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1.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(8): 1312-1320, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339235

RESUMO

The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) both delivers health care in its own facilities and, increasingly, purchases care for veterans in the community. Policy makers, administrators, health care providers, and veterans frequently face decisions about which services should be delivered versus purchased by the VA. Comparisons of quality across settings are essential if veterans are to receive care that is consistently accessible, patient centered, effective, and safe. We compared risk-adjusted major postoperative complication rates for total knee arthroplasties that were delivered in VA facilities versus purchased from community providers. Overall, adjusted complication rates were significantly lower for arthroplasties delivered by the VA compared with those that were purchased. However, hospital-level comparisons revealed five locations where VA-purchased care outperformed VA-delivered care. As the amount of VA-purchased care continues to increase under the Veterans Access, Choice, and Accountability Act of 2014 and the VA Maintaining Internal Systems and Strengthening Integrated Outside Networks Act of 2018, these results support VA monitoring of overall and local comparative hospital performance to improve the quality of the care that the VA delivers while ensuring optimal outcomes in VA-purchased care.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Veteranos , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Hospitais de Veteranos , Humanos , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs
2.
Health Serv Res ; 2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085283

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the Veterans Health Administration's (VHA) efforts to expand access to home- and community-based services (HCBS) after the 2001 Millennium Act significantly changed Veterans' utilization of institutional, paid home, and unpaid home care relative to a non-VHA user Medicare population that was not exposed to HCBS expansion efforts. DATA SOURCES: We used linkages between the Health and Retirement Study and VHA administrative data from 1998 until 2012. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective-matched cohort study using coarsened exact matching to ensure balance on observable characteristics for VHA users (n = 943) and nonusers (n = 6106). We used a difference-in-differences approach with a person fixed-effects estimator. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: Individuals were eligible for inclusion in the analysis if they were age 65 or older and indicated that they were covered by Medicare insurance in 1998. Individuals were excluded if they were covered by Medicaid insurance at baseline. Individuals were considered exposed to VHA HCBS expansion efforts if they were enrolled in the VHA and used VHA services. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Theory predicts that an increase in the public allocation of HCBS will decrease the utilization of its substitutes (e.g., institutional care and unpaid caregiving). We found that after the Millennium Act was passed, there were no observed differences between VHA users and nonusers in the probability of using institutional long-term care (0.7% points, 95% CI: -0.009, 0.022) or in receiving paid help with activities of daily living (0.06% points, 95% CI: -0.011, 0.0125). VHA users received more hours of unpaid care post-Millennium Act (1.48, 95% CI: -0.232, 3.187), though this effect was not significant once we introduced controls for mental health. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that mandating access to HCBS services does not necessarily imply that access to these services will follow suit.

3.
Healthc (Amst) ; 8 Suppl 1: 100496, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175102

RESUMO

In 2008, the Veterans Health Administration published a groundbreaking policy on disclosing large-scale adverse events to patients in order to promote transparent communication in cases where harm may not be obvious or even certain. Without embedded research, the evidence on whether or not implementation of this policy was generating more harm than good among Veteran patients was unknown. Through an embedded research-operations partnership, we conducted four research projects that led to the development of an evidence-based large-scale disclosure toolkit and disclosure support program, and its implementation across VA healthcare. Guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research, we identified specific activities corresponding to planning, engaging, executing, reflecting and evaluating phases in the process of implementation. These activities included planning with operational leaders to establish a shared research agenda; engaging with stakeholders to discuss early results, establishing buy-in of our efforts and receiving feedback; joining existing operational teams to execute the toolkit implementation; partnering with clinical operations to evaluate the toolkit during real-time disclosures; and redesigning the toolkit to meet stakeholders' needs. Critical lessons learned for implementation success included a need for stakeholder collaboration and engagement, an organizational culture involving a strong belief in evidence, a willingness to embed researchers in clinical operation activities, allowing for testing and evaluation of innovative practices, and researchers open to constructive feedback. At the conclusion of the research, VA operations worked with the researchers to continue to support efforts to spread, scale-up and sustain toolkit use across the VA healthcare system, with the final goal to establish long-term sustainability.

