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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4790, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636353

RESUMO

Alterations of Ca2+ homeostasis have been implicated in a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases. Ca2+ efflux from the endoplasmic reticulum into the cytoplasm is controlled by binding of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate to its receptor. Activated inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors are then rapidly degraded by the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation pathway. Mutations in genes encoding the neuronal isoform of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (ITPR1) and genes involved in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor degradation (ERLIN1, ERLIN2) are known to cause hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) and cerebellar ataxia. We provide evidence that mutations in the ubiquitin E3 ligase gene RNF170, which targets inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors for degradation, are the likely cause of autosomal recessive HSP in four unrelated families and functionally evaluate the consequences of mutations in patient fibroblasts, mutant SH-SY5Y cells and by gene knockdown in zebrafish. Our findings highlight inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate signaling as a candidate key pathway for hereditary spastic paraplegias and cerebellar ataxias and thus prioritize this pathway for therapeutic interventions.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568673

RESUMO

Variants in GABRA1 have been associated with different epilepsies ranging from mild generalized forms to epileptic encephalopathies. Despite the broad clinical spectrum, phenotypes were found to be largely concordant within families. Contrary to this observation, we report monozygotic twin sisters with generalized epilepsy due to the c.541C>T; p.(Pro181Ser) de novo variant in GABRA1. One experienced juvenile absence seizures promptly responding to first-line medication, whereas the second developed severe treatment-refractory epilepsy with febrile, absence, atonic, and tonic-clonic seizures indicating marked intrafamilial variability in GABRA1-related epilepsy. Moreover, we provide a molecular characterization of the novel variant based on recently published structural data.

4.
Neuropediatrics ; 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340402

RESUMO

Variants in the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 (ITPR1) gene have been recently identified as a cause of Gillespie's syndrome, a rare inherited condition characterized by bilateral iris hypoplasia, congenital muscle hypotonia, nonprogressive cerebellar ataxia, and intellectual disability. Here, we describe the clinical and genetic findings in a patient who presented with iris hypoplasia, mild gait ataxia, atrophy of the anterior cerebellar vermis but no cognitive deficits. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) uncovered a heterozygous ITPR1 p.Glu2094Lys missense variant, affecting a highly conserved glutamic acid residue for which other amino acid substitutions have already been reported in Gillespie's syndrome patients. Our data expand both the phenotypic and genetic spectrum associated with Gillespie's syndrome and suggest a mutation hotspot on Glu2094.

5.
Genet Med ; 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036918

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to expand the genetic architecture of neurodevelopmental disorders, and to characterize the clinical features of a novel cohort of affected individuals with variants in ZNF142, a C2H2 domain-containing transcription factor. METHODS: Four independent research centers used exome sequencing to elucidate the genetic basis of neurodevelopmental phenotypes in four unrelated families. Following bioinformatic filtering, query of control data sets, and secondary variant confirmation, we aggregated findings using an online data sharing platform. We performed in-depth clinical phenotyping in all affected individuals. RESULTS: We identified seven affected females in four pedigrees with likely pathogenic variants in ZNF142 that segregate with recessive disease. Affected cases in three families harbor either nonsense or frameshifting likely pathogenic variants predicted to undergo nonsense mediated decay. One additional trio bears ultrarare missense variants in conserved regions of ZNF142 that are predicted to be damaging to protein function. We performed clinical comparisons across our cohort and noted consistent presence of intellectual disability and speech impairment, with variable manifestation of seizures, tremor, and dystonia. CONCLUSION: Our aggregate data support a role for ZNF142 in nervous system development and add to the emergent list of zinc finger proteins that contribute to neurocognitive disorders.

6.
EMBO Mol Med ; 11(6)2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122931

RESUMO

Microglia adopt numerous fates with homeostatic microglia (HM) and a microglial neurodegenerative phenotype (MGnD) representing two opposite ends. A number of variants in genes selectively expressed in microglia are associated with an increased risk for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Among these genes are progranulin (GRN) and the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2). Both cause neurodegeneration by mechanisms involving loss of function. We have now isolated microglia from Grn -/- mice and compared their transcriptomes to those of Trem2 -/- mice Surprisingly, while loss of Trem2 enhances the expression of genes associated with a homeostatic state, microglia derived from Grn -/- mice showed a reciprocal activation of the MGnD molecular signature and suppression of gene characteristic for HM The opposite mRNA expression profiles are associated with divergent functional phenotypes. Although loss of TREM2 and progranulin resulted in opposite activation states and functional phenotypes of microglia, FDG (fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose)-µPET of brain revealed reduced glucose metabolism in both conditions, suggesting that opposite microglial phenotypes result in similar wide spread brain dysfunction.

