paediatric oncology centres in The Netherlands. A TPS incidence of 5% or more was considered a high probability and therefore in itself a reason for referral to a clinical geneticist. RESULTS: The literature search resulted in data on the incidence of a TPS in 26 tumours. For 23/26 tumour types, a TPS incidence of 5% or higher was reported. In addition, during the consensus meeting the experts agreed that children with any carcinoma should always be referred for clinical genetic consultation as well, as it may point to a TPS. CONCLUSION: We present an overview of 23 paediatric tumours with a high probability of a TPS; this will facilitate paediatric oncologists to decide which patients should be referred for genetic consultation merely based on type of tumour.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento Genético , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Incidência , Encaminhamento e Consulta
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