4.
Med Care ; 59(Suppl 3): S301-S306, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33976080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2014 Choice Act expanded the Veterans Health Administration's (VA) capacity to purchase services for VA enrollees from community providers, yet little is known regarding the growth of Veterans' primary care use in community settings. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to measure county-level growth in VA community-based primary care (CBPC) penetration following the Choice Act and to assess whether CBPC penetration increased in rural counties with limited access to VA facilities. DATA AND SAMPLE: A total of 3132 counties from VA administrative data from 2015 to 2018, Area Health Resources Files, and County Health Rankings. ANALYSIS: We defined the county-level CBPC penetration rate as the proportion of VA-purchased primary care out of all VA-purchased primary care (ie, within and outside VA). We estimated county-level multivariate linear regression models to assess whether rurality and supply of primary care providers and health care facilities were significantly associated with CBPC growth. RESULTS: Nationally, CBPC penetration rates increased from 2.7% in 2015 to 7.3% in 2018. The rurality of the county was associated with a 2-3 percentage point (pp) increase in CBPC penetration growth (P<0.001). The presence of a VA facility was associated with a 1.7 pp decrease in CBPC penetration growth (P<0.001), while lower primary care provider supply was associated with a 0.6 pp increase in CBPC growth (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: CBPC as a proportion of all VA-purchased primary care was small but increased nearly 3-fold between 2015 and 2018. Greater increases in CBPC penetration were concentrated in rural counties and counties without a VA facility, suggesting that community care may enhance primary care access in rural areas with less VA presence.

5.
Med Care ; 59(Suppl 3): S307-S313, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33976081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Veterans Choice Act of 2014 increased the number of Veterans eligible for Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)-purchased care delivered in non-VA community care (CC) facilities. Driving >40 miles from home to a VA facility is a key eligibility criterion for CC. It remains unclear whether this policy change improved geographical access by reducing drive distance for Veterans. OBJECTIVES: Describe the driving distance for Veterans receiving cataract surgery in VA and CC facilities, and if they visited the closest-to-home facility or if they drove to farther facilities. SUBJECTS: Veterans who had cataract surgery in federal fiscal year 2015. MEASURES: We calculated driving miles to the Closest VA and CC facilities that performed cataract surgeries, and to the location where Veterans received care. RESULTS: A total of 61,746 Veterans received 83,875 cataract surgeries. More than 50% of CC surgeries occurred farther than the Closest CC facility providing cataract surgery (median Closest CC facility 8.7 miles vs. Actual CC facility, 19.7 miles). Most (57%) Veterans receiving cataract surgery at a VA facility used the Closest VA facility (median Closest VA facility 28.1 miles vs. Actual VA facility at 31.2 miles). In all, 26.1% of CC procedures occurred in facilities farther away than the Closest VA facility. CONCLUSIONS: Although many Veterans drove farther than needed to get cataract surgery in CC, this was not true for obtaining care in the VA. Our findings suggest that there may be additional reasons, besides driving distance, that affect whether Veterans choose CC and, if they do, where they seek CC.

6.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 91(2): 249-259, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783416