7.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(5): 968-973, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31139695

RESUMO

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies are characterized by infantile seizures and psychomotor delay. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis defects, resulting in impaired tethering of various proteins to the cell surface, represent the underlying pathology in some patients. One of the genes involved, PIGP, has recently been associated with infantile seizures and developmental delay in two siblings. Here, we report the second family with a markedly overlapping phenotype due to a homozygous frameshift mutation (c.456delA;p.Glu153Asnfs*34) in PIGP. Flow cytometry of patient granulocytes confirmed reduced expression of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins as functional consequence. Our findings corroborate PIGP as a monogenic disease gene for developmental and epileptic encephalopathy.

8.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(5): 909-917, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059585

RESUMO

Diagnostics for suspected mitochondrial disease (MD) can be challenging and necessitate invasive procedures like muscle biopsy. This is due to the extremely broad genetic and phenotypic spectrum, disease genes on both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and the tissue specificity of mtDNA variants. Exome sequencing (ES) has revolutionized the diagnostics for MD. However, the nuclear and mtDNA are investigated with separate tests, increasing costs and duration of diagnostics. The full potential of ES is often not exploited as the additional analysis of "off-target reads" deriving from the mtDNA can be used to analyze both genomes. We performed mtDNA analysis by ES of 2111 cases in a clinical setting. We further assessed the recall rate and precision as well as the estimation of heteroplasmy by ES data by comparison with targeted mtDNA next generation sequencing in 49 cases. ES identified known pathogenic mtDNA point mutations in 38 individuals, increasing the diagnostic yield by nearly 2%. Analysis of mtDNA variants by ES had a high recall rate (96.2 ± 5.6%) and an excellent precision (99.5 ± 2.2%) when compared to the gold standard of targeted mtDNA next generation sequencing. ES estimated heteroplasmy levels with an average difference of 6.6 ± 3.8%, sufficient for clinical decision making. Taken together, the mtDNA analysis from ES is of sufficient quality for clinical diagnostics. We therefore propose ES, investigating both nuclear and mtDNA, as first line test in individuals with suspected MD. One should be aware, that a negative result does not exclude MD and necessitates further test (in additional tissues).

9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(4): 758-766, 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929739

RESUMO

By using exome sequencing and a gene matching approach, we identified de novo and inherited pathogenic variants in KDM3B in 14 unrelated individuals and three affected parents with varying degrees of intellectual disability (ID) or developmental delay (DD) and short stature. The individuals share additional phenotypic features that include feeding difficulties in infancy, joint hypermobility, and characteristic facial features such as a wide mouth, a pointed chin, long ears, and a low columella. Notably, two individuals developed cancer, acute myeloid leukemia and Hodgkin lymphoma, in childhood. KDM3B encodes for a histone demethylase and is involved in H3K9 demethylation, a crucial part of chromatin modification required for transcriptional regulation. We identified missense and truncating variants, suggesting that KDM3B haploinsufficiency is the underlying mechanism for this syndrome. By using a hybrid facial-recognition model, we show that individuals with a pathogenic variant in KDM3B have a facial gestalt, and that they show significant facial similarity compared to control individuals with ID. In conclusion, pathogenic variants in KDM3B cause a syndrome characterized by ID, short stature, and facial dysmorphism.

10.
Clin Genet ; 95(5): 582-589, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868567

RESUMO

Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are the most common birth defect with 30%-40% being explained by genetic aberrations. With next generation sequencing becoming widely available, we sought to evaluate the clinical utility of exome sequencing (ES) in prenatally diagnosed CHD. We retrospectively analyzed the diagnostic yield as well as non-conclusive and incidental findings in 30 cases with prenatally diagnosed CHDs using ES, mostly as parent-child trios. A genetic diagnosis was established in 20% (6/30). Non-conclusive results were found in 13% (4/30) and incidental findings in 10% (3/30). There was a phenotypic discrepancy between reported prenatal and postnatal extracardiac findings in 40% (8/20). However, none of these additional, postnatal findings altered the genetic diagnosis. Herein, ES in prenatally diagnosed CHDs results in a comparably high diagnostic yield. There was a significant proportion of incidental findings and variants of unknown significance as well as potentially pathogenic variants in novel disease genes. Such findings can bedevil genetic counseling and decision making for pregnancy termination. Despite the small cohort size, our data serve as a first basis to evaluate the value of prenatal ES in CHD for further studies emerging in the near future.

