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1.
Aging Ment Health ; : 1-11, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791137

RESUMO

Worldwide life expectancy has increased dramatically in recent years. Also on the rise are incidents of pathologies related to aging, such as Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) or Alzheimer's Disease (AD). An inaccurate diagnosis impairs the well-being and the quality of life of patients and their relatives, as well as being a financial burden on the health system. Continued education pertaining to the neuropsychological field is uncommon for health workers involved in general practice. This article aims to present the process of development and content validity of the "CENEES Program - Psychoeducation for Health Staff on The Neuropsychology of Aging". The CENEES Program was developed in six steps which include: literature review, first draft, focal group, adjustments after focal group, judgment analysis (n = 4), and finally the last version. The inter-rater reliability index after judgment analysis was 0.785. The final version of the CENEES Program contains eight meetings, divided into 4 modules: 1) Fundamentals of Neuroscience; 2) Memory; 3) Executive Functions; and 4) Communication. The final meeting was called "Review". The CENEES Program is a new resource to help professionals who work within the general practice field, especially community health workers. As far as we know, there is no psychoeducation program on aging which contains the four subjects that are covered in the CENEES Program. The CENEES Program could assist the workers' daily activities and make them comfortable to offer and build actions in the community. A pilot and follow-up studies are suggested.

2.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 35(4): 298-301, dic. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1026158

RESUMO

La formación de cirujanos generales es responsabilidad de las clínicas quirúrgicas de la Facultad de Medicina. Su programa de formación de tres años presentaba carencias en cuanto al volumen y complejidad de la cirugía que cada residente realizaba. Objetivo: presentar los resultados de la producción quirúrgica de los residentes de Cirugía General luego de la implementación del cuarto año curricular del posgrado en la Clínica Quirúrgica 3 del Hospital Maciel y compararlos con los del período previo cuya duración era de tres años. Material y método: estudio observacional, descriptivo y retrospectivo de la producción quirúrgica de los residentes de la Clínica Quirúrgica 3 que cursaron en el período 2011-2015. Las variables consideradas fueron: número total de cirugías realizadas por todos los residentes, promedio de cirugías totales y por año por residente, número máximo y mínimo de cirugías realizadas por un residente, porcentaje total de cirugías de coordinación y urgencia, y promedio de cirugías por residente de acuerdo a la categorización en altas, mayores, corrientes y menores. Los datos se extrajeron del sistema de descripciones operatorias de la Administración de los Servicios de Salud del Estado, Hospital Maciel. Conclusiones: el incremento de un año en la duración de la residencia de Cirugía General determinó un aumento en el número y complejidad de la cirugía realizada por los residentes en la Clínica Quirúrgica 3 del Hospital Maciel, así como un incremento de las cirugías de coordinación en relación con las de urgencia y emergencia.


The general surgeons training program is under the responsibility of the Surgical Clinics of the School of Medicine. The 3-year training program evidenced deficiencies in terms of the volume and complexity of the surgeries carried out by the different residents. Objective: to present the surgical outcome of the General Surgery residents after the implementation of the fourth year in the curriculum of graduate studies of the Surgical Clinic 3 at Maciel Hospital and to compare it to that of the residents trained in the previous 3-year studies plan. Method: observational, descriptive and retrospective study of the surgical outcome of residents of the Surgical Clinic 3 who studied in the 2011-2015 period. Below follow the variables considered: total number of surgeries carried out by all residents, average number of surgeries per year and per resident, maximum and minimum number of surgeries by a resident, total percentage of coordination and urgent surgeries and average number of surgeries by resident according to the classification into high complexity, complex, regular and minor. Data were taken from the ASSE surgery description system - Maciel Hospital. Conclusions: increasing one year the duration of the general surgery residence resulted in a higher number and complexity of surgeries carried out by the residents of Surgical Clinic 3 at Maciel Hospital, as well as an increase in the coordination surgeries when compared to urgency and emergency surgeries.