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Uninsured trauma patients are at higher risk of mortality, limited access to postdischarge resources, and catastrophic health expenditure. Hospital Presumptive Eligibility (HPE), enacted with the 2014 Affordable Care Act, enables uninsured patients to be screened and acquired emergency Medicaid at the time of hospitalization. We sought to identify factors associated with successful acquisition of HPE insurance at the time of injury, hypothesizing that patients with higher Injury Severity Score (ISS) (ISS >15) would be more likely to be approved for HPE. METHODS: We identified Medicaid and uninsured patients aged 18 to 64 years with a primary trauma diagnosis (International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision) in a large level I trauma center between 2015 and 2019. We combined trauma registry data with review of electronic medical records, to determine our primary outcome, HPE acquisition. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS: Among 2,320 trauma patients, 1,374 (59%) were already enrolled in Medicaid at the time of hospitalization. Among those uninsured at arrival, 386 (40.8%) acquired HPE before discharge, and 560 (59.2%) remained uninsured. Hospital Presumptive Eligibility patients had higher ISS (ISS >15, 14.8% vs. 5.7%; p < 0.001), longer median length of stay (2 days [interquartile range, 0-5 days] vs. 0 [0-1] days, p < 0.001), were more frequently admitted as inpatients (64.5% vs. 33.6%, p < 0.001), and discharged to postacute services (11.9% vs. 0.9%, p < 0.001). Patient, hospital, and policy factors contributed to HPE nonapproval. In adjusted analyses, Hispanic ethnicity (vs. non-Hispanic Whites: aOR, 1.58; p = 0.02) and increasing ISS (p ≤ 0.001) were associated with increased likelihood of HPE approval. CONCLUSION: The time of hospitalization due to injury is an underused opportunity for intervention, whereby uninsured patients can acquire sustainable insurance coverage. Opportunities to increase HPE acquisition merit further study nationally across trauma centers. As administrative and trauma registries do not capture information to compare HPE and traditional Medicaid patients, prospective insurance data collection would help to identify targets for intervention. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Economic, level IV.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/economia , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicaid/legislação & jurisprudência , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Gastos em Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/economia , Hospitalização/legislação & jurisprudência , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Cobertura do Seguro/legislação & jurisprudência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Medicaid/economia , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Centros de Traumatologia/economia , Estados Unidos , Ferimentos e Lesões/economia , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 161(5): 1803-1810.e3, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866082

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The impact of new-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery on long-term clinical outcomes and costs is not known. This subanalysis of the Veterans Affairs "Randomized On/Off Bypass Follow-up Study" compared 5-year outcomes and costs between patients with and without POAF. METHODS: Of the 2203 veterans in the study, 100 with pre-CABG atrial fibrillation (93) or missing data (7) were excluded (4.8%). Unadjusted and risk-adjusted outcomes were compared between new-onset POAF (n = 551) and patients without POAF (n = 1552). Five-year clinical outcomes included mortality, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE, comprising mortality, repeat revascularization, and myocardial infarction), MACE subcomponents, stroke, and costs. A stringent P value of ≤.01 was required to identify statistical significance. RESULTS: Patients with POAF were older and had more complex comorbidities. Unadjusted 5-year all-cause mortality was 16.3% POAF versus 11.9% no-POAF, P = .008. Unadjusted cardiac-mortality was 7.4% versus 4.8%, P = .022. There were no differences between groups in any other unadjusted outcomes including MACE or stroke. After risk adjustment, there were no significant differences between groups in 5-year all-cause mortality (POAF odds ratio, 1.19; 99% confidence interval, 0.81-1.75) or cardiac mortality (odds ratio, 1.51, 99% confidence interval, 0.88-2.60). Adjusted first-year post-CABG costs were $15,300 greater for patients with POAF, but 2- through 5-year costs were similar. CONCLUSIONS: No 5-year risk-adjusted outcome differences were found between patients with and without POAF after CABG. Although first-year costs were greater in patients with POAF, this difference did not persist in subsequent years.

9.
Cancer ; 127(7): 1102-1113, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33237577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Estimates of overall patient health are essential to inform treatment decisions for patients diagnosed with cancer. The authors applied XWAS methods, herein referred to as "laboratory-wide association study (LWAS)", to evaluate associations between routinely collected laboratory tests and survival in veterans with prostate cancer. METHODS: The authors identified 133,878 patients who were diagnosed with prostate cancer between 2000 and 2013 in the Veterans Health Administration using any laboratory tests collected within 6 months of diagnosis (3,345,083 results). Using the LWAS framework, the false-discovery rate was used to test the association between multiple laboratory tests and survival, and these results were validated using training, testing, and validation cohorts. RESULTS: A total of 31 laboratory tests associated with survival met stringent LWAS criteria. LWAS confirmed markers of prostate cancer biology (prostate-specific antigen: hazard ratio [HR], 1.07 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.06-1.08]; and alkaline phosphatase: HR, 1.22 [95% CI, 1.20-1.24]) as well laboratory tests of general health (eg, serum albumin: HR, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.76-0.80]; and creatinine: HR, 1.05 [95% CI, 1.03-1.07]) and inflammation (leukocyte count: HR, 1.23 [95% CI, 1.98-1.26]; and erythrocyte sedimentation rate: HR, 1.33 [95% CI, 1.09-1.61]). In addition, the authors derived and validated separate models for patients with localized and advanced disease, identifying 28 laboratory markers and 15 laboratory markers, respectively, in each cohort. CONCLUSIONS: The authors identified routinely collected laboratory data associated with survival for patients with prostate cancer using LWAS methodologies, including markers of prostate cancer biology, overall health, and inflammation. Broadening consideration of determinants of survival beyond those related to cancer itself could help to inform the design of clinical trials and aid in shared decision making. LAY SUMMARY: This article examined routine laboratory tests associated with survival among veterans with prostate cancer. Using laboratory-wide association studies, the authors identified 31 laboratory tests associated with survival that can be used to inform the design of clinical trials and aid patients in shared decision making.