12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(1): 139-156, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30595372

RESUMO

Type 2A protein phosphatases (PP2As) are highly expressed in the brain and regulate neuronal signaling by catalyzing phospho-Ser/Thr dephosphorylations in diverse substrates. PP2A holoenzymes comprise catalytic C-, scaffolding A-, and regulatory B-type subunits, which determine substrate specificity and physiological function. Interestingly, de novo mutations in genes encoding A- and B-type subunits have recently been implicated in intellectual disability (ID) and developmental delay (DD). We now report 16 individuals with mild to profound ID and DD and a de novo mutation in PPP2CA, encoding the catalytic Cα subunit. Other frequently observed features were severe language delay (71%), hypotonia (69%), epilepsy (63%), and brain abnormalities such as ventriculomegaly and a small corpus callosum (67%). Behavioral problems, including autism spectrum disorders, were reported in 47% of individuals, and three individuals had a congenital heart defect. PPP2CA de novo mutations included a partial gene deletion, a frameshift, three nonsense mutations, a single amino acid duplication, a recurrent mutation, and eight non-recurrent missense mutations. Functional studies showed complete PP2A dysfunction in four individuals with seemingly milder ID, hinting at haploinsufficiency. Ten other individuals showed mutation-specific biochemical distortions, including poor expression, altered binding to the A subunit and specific B-type subunits, and impaired phosphatase activity and C-terminal methylation. Four were suspected to have a dominant-negative mechanism, which correlated with severe ID. Two missense variants affecting the same residue largely behaved as wild-type in our functional assays. Overall, we found that pathogenic PPP2CA variants impair PP2A-B56(δ) functionality, suggesting that PP2A-related neurodevelopmental disorders constitute functionally converging ID syndromes.

13.
Nervenarzt ; 90(2): 131-137, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30645660

RESUMO

After an impressively successful application as a research instrument, whole-exome sequencing (WES) now enters the clinical practice due to its high diagnostic, time, and economic efficiency. WES is the diagnostic method of choice for symptoms that may be due to many different monogenic causes. Neurological indications include movement disorders, especially in cases of early symptom onset, familial clustering and complex manifestation. Starting from a blood sample, enrichment and sequencing of the exome enable the examination of all coding DNA regions for point mutations and small insertions/deletions. The identification of variants as the cause of a disease requires a professional evaluation pipeline, variant prioritization schemes and variant classification databases. Whereas many variants can be reliably classified as pathogenic or benign, variants of unclear significance (VUS) remain a challenge for the clinical evaluation and necessitate a periodic reanalysis of WES data. As a genetic examination WES requires adequate patient informed consent which in particular should address possible secondary findings as well as data security. A positive molecular result ends diagnostic odysseys, enables accurate genetic counseling and can point to targeted preventive measures and treatment. A WES significantly contributes to the understanding of the genetic architecture and pathophysiology of neurological diseases, enriching and enabling precision medicine.


Assuntos
Exoma , Testes Genéticos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso , Neurologia , Exoma/genética , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Neurologia/tendências , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
15.
Neuropediatrics ; 49(6): 401-404, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30199896

RESUMO

Many genetic and nongenetic causes for developmental delay in childhood could be identified. Often, however, the molecular basis cannot be elucidated. As next-generation sequencing is becoming more frequently available in a diagnostic context, an increasing number of genetic variations are found as causative in children with developmental delay.We performed trio exome sequencing in a girl with developmental delay and minor dysmorphological features. Using a filter for de novo variants, the heterozygous missense variant c.812A>T, p.(Glu217Val) was found in the candidate gene POU3F2 in our patient. POU3F2 plays an important role in neuronal differentiation and hormonal regulation. To date, it has not been associated with monogenic disorders. Studies on Pou3f2 knockout mice highlighted the importance of this protein in the development of the brain. Furthermore, microdeletions with an overlapping region including only POU3F2 and FBXL4 were linked to developmental delay in six unrelated families. Therefore, POU3F2 is a strong candidate gene for developmental delay, although functional assays proving this assumption still have to be done.