A formação de cirurgiões gerais é responsabilidade das Clínicas Quirúrgicas da Facultad de Medicina. O programa de formação de 3 anos apresentava carências tanto em relação ao volume como também à complexidade da cirurgia que cada residente realizava. Objetivo: apresentar os resultados da produção cirúrgica dos Residentes de Cirurgia Geral depois da implementação do quarto ano curricular da pós-graduação na Clínica Quirúrgica 3 do Hospital Maciel e compará-los com os do período prévio cuja duração era de 3 anos. Material e método: estudo observacional, descritivo e retrospectivo da produção cirúrgica dos Residentes da Clínica Quirúrgica 3 que cursaram no período 2011 ­ 2015. As variáveis estudadas foram: número total de cirurgias realizadas por todos os residentes, média de cirurgias totais e por ano por residente, número máximo e mínimo de cirurgias realizadas por residente, porcentagem total de cirurgias eletivas e de urgência e média de cirurgias por residente segundo a classificação como de grande, meio e pequeno porte e corrente. Os dados foram obtidos do sistema de descrições operatórias de ASSE - Hospital Maciel. Conclusões: o incremento de um ano na duração da residência de cirurgia geral levou a um aumento no número e na complexidade das cirurgias realizadas pelos residentes na Clínica Quirúrgica 3 del Hospital Maciel, bem como uma aumento das cirurgias eletivas em relação às de urgência e emergência.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Geral/educação , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Educação Médica , Internato e Residência
4.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 21Suppl 02(Suppl 02): e180013, 2019 Feb 04.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30726358

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The concomitance of smoking and poor dietary habits represents a worsened prognosis of health and quality of life for elderly. The aim of this study was to characterize the nutritional status of elderly who were smokers and former smokers and residents of São Paulo city. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 with a representative sample of 1,345 individuals aged 60 years and over, who were part of the elderly cohort monitored at the SABE Study. Sociodemographic, health, and nutritional aspects of the elderly were described, according to their tobacco use in life. RESULTS: The proportion of smokers and former smokers was 12.9 and 54.7%, 11.0 and 25.2%, and 11.8 and 37.2% for male, female, and total population, respectively. For both genders, increasing age decreased the proportion of smokers. The proportion of proper fruit intake was smaller for female smokers. Poorer nutritional status was observed in smokers, who had fewer meals per day and greater frequency of underweight compared with elderly nonsmokers. CONCLUSION: Considering the impact of inappropriate eating habits and smoking on health, elderly smokers deserve special attention on their nutritional status.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais , Fumantes , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Braz J Psychiatry ; 41(6): 546-549, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758434

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We examined the sociodemographic factors associated with smoking risk perceptions (SRP) in youth living in two very different neighborhoods in the city of São Paulo, Brazil: a middle-class central area (Vila Mariana) and a poor outer-city area (Capão Redondo). METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 180 public school-attending youth (all aged 12 years) and their parents. SRP was evaluated through self-reports. Weighted multinomial logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with SRP. RESULTS: Smoking was considered a high-risk behavior by 70.9% of adolescents. There were significant differences in SRP associated with socioeconomic status (SES) and maternal smoking status. Having a non-smoking mother was positively associated with perceiving smoking as having low to moderate risk versus no risk (OR=3.91 [95%CI 1.27-12.02]). Attending school in Capão Redondo was associated with perceiving smoking as having high risk compared to no risk (OR=3.00 [95%CI 1.11-8.12]), and low SES was negatively associated with perceiving at least some risk in smoking versus perceiving no risk in this behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Youth whose mothers smoke appear to have lower SRP than those whose mothers do not smoke. Living in a poor outer-city area was associated with higher SRP.


Assuntos
Pais/psicologia , Percepção , Assunção de Riscos , Fumar/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Brasil , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Setor Público , Características de Residência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Socioeconômicos
6.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047117

RESUMO

Introdução: O câncer de cabeça e pescoço engloba um grupo heterogêneo de neoplasias malignas originadas na cavidade oral, faringe, laringe, seios paranasais, cavidade nasal, glândulas salivares e tireoide. Objetivo: Este estudo buscou avaliar o conhecimento dos universitários da área da saúde sobre o câncer de cavidade oral. Método: Estudo do tipo epidemiológico, transversal, descritivo, quali-quantitativo com amostra não probabilística de conveniência. Os universitários receberam, via formulário on-line, um questionário com 24 questões aplicadas que abordavam os fatores de risco, sintomatologia, aspectos clínicos, autoexame, prevenção e tratamento. Resultados: Participaram do estudo 110 universitários da área da saúde (58 = primeiro ano e 52 = último ano), distribuídos nos cursos de fisioterapia, odontologia, psicologia, educação física, enfermagem, medicina e nutrição. Em relação à média de acertos dos questionários, os universitários do primeiro ano obtiveram 77,65% (±21,09) de acertos, e os universitários do último ano, 82,37% (±19,88). As questões que obtiveram menores taxas de acertos foram as relacionadas à incidência do câncer de boca no Brasil; 43 (39%) acertaram e 52 (47,3%) dos universitários desconhecem a idade em que maioria dos casos são diagnosticados. Conclusão: Apesar de o câncer de cavidade oral ser crescente, formas de prevenção e diagnóstico precoce reservam maiores chances de cura. A partir deste estudo, pôde-se concluir que os universitários dos cursos da área da saúde, principalmente do último ano, parecem estar aptos a informar à população a respeito do câncer de cavidade oral.