10.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(4): 916-923, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33368171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To evaluate differences in end-of-life cost trajectories for cancer patients treated through Medicare versus by the Veterans Health Administration (VA). DESIGN: A retrospective analysis of VA and Medicare administrative data from FY 2010 to 2014. We employed three-level generalized estimating equations to evaluate monthly cost trajectories experienced by patients in their last year of life, with patients nested within hospital referral region. SETTING: Care received at VA facilities or by Medicare-reimbursed providers nationwide. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 36,401 patients dying from cancer and dually enrolled in VA and Medicare. MEASUREMENTS: We evaluated trajectories for total, inpatient, outpatient, and drug costs, using the last 12 months of life. Cost trajectories were prioritized as costs are not directly comparable across Medicare and VA. Patients were assigned to be VA-reliant, Medicare-reliant or Mixed-reliant based on their healthcare utilization in the last year of life. RESULTS: All three groups experienced significantly different cost trajectories for total costs in the last year of life. Inpatient cost trajectories were significantly different between Medicare-reliant and VA-reliant patients, but did not differ between VA-reliant and Mixed-reliant patients. Outpatient and drug cost trajectories exhibited the inverse pattern: they were significantly different between VA-reliant and Mixed-reliant patients, but not between VA-reliant and Medicare-reliant patients. However, visual examination of cost trajectories revealed similar cost patterns in the last year of life among all three groups; there was a sharp rise in costs as patients approach death, largely due to inpatient care. CONCLUSION: Despite substantially different financial incentives and organization, VA- and Medicare-treated patients exhibit similar patterns of increasing end-of-life costs, largely driven by inpatient costs. Both systems require improvement to ensure quality of end-of-life care is aligned with recommended practice.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/economia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Hospitalização/economia , Medicare/economia , Neoplasias , Assistência Terminal , Idoso , Custos e Análise de Custo/métodos , Custos e Análise de Custo/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitais de Veteranos/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Neoplasias/economia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Assistência Terminal/economia , Assistência Terminal/métodos , Assistência Terminal/normas , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Med Decis Making ; 40(8): 959-967, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078681

RESUMO

Health care systems frequently have to decide whether to implement interventions designed to reduce gaps in the quality of care. A lack of information on the cost of these interventions is often cited as a barrier to implementation. In this article, we describe methods for estimating the cost of implementing a complex intervention. We review methods related to the direct measurement of labor, supplies and space, information technology, and research costs. We also discuss several issues that affect cost estimates in implementation studies, including factor prices, fidelity, efficiency and scale of production, distribution, and sunk costs. We examine case studies for stroke and depression, where evidence-based treatments exist and yet gaps in the quality of care remain. Understanding the costs for implementing strategies to reduce these gaps and measuring them consistently will better inform decision makers about an intervention's likely effect on their budget and the expected costs to implement new interventions.