16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(1): 100-114, 2018 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29979980

RESUMO

The tRNA synthetases catalyze the first step of protein synthesis and have increasingly been studied for their nuclear and extra-cellular ex-translational activities. Human genetic conditions such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth have been attributed to dominant gain-of-function mutations in some tRNA synthetases. Unlike dominantly inherited gain-of-function mutations, recessive loss-of-function mutations can potentially elucidate ex-translational activities. We present here five individuals from four families with a multi-system disease associated with bi-allelic mutations in FARSB that encodes the beta chain of the alpha2beta2 phenylalanine-tRNA synthetase (FARS). Collectively, the mutant alleles encompass a 5'-splice junction non-coding variant (SJV) and six missense variants, one of which is shared by unrelated individuals. The clinical condition is characterized by interstitial lung disease, cerebral aneurysms and brain calcifications, and cirrhosis. For the SJV, we confirmed exon skipping leading to a frameshift associated with noncatalytic activity. While the bi-allelic combination of the SJV with a p.Arg305Gln missense mutation in two individuals led to severe disease, cells from neither the asymptomatic heterozygous carriers nor the compound heterozygous affected individual had any defect in protein synthesis. These results support a disease mechanism independent of tRNA synthetase activities in protein translation and suggest that this FARS activity is essential for normal function in multiple organs.

19.
Gene ; 663: 110-114, 2018 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29655892

RESUMO

Patients with Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS), a syndromic growth retardation syndrome, usually harbor an epimutation at chromosome 11p15 or a maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 7. However, to date the genetic cause remains unknown in around 40% of SRS cases, suggesting genetic heterogeneity and involvement of other genes. We present a 4-year-old female patient with the clinical diagnosis of SRS and negative results in common genetic SRS diagnostics. Whole exome sequencing identified a de novo heterozygous 7.3 kb deletion on chromosome 12q14.3 including exon 1 and 2 of HMGA2. HMGA2 encodes an architectural transcription factor and has already been linked to body size variations in various genome-wide association studies and mouse models. Reviewing the literature, we found additional four patients with a phenotype of SRS harboring point mutations or structural variants involving HMGA2. We conclude that genetic testing of HMGA2 should be considered in routine diagnostics in patients with the suspicion of SRS.


Assuntos
Proteína HMGA2/genética , Mutação , Síndrome de Silver-Russell/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação Puntual , Deleção de Sequência
20.
Gene ; 649: 23-26, 2018 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29391272

RESUMO

Patients with co-occurrence of two independent pathologies pose a challenge for clinicians as the phenotype often presents as an unclear syndrome. In these cases, exome sequencing serves as a powerful instrument to determine the underlying genetic causes. Here, we present the case of a 4-year old boy with proteinuria, microhematuria, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, livedo-like rash, recurrent abdominal pain, anemia and continuously elevated CRP. Single exome sequencing revealed the pathogenic nonsense mutation p.(Arg98*) in the CLCN5 gene causing the X-linked inherited, renal tubular disorder Dent's disease. Furthermore, the two pathogenic and compound heterozygous missense variants p.(Gly47Ala) and p.(Pro251Leu) in the CECR1 gene could be identified. Mutations in the CECR1 gene are associated with a hereditary form of polyarteritis nodosa, called ADA2-deficiency. Both parents were carriers of a single heterozygous variant in CECR1 and the mother was carrier of the CLCN5 variant. This case evidently demonstrates the advantage of whole exome sequencing compared to single gene testing as the pathology in the CECR1 gene might have only been diagnosed after the occurrence of signs of systemic vasculitis like strokes or hemorrhages. Therefore, treatment and prevention can now start early to improve the outcome of these patients.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Doença de Dent/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/sangue , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Adenosina Desaminase/sangue , Adenosina Desaminase/genética , Adenosina Desaminase/metabolismo , Pré-Escolar , Canais de Cloreto/sangue , Canais de Cloreto/genética , Canais de Cloreto/metabolismo , Comorbidade , Exoma , Humanos , Hipercalciúria/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/sangue , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , Mutação , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Fatores de Transcrição/sangue , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/estatística & dados numéricos
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