Introduction: Head and neck cancer comprises a heterogeneous group of malignant neoplasms originating in the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, paranasal sinuses, nasal cavity, salivary and thyroid glands. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge of university students in the field of oral cancer. Method: A cross-sectional, descriptive, qualitative-quantitative study with a non-probabilistic convenience sample. The students received an online questionnaire with 24 applied questions that addressed the risk factors, symptomatology, clinical aspects, self-examination, prevention and treatment. Results: 110 university students from the health area (58 = first year and 52 = last year) participated in the study, distributed in physical therapy, dentistry, psychology, physical education, nursing, medicine and nutrition. Regarding the average number of correct answers to the questionnaires, the first-year students had an average of 77.65% (± 21.09) of correct answers, and the last year's college students 82.37% (± 19.88). The questions that obtained the lowest rates of correct answers were the ones related to the incidence of oral cancer in Brazil, where 43 (39%) were correct, and 52 (47.3%) of the academics are unaware of the age at which most cases are diagnosed. Conclusion: Although cancer of the oral cavity is increasing, forms of prevention and early diagnosis reserve greater chances of cure. From this study, we can conclude that the academics of health courses, especially in the last year, seem to be able to inform the population about cancer of the oral cavity.


Introducción: El câncer de cabeza y cuello compreende um grupo heterogéneo de neoplasias malgnas que se originan em la cavidade oral. Objetivo: Este estudio buscó evaluar el conocimiento de los universitarios del área de la salud sobre el cáncer de cavidad oral. Método: Estudio del tipo epidemiológico, transversal, descriptivo, cual-cuantitativo con muestra no probabilística de conveniencia. Los académicos recibieron, através del formulario en línea, un cuestionario con 24 preguntas aplicadas que abordaban los factores de riesgo, sintomatología, aspectos clínicos, autoexamen, prevención y tratamiento. Resultados: Participaron del estudio 110 universitarios del área de la salud (58 = primer año y 52 = último año), distribuidos en los cursos de fisioterapia, odontología, psicología, educación física, enfermería, medicina y nutrición. En cuanto a la media de aciertos de los cuestionarios, los universitarios del primer año obtuvieron una media del 77,65% (± 21,09) de aciertos, y los universitarios del último año 82,37% (± 19,88). Las cuestiones que obtuvieron menores tasas de aciertos fueron las relacionadas a la incidencia del cáncer de boca en Brasil; 43 (39%) acertaron y 52 (47,3%) de los académicos desconocen la edad en la cual la mayoría de los casos son diagnosticado. Conclusión: Apesar de que el cáncer de cavidad oral es creciente, formas de prevención y diagnóstico precoz reservan mayores posibilidades de curación. A partir de este estudio se pode concluir que los académicos de los cursos del área de la salud, principalmente del último año, parecen estar aptos para informar a la población acerca el cáncer de cavidad oral.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Neoplasias Bucais , Desempenho Acadêmico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Neoplasias , Epidemiologia
8.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 21(supl.2): e180013, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-985270

RESUMO

RESUMO: Objetivo: A concomitância de fumo e maus hábitos alimentares representa uma piora no prognóstico da saúde e na qualidade de vida dos idosos. O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar o estado nutricional de idosos fumantes e ex-fumantes residentes na cidade de São Paulo. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo transversal em 2010, com uma amostra representativa de 1.345 indivíduos com 60 anos ou mais, que fazem parte da coorte de idosos acompanhados pelo Estudo Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento (SABE). Foram descritos os aspectos sociodemográficos, de saúde e nutricionais dos idosos de acordo com o uso de tabaco na vida. Resultados: A proporção de fumantes e ex-fumantes foi de, respectivamente, 12,9 e 54,7% para o sexo masculino; 11,0 e 25,2% para o sexo feminino; e de 11,8 e 37,2% para a população total do estudo. Para ambos os sexos, com o aumento da idade, diminuiu a proporção de fumantes. A proporção de idosas fumantes com ingestão adequada de frutas foi menor. Fumantes apresentaram pior estado nutricional, com menos refeições por dia e maior frequência de baixo peso. Conclusão: Considerando-se o impacto do hábito alimentar inadequado e de fumar sobre a saúde, os fumantes idosos merecem atenção especial sobre o seu estado nutricional.