12.
J Gen Intern Med ; 35(Suppl 2): 870-874, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospitals and other health care delivery organizations are sometimes resistant to implementing evidence-based programs, citing unknown budgetary implications. OBJECTIVE: In this paper, I discuss challenges when estimating health care costs in implementation research. DESIGN: A case study with intensive care units highlights how including fixed costs can cloud a short-term analysis. PARTICIPANTS: None. INTERVENTIONS: None. MAIN MEASURES: Health care costs, charges and payments. KEY RESULTS: Cost data should accurately reflect the opportunity costs for the organization(s) providing care. Opportunity costs are defined as the benefits foregone because the resources were not used in the next best alternative. Because there is no database of opportunity costs, cost studies rely on accounting data, charges, or payments as proxies. Unfortunately, these proxies may not reflect the organization's opportunity costs, especially if the goal is to understand the budgetary impact in the next few years. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation researchers should exclude costs that are fixed in the time period of observation because these assets (e.g., space) cannot be used in the next best alternative. In addition, it is common to use costs from accounting databases where we implicitly assume health care providers are uniformly efficient. If providers are not operating efficiently, especially if there is variation in their efficiency, then this can create further problems. Implementation scientists should be judicious in their use of cost estimates from accounting data, otherwise research results can misguide decision makers.


Assuntos
Orçamentos , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Análise Custo-Benefício , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos
13.
Implement Sci Commun ; 1: 50, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885206

RESUMO

Background: Stroke is a leading cause of disability and the fifth leading cause of death in the USA. Intravenous alteplase is a highly effective clot-dissolving stroke treatment that must be given in a hospital setting within a time-sensitive window. To increase the use of intravenous alteplase in stroke patients, many US counties enacted policies mandating emergency medical service (EMS) paramedics to bypass local emergency departments and instead directly transport patients to specially equipped stroke centers. The objective of this mixed-methods study is to evaluate the effectiveness of policy enactment as an implementation strategy, how differences in policy structures and processes impact effectiveness, and to explore how the county, hospital, and policy factors explain variation in implementation and clinical outcomes. This paper provides a detailed description of an Agency for Healthcare Quality and Research (AHRQ)-funded protocol, including the use of the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) in the qualitative design. Methods/design: We will construct the largest-ever national stroke database of Medicare enrollees (~ 1.5 million stroke patients) representing 896 policy counties paired with 1792 non-policy counties, then integrate patient-, hospital-, county-, and state-level covariates from eight different data sources. We will use a difference-in-differences analysis to estimate the overall effect of the policy enactment on intravenous alteplase use (implementation outcome) as well as key patient outcomes. We will also quantitatively examine if variation in the context (urban/rural status) and variation in policy features affect outcomes. Finally, a CFIR-informed multiple case study design will be used to interview informants in 72 stakeholders in 24 counties to identify and validate factors that enable policy effects. Discussion: Policies can be potent implementation strategies. However, the effects of EMS bypass policies to increase intravenous alteplase use have not been rigorously evaluated. By learning how context and policy structures impact alteplase implementation, as well as the barriers and facilitators experienced by stakeholders responsible for policy enactment, the results of this study will inform decisions regarding if and how EMS bypass policies should spread to non-policy counties, and if indicated, creation of a "best practices" toolkit.

14.
Med Decis Making ; 40(8): 968-977, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951506

RESUMO

Health care decision makers often request information showing how a new treatment or intervention will affect their budget (i.e., a budget impact analysis; BIA). In this article, we present key topics for considering how to measure downstream health care costs, a key component of the BIA, when implementing an evidence-based program designed to reduce a quality gap. Tracking health care utilization can be done with administrative or self-reported data, but estimating costs for these utilization data raises 2 issues that are often overlooked in implementation science. The first issue has to do with applicability: are the cost estimates applicable to the health care system that is implementing the quality improvement program? We often use national cost estimates or average payments, without considering whether these cost estimates are appropriate. Second, we need to determine the decision maker's time horizon to identify the costs that vary in that time horizon. If the BIA takes a short-term time horizon, then we should focus on costs that vary in the short run and exclude costs that are fixed over this time. BIA is an increasingly popular tool for health care decision makers interested in understanding the financial effect of implementing an evidence-based program. Without careful consideration of some key conceptual issues, we run the risk of misleading decision makers when presenting results from implementation studies.