ABSTRACT: Objectives: The concomitance of smoking and poor dietary habits represents a worsened prognosis of health and quality of life for elderly. The aim of this study was to characterize the nutritional status of elderly who were smokers and former smokers and residents of São Paulo city. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 with a representative sample of 1,345 individuals aged 60 years and over, who were part of the elderly cohort monitored at the SABE Study. Sociodemographic, health, and nutritional aspects of the elderly were described, according to their tobacco use in life. Results: The proportion of smokers and former smokers was 12.9 and 54.7%, 11.0 and 25.2%, and 11.8 and 37.2% for male, female, and total population, respectively. For both genders, increasing age decreased the proportion of smokers. The proportion of proper fruit intake was smaller for female smokers. Poorer nutritional status was observed in smokers, who had fewer meals per day and greater frequency of underweight compared with elderly nonsmokers. Conclusion: Considering the impact of inappropriate eating habits and smoking on health, elderly smokers deserve special attention on their nutritional status.

9.
Cien Saude Colet ; 22(10): 3381-3391, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29069192

RESUMO

This study looked into mortality due to medicinal drug poisoning by age, gender and intent among the population of the state of São Paulo. The adjusted time sequence of mortality due to drug poisoning was developed based on data available in the DATASUS Mortality Data System for 1996 to 2012. We checked the variables for magnitude and trends. We found an increase in adjusted mortality starting in 2005, and more so as of 2009, confirmed by a 95% CI for the average annual rate of change. (AARC) We did not find the same trend in overall mortality in the state (AARC = -0.22%, 95% CI = -1.12 - 0.69) for specific, external cause mortality (AARC = -3.14%, 95% CI = -4.75 - -1.49) and for mortality due to accidental drug poisoning (AARC=+9,76%, 95% IC = -12.16 - 37.14). The largest increase was found in intentional self-poisoning with medicinal drugs (AARC = +10.64%, 95% CI = 6.92 - 14.40), and among the younger subjects (largest magnitude). The trend in mortality due to drug poisoning in the State of São Paulo, the importance of intent and mortality among the younger population reiterate the need to implement control measures.


Assuntos
Envenenamento/epidemiologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Envenenamento/mortalidade , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
10.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 372(1734)2017 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28993493

RESUMO

Sexual selection favours the expression of traits in one sex that attract members of the opposite sex for mating. The nature of sexually selected traits such as vocalization, colour and ornamentation, their fitness benefits as well as their costs have received ample attention in field and laboratory studies. However, sexually selected traits may not always be expressed: coloration and ornaments often follow a seasonal pattern and behaviours may be displayed only at specific times of the day. Despite the widely recognized differences in the daily and seasonal timing of traits and their consequences for reproductive success, the actions of sexual selection on the temporal organization of traits has received only scant attention. Drawing on selected examples from bird and mammal studies, here we summarize the current evidence for the daily and seasonal timing of traits. We highlight that molecular advances in chronobiology have opened exciting new opportunities for identifying the genetic targets that sexual selection may act on to shape the timing of trait expression. Furthermore, known genetic links between daily and seasonal timing mechanisms lead to the hypothesis that selection on one timescale may simultaneously also affect the other. We emphasize that studies on the timing of sexual displays of both males and females from wild populations will be invaluable for understanding the nature of sexual selection and its potential to act on differences within and between the sexes in timing. Molecular approaches will be important for pinpointing genetic components of biological rhythms that are targeted by sexual selection, and to clarify whether these represent core or peripheral components of endogenous clocks. Finally, we call for a renewed integration of the fields of evolution, behavioural ecology and chronobiology to tackle the exciting question of how sexual selection contributes to the evolution of biological clocks.This article is part of the themed issue 'Wild clocks: integrating chronobiology and ecology to understand timekeeping in free-living animals'.