15.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 39(8): 1368-1376, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744943

RESUMO

Timely access to outpatient care was a primary driver behind the Department of Veterans Affairs' (VA's) increased purchase of community-based care under the Veterans Access, Choice, and Accountability Act of 2014, known as the Choice Act. To compare veterans' experiences in VA-delivered and community-based outpatient care after implementation of the act, we assessed veterans' scores on four dimensions of experience-access, communication, coordination, and provider rating-for outpatient specialty, primary, and mental health care received during 2016-17. Patient experiences were better for VA than for community care in all respects except access. For specialty care, access scores were better in the community; for primary and mental health care, access scores were similar in the two settings. Although all specialty care scores and the primary care coordination score improved over time, the gaps between settings did not shrink. As purchased care further expands under the VA Maintaining Internal Systems and Strengthening Integrated Outside Networks Act of 2018, which replaced the Choice Act in 2019, monitoring of meaningful differences between settings should continue, with the results used to inform both VA purchasing decisions and patients' care choices.


Assuntos
Veteranos , Assistência Ambulatorial , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs
16.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 215: 108213, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 12 step mutual help groups are widely accessed by people with drug use disorder but infrequently subjected to rigorous evaluation. Pooling randomized trials containing a condition in which mutual help group attendance is actively facilitated presents an opportunity to assess the effectiveness of 12 step groups in large, diverse samples of drug use disorder patients. METHODS: Data from six federally-funded randomized trials were pooled (n = 1730) and subjected to two-stage instrumental variables modelling, and, fixed and random effects regression models. All trials included a 12 step group facilitation condition and employed the Addiction Severity Index as a core measure. RESULTS: The ability of 12 step facilitation to increase mutual help group participation among drug use disorder patients was minimal, limiting ability to employ two-stage instrumental variable models that correct for selection bias. However, traditional fixed and random effect regression models found that greater 12 step mutual help group attendance by drug use disorder patients predicted reduced use of and problems with illicit drugs and also with alcohol. CONCLUSION: Facilitating significant and lasting involvement in 12 step groups may be more challenging for drug use disorder patients than for alcohol use disorder patients, which has important implications for clinical work and for effectiveness evaluations. Though selection bias could explain part of the results of traditional regression models, the finding that participation in 12 step mutual help groups predicts lower illicit drug and alcohol use and problems in a large, diverse, sample of drug use disorder patients is encouraging.


Assuntos
Grupos de Autoajuda , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Alcoolismo , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Viés de Seleção
17.
Urol Oncol ; 38(9): 734.e1-734.e10, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32674954

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Accurate life expectancy estimates are required to inform prostate cancer treatment decisions. However, few models are specific to the population served or easily implemented in a clinical setting. We sought to create life expectancy estimates specific to Veterans diagnosed with prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using national Veterans Health Administration electronic health records, we identified Veterans diagnosed with prostate cancer between 2000 and 2015. We abstracted demographics, comorbidities, oncologic staging, and treatment information. We fit Cox Proportional Hazards models to determine the impact of age, comorbidity, cancer risk, and race on survival. We stratified life expectancy estimates by age, comorbidity and cancer stage. RESULTS: Our analytic cohort included 145,678 patients. Survival modeling demonstrated the importance of age and comorbidity across all cancer risk categories. Life expectancy estimates generated from age and comorbidity data were predictive of overall survival (C-index 0.676, 95% CI 0.674-0.679) and visualized using Kaplan-Meier plots and heatmaps stratified by age and comorbidity. Separate life expectancy estimates were generated for patients with localized or advanced disease. These life expectancy estimates calibrate well across prostate cancer risk categories. CONCLUSIONS: Life expectancy estimates are essential to providing patient-centered prostate cancer care. We developed accessible life expectancy estimation tools for Veterans diagnosed with prostate cancer that can be used in routine clinical practice to inform medical-decision making.