Assuntos
Aves/fisiologia , Traços de História de Vida , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Preferência de Acasalamento Animal , Seleção Genética , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Estações do Ano , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 22(10): 3381-3391, Out. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-890154

RESUMO

Resumo O estudo verificou a tendência da mortalidade por intoxicação medicamentosa por faixas etárias, sexo e intenção, na população do estado de São Paulo. A série temporal de mortalidade por intoxicação medicamentosa ajustada foi construída a partir de dados do Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade do DATASUS (1996 a 2012). Foram verificadas a magnitude e a tendência para as variáveis estudadas. Observou-se tendência crescente de mortalidade ajustada a partir de 2005, que se acentuou a partir de 2009, o que foi confirmado pelo valor do IC95% para a taxa de variação anual média. Tal tendência não foi verificada para a mortalidade geral para o estado (TVAM = -0,22%; IC95% = -1,12 - 0,69), para a mortalidade específica por causas externas (TVAM = -3,14%; IC95% = -4,75 - -1,49) e para a mortalidade por intoxicação medicamentosa acidental (TVAM = +9,76%, IC95% = -12,16 - 37,14). A autointoxicação medicamentosa intencional foi a que mais cresceu no período (TVAM = +10,64%, IC95% = 6,92 - 14,49), assim como a mortalidade entre os mais jovens (maior magnitude). A tendência observada para a mortalidade por intoxicação medicamentosa no estado de São Paulo, a relevância da componente intencional e da mortalidade entre as faixas etárias mais jovens ressaltam a necessidade de implementação de medidas de controle.


Abstract This study looked into mortality due to medicinal drug poisoning by age, gender and intent among the population of the state of São Paulo. The adjusted time sequence of mortality due to drug poisoning was developed based on data available in the DATASUS Mortality Data System for 1996 to 2012. We checked the variables for magnitude and trends. We found an increase in adjusted mortality starting in 2005, and more so as of 2009, confirmed by a 95% CI for the average annual rate of change. (AARC) We did not find the same trend in overall mortality in the state (AARC = -0.22%, 95% CI = -1.12 - 0.69) for specific, external cause mortality (AARC = -3.14%, 95% CI = -4.75 - -1.49) and for mortality due to accidental drug poisoning (AARC=+9,76%, 95% IC = -12.16 - 37.14). The largest increase was found in intentional self-poisoning with medicinal drugs (AARC = +10.64%, 95% CI = 6.92 - 14.40), and among the younger subjects (largest magnitude). The trend in mortality due to drug poisoning in the State of São Paulo, the importance of intent and mortality among the younger population reiterate the need to implement control measures.