18.
Med Care ; 58(8): 727-733, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospital Presumptive Eligibility (HPE) is a national policy stemming from the Affordable Care Act that allows qualified hospitals, working with state officials, to enroll eligible patients for temporary Medicaid coverage. Although all states are required to operate an HPE program, hospital participation is elective and variable. It is unclear which hospitals choose to participate in HPE and how participation affects hospital utilization and revenue. OBJECTIVE: We examined hospital factors associated with HPE participation in the state of California and assessed pre and post changes in hospital revenue and utilization for HPE and non-HPE hospitals. RESEARCH DESIGN: We performed a logistic regression to identify hospital attributes associated with HPE participation. We then used a difference in differences methodology with a hospital fixed effect to test whether HPE enrollment was associated with changes in annual revenues by payer source, uncompensated care costs, outpatient visits, and/or discharges. RESULTS: Three quarters (76%) of qualified hospitals elected to participate in HPE by the end of 2018. Hospitals with 100 or more beds had over 10 times greater odds of participating in HPE compared with smaller hospitals. Hospitals that did not provide outpatient care were significantly less likely to participate. Among hospitals included in trend analyses, enrollment in HPE was associated with increased annual net patient Medicaid revenue and decreased uncompensated care charges. We predicted that HPE enrollment was associated with an average of 9.7% (95% confidence interval: 3.4%-16.4%) increase in annual net patient Medicaid revenue. As of 2018, ∼33,000 adults and children were enrolled in California's HPE program per month. CONCLUSION: Hospital enrollment in the HPE program shifted costs from uncompensated care to Medicaid.


Assuntos
Medicina Hospitalar/economia , Medicaid/economia , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/estatística & dados numéricos , California , Definição da Elegibilidade/métodos , Definição da Elegibilidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
19.
Health Serv Res ; 55(5): 690-700, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715468

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare 90-day postoperative complication rates between Veterans receiving cataract surgery in VA vs Community Care (CC) during the first year of implementation of the Veterans Choice Act. DATA SOURCES: Fiscal Year (FY) 2015 VA and CC outpatient data from VA's Corporate Data Warehouse (CDW) 10/01/14-9/30/15). FY14 data were used to obtain baseline clinical information prior to surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective one-year study using secondary data to compare 90-day complication rates following cataract surgery (measured using National Quality Forum (NQF) criteria) in VA vs CC. NQF defines major complications from a specified list of Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes. We ran a series of logistic regression models to predict 90-day complication rates, adjusting for Veterans' sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, preoperative ocular conditions, eye risk group, and type of cataract surgery (classified as routine vs complex). DATA COLLECTION: We linked VA and CC users through patient identifiers obtained from the CDW files. Our sample included all enrolled Veterans who received outpatient cataract surgery either in the VA or through CC during FY15. Cataract surgeries were identified through CPT codes 66 984 (routine) and 66 982 (complex). PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of the 83,879 cataract surgeries performed in FY15, 31 percent occurred through CC. Undergoing complex surgery and having a high-risk eye (based on preoperative ocular conditions) were the strongest clinical predictors of 90-day postoperative complications. Overall, we found low complication rates, ranging from 1.1 percent in low-risk eyes to 3.6 percent in high-risk eyes. After adjustment for important confounders (eg, race, rurality, and preoperative ocular conditions), there were no statistically significant differences in 90-day complication rates between Veterans receiving cataract surgery in VA vs CC. CONCLUSIONS: As more Veterans seek care through CC, future studies should continue to monitor quality of care across the two care settings to help inform VA's "make vs buy decisions."


Assuntos
Extração de Catarata/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/estatística & dados numéricos , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
J Surg Oncol ; 2020 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Acute postoperative pain following surgery is known to be associated with chronic pain development and lower quality of life. We sought to analyze the relationship between differing breast cancer excisional procedures, reconstruction, and short-term pain outcomes. METHODS: Women undergoing breast cancer excisional procedures with or without reconstruction at two systems: an academic hospital (AH) and Veterans Health Administration (VHA) were included. Average pain scores at the time of discharge and at 30-day follow-up were analyzed across demographic and clinical characteristics. Linear mixed effects modeling was used to assess the relationship between patient/clinical characteristics and interval pain scores with a random slope to account for differences in baseline pain. RESULTS: Our study included 1402 patients at AH and 1435 at VHA, of which 426 AH and 165 patients with VHA underwent reconstruction. Pain scores improved over time and were found to be highest at discharge. Time at discharge, 30-day follow-up, and preoperative opioid use were the strongest predictors of high pain scores. Younger age and longer length of stay were independently associated with worse pain scores. CONCLUSIONS: Younger age, preoperative opioid use, and longer length of stay were associated with higher levels of postoperative pain across both sites.

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