12.
PLoS One ; 12(6): e0176932, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28614352

RESUMO

Hip dysplasia (HD), elbow dysplasia (ED), and rupture of the cranial (anterior) cruciate ligament (RCCL) are the most common complex orthopedic traits of dogs and all result in debilitating osteoarthritis. We reanalyzed previously reported data: the Norberg angle (a quantitative measure of HD) in 921 dogs, ED in 113 cases and 633 controls, and RCCL in 271 cases and 399 controls and their genotypes at ~185,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms. A novel fixed and random model with a circulating probability unification (FarmCPU) function, with marker-based principal components and a kinship matrix to correct for population stratification, was used. A Bonferroni correction at p<0.01 resulted in a P< 6.96 ×10-8. Six loci were identified; three for HD and three for RCCL. An associated locus at CFA28:34,369,342 for HD was described previously in the same dogs using a conventional mixed model. No loci were identified for RCCL in the previous report but the two loci for ED in the previous report did not reach genome-wide significance using the FarmCPU model. These results were supported by simulation which demonstrated that the FarmCPU held no power advantage over the linear mixed model for the ED sample but provided additional power for the HD and RCCL samples. Candidate genes for HD and RCCL are discussed. When using FarmCPU software, we recommend a resampling test, that a positive control be used to determine the optimum pseudo quantitative trait nucleotide-based covariate structure of the model, and a negative control be used consisting of permutation testing and the identical resampling test as for the non-permuted phenotypes.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/veterinária , Membro Anterior/lesões , Luxação do Quadril/veterinária , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Animais , Cães , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Funções Verossimilhança , Modelos Genéticos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Software
13.
Int J Drug Policy ; 43: 96-103, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28343115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brazil has a strict drinking and driving law known as the Brazilian "Dry Law". The aim of the present study was to investigate characteristics associated with the breaking of the Brazilian traffic law, on drinking and driving, at nightclub exit among a representative sample of nightclub patrons in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Portal survey realized with a two-stage cluster sampling survey design to collect data from 2422 patrons at the entrance and 1822 patrons at the exit of 31 nightclubs in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Patrons' breath alcohol concentrations (BrACs) at the entrance and exit of the nightclubs were categorized according to the law as either a "traffic offense" or a "traffic offense and crime". Weighted multinomial logistic regression was used to analyze factors associated with different patterns of drinking and driving offenses. RESULTS: Of the subjects, 16.5% (n=369) were identified as driving patrons at the entrance and exit of the nightclubs. At entry, 80.1% of the patrons had a zero BrAC, 14.9% had a BrAC meeting the traffic offense criteria and 5.0% had a BrAC meeting the traffic offense and crime criteria. Women were less likely to have BrACs meeting the traffic offense criteria. At nightclub exit, 63.4% of patrons had maintained a zero BrAC, 24.7% had a BrAC that had increased and now met the traffic offense and crime criteria, and 11.9% had a decreased or stable BrAC. An increased BrAC was more frequently identified in patrons who were men, were single, and had used illicit drugs inside the nightclub. CONCLUSION: Despite the existence of a strict law regarding drinking and driving, a significant proportion of nightclub patrons in the city of São Paulo had violated this law, suggesting a perception of impunity and need for law enforcement.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Dirigir sob a Influência/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Condução de Veículo/legislação & jurisprudência , Brasil/epidemiologia , Testes Respiratórios , Análise por Conglomerados , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Dirigir sob a Influência/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 11(7): e0159201, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27458725

RESUMO

In mammals, changing daylength (photoperiod) is the main synchronizer of seasonal functions. The photoperiodic information is transmitted through the retino-hypothalamic tract to the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), site of the master circadian clock. To investigate effects of day length change on the sheep SCN, we used in-situ hybridization to assess the daily temporal organization of expression of circadian clock genes (Per1, Per2, Bmal1 and Fbxl21) and neuropeptides (Vip, Grp and Avp) in animals acclimated to a short photoperiod (SP; 8h of light) and at 3 or 15 days following transfer to a long photoperiod (LP3, LP15, respectively; 16h of light), achieved by an acute 8-h delay of lights off. We found that waveforms of SCN gene expression conformed to those previously seen in LP acclimated animals within 3 days of transfer to LP. Mean levels of expression for Per1-2 and Fbxl21 were nearly 2-fold higher in the LP15 than in the SP group. The expression of Vip was arrhythmic and unaffected by photoperiod, while, in contrast to rodents, Grp expression was not detectable within the sheep SCN. Expression of the circadian output gene Avp cycled robustly in all photoperiod groups with no detectable change in phasing. Overall these data suggest that synchronizing effects of light on SCN circadian organisation proceed similarly in ungulates and in rodents, despite differences in neuropeptide gene expression.


Assuntos
Relógios Circadianos/genética , Expressão Gênica , Neuropeptídeos/genética , Fotoperíodo , Núcleo Supraquiasmático/metabolismo , Animais , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Ovinos , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Int J Drug Policy ; 31: 99-103, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26935220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Substance use is common in Brazil. In order to improve availability of substance misuse care services, over 400 Psycho-Social Care Centres for Alcohol and Drugs (CAPS-AD) - providing community-based care - have been established following mental health care reform (2001). Information on CAPS-AD clients and outcomes is limited. The present study examined select characteristics of local CAPS-AD clients. METHODS: N=143 adult CAPS-AD clients in Ceilândia (suburb of Brasília, Federal District) participated in a 1-week 'snapshot' assessment of service users (February 2015). Following consent, descriptive data were collected by a brief, anonymous interviewer-administered questionnaire that included socio-demographic, drug use, treatment history and needs/barriers information. RESULTS: Participants were predominantly male; middle-aged; unemployed; married; with middle-school education; primary problem drugs indicated were alcohol and cocaine/crack; half had prior treatment histories and indicated that treatment was externally motivated; 60% reported ways to improve treatment and possible reasons for treatment discontinuation; in multi-variate analyses, the latter was associated with employment and education status (both p<.05). CONCLUSION: CAPS-AD services appear to have increased low-barrier substance misuse treatment availability in Brazil, as well as attract individuals new to the treatment system. Various potential barriers to continuing in treatment should be addressed and more research on CAPS-AD clients and outcomes is needed.


Assuntos
Alcoólicos/psicologia , Alcoolismo/reabilitação , Fumar Cocaína/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/reabilitação , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Usuários de Drogas/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Brasil/epidemiologia , Fumar Cocaína/efeitos adversos , Fumar Cocaína/epidemiologia , Fumar Cocaína/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/psicologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Razão de Chances , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Fatores de Risco , Desemprego/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Cad. saúde pública ; 31(12): 2569-2576, Dez. 2015. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-772096

RESUMO

Abstract Recidivism is a challenge for the Brazilian socio-educational system because it is associated with personal, social and environmental factors, especially among juvenile offenders. This study examined key characteristics and potential association with recidivism in 391 female adolescent offenders from a correctional institution in Brasília, Federal District, Brazil, between 2004 and 2011. Cross-sectional data on socio-demographics, drug use and offense characteristics from institutional information were examined. Associate factors with recidivism were examined using negative binomial regression analyses. 32.5% of offenders were recidivists at present admission and the mean frequency of recidivism among recidivists was 2.16. About half (53.6%) of the sample reported drug use. After the adjustment, recidivism was positively associated with: age; offender’s drug use; residence status; offense type; and no family drug use. Factors associated with juvenile offenders’ recidivism confirm findings from elsewhere, and should inform targeted interventions in Brazil.


Resumo A reincidência constitui um desafio para o sistema socioeducativo brasileiro por estar associada a fatores pessoais, sociais e ambientais, especialmente entre adolescentes em conflito com a lei. Este estudo verificou as principais características associadas à reincidência em uma amostra de 391 mulheres adolescentes em conflito com a lei em uma unidade de internação de Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil, entre 2004-2011. Dados transversais sociodemográficos acerca do uso de drogas e sobre as características do ato infracional foram analisados. Fatores associados à reincidência foram analisados por regressão binomial negativa. Trinta e dois vírgula cinco por cento das adolescentes pesquisadas eram reincidentes e a frequência média de reincidências foi de 2,16. Cinquenta e três vírgula seis por cento da amostra relataram uso de drogas. Após ajuste, reincidir foi positivamente associado à idade, uso de drogas, residência, tipo de ato infracional e não uso de drogas pela família. Nossos achados corroboram com outros contextos mundiais, demonstrando a necessidade de orientação nas intervenções adotadas pelo sistema socioeducativo brasileiro.


Resumen La reincidencia es un reto para el sistema socio-educativo brasileño. Este estudio examinó características claves y su posible asociación con la reincidencia de 391 adolescentes mujeres infractoras en una institución correccional en Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil, entre 2004 a 2011. Se examinaron datos transversales socio-demográficos, uso de drogas y las características del delito cometido a partir de la información institucional. Los factores asociados con la reincidencia se obtuvieron por análisis de regresión negativa-binomial. 32,5% de las internas eran reincidentes y la frecuencia media de reincidencia entre las reincidentes era de 2,16. Un 53,6% de la muestra informó consumo de drogas. Después del ajuste, la reincidencia se asoció positivamente con: edad; uso de drogas de la delincuente; estatus de residencia; tipo de delito; el no uso de drogas por parte de la familia. Los factores asociados con la reincidencia de las delincuentes confirman hallazgos de otros estudios, y deberían informar intervenciones específicas sobre esta población en Brasil.


Assuntos
Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Delinquência Juvenil/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias
19.
PLoS One ; 10(8): e0133646, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26287954

RESUMO

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential associations of binge drinking detected at the exit of nightclubs and risk behaviors and alcohol effects just after leaving the venue in a representative sample of Brazilian nightclub patrons according to sex. For this purpose, a portal survey study called Balada com Ciência was conducted in 2013 in the megacity of São Paulo, Brazil, using a two-stage cluster sampling survey design. Individual-level data were collected in 2422 subjects at the entrance and 1822 subjects at the exit of 31 nightclubs, and breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) was measured using a breathalyzer. The following day, 1222 patrons answered an online follow-up survey that included questions about risk behaviors and alcohol effects practiced just after leaving the nightclub. Weighted logistic regressions were used to analyze binge drinking associated with risk behaviors by sex. For both sexes, the most prevalent risk behaviors practiced after leaving a nightclub were drinking and driving (men=27.9%; women=20.4%), the use of illicit drugs (men=15.8%; women=9.4%) and risky sexual behavior (men=11.4%; women=6.8%). The practice of binge drinking increased the behavior of illicit drug use after leaving the nightclub by 2.54 times [95% CI: 1.26-5.09] among men who drank and increased the risk of an episode of new alcohol use by 5.80 times [95% CI: 1.50-22.44] among women who drank. Alcoholic blackouts were more prevalent among men [OR=8.92; 95% CI: 3.83-20.80] and women [OR= 5.31; 95% CI: 1.68-16.84] whose BrAC was equivalent to binge drinking compared with patrons with a lower BrAC. Public policies aiming to reduce patrons' BrAC at the exit of nightclubs, such as staff training in responsible beverage service and legislation to prevent alcohol sales to drunk individuals, would be useful to protect patrons from the risk behaviors associated with binge drinking in nightclubs.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Bebedeira/psicologia , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adulto , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Brasil , Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Assunção de Riscos , Caracteres Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Aval. psicol ; 14(2): 213-221, ago. 2015. tab
Artigo em Português | Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: psi-65392

RESUMO

Realizar estimativas cognitivas é uma habilidade que envolve encontrar respostas não imediatamente disponíveis utilizando-se processos de raciocínio e resolução de problemas para se chegar a uma alternativa de resposta. Tal habilidade pode ser investigada com o Cognitive Estimation Test (CET). A tarefa existe no idioma inglês, sendo necessárias adaptações para diferentes idiomas. O objetivo do presente estudo foi adaptar o CET para o português brasileiro. O CET foi traduzido da versão original, em inglês britânico, e então submetido à análise teórica e empírica. Como resultado do estudo piloto, uma escala de 28 perguntas foi produzida, atingindo níveis de consistência interna de 0,50 (alfa de Cronbach), 0,58 (split half), e 0,73 (Guttmann). A tarefa definida no estudo piloto foi então testada em uma nova amostra, obtendo índices de fidedignidade de 0,57 (alfa de Cronbach), 0,60 (split half), e 0,74 (Guttman). Uma versão final do CET em português brasileiro foi definida e disponibilizada.(AU)


Cognitive estimation is an ability that involves searching for non-readily-available answers, requiring reasoning and problemsolving processes in order to find a response alternative. This ability can be investigated with the Cognitive Estimation Test (CET). The test exists in an English version and requires adaptations to be used in different languages. The aim of the present study was to adapt the CET to Brazilian Portuguese. The CET was translated from the original version in British English, then its items were submitted to theoretical and empirical analysis. The pilot study generated a 28-item scale with levels of internal consistency of 0.50 (Cronbach’s Alpha), 0.58 (split half), and 0.73 (Guttmann). The test defined during the pilot study was then tested in a new sample, producing internal consistency values of 0.57 (Cronbach’s Alpha), 0.60 (split half), and 0.74 (Guttman). A final version of the CET was produced and is now available in Brazilian Portuguese.(AU)


Realizar estimativas es una habilidad que requiere encontrar respuestas no disponibles inmediatamente, lo que comprende procesos de raciocinio y resolución de problemas para llegarse a una alternativa de respuesta. Esta habilidad puede ser investigada a través del Cognitive Estimation Test (CET). El test existe en el idioma inglés, lo que implica en adaptaciones para otros idiomas. El objetivo del presente estudio fue el de adaptar el CET al idioma portugués de Brasil. El CET fue traducido de la versión original, en inglés británico, y luego realizado un análisis teórico y empírico. Como resultado del estudio piloto, una escala de 28 ítems fue producida, alcanzando niveles de consistencia interna de 0,50 (alpha de Cronbach), 0,58 (split half), y 0,73 (Guttmann). El test definido en el estudio fue utilizado en una nueva muestra, obteniendo índices de fidedignidad de 0,57 (alpha de Cronbach), 0,60 (split half), y 0,74 (Guttman). Una versión final del CET en portugués de Brasil fue, por fin definida y ofrecida a la comunidad científica.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso , Lobo Frontal , Neuropsicologia , Função Executiva , Análise Estatística , Estudos Transversais , Tradução
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