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1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(10): 5973-5979, 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343120

RESUMO

The oxidation of nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide by hydroperoxy (HO2) and organic peroxy radicals (RO2) is responsible for the chemical net ozone production in the troposphere and for the regeneration of hydroxyl radicals, the most important oxidant in the atmosphere. In Summer 2014, a field campaign was conducted in the North China Plain, where increasingly severe ozone pollution has been experienced in the last years. Chemical conditions in the campaign were representative for this area. Radical and trace gas concentrations were measured, allowing for calculating the turnover rates of gas-phase radical reactions. Therefore, the importance of heterogeneous HO2 uptake on aerosol could be experimentally determined. HO2 uptake could have suppressed ozone formation at that time because of the competition with gas-phase reactions that produce ozone. The successful reduction of the aerosol load in the North China Plain in the last years could have led to a significant decrease of HO2 loss on particles, so that ozone-forming reactions could have gained importance in the last years. However, the analysis of the measured radical budget in this campaign shows that HO2 aerosol uptake did not impact radical chemistry for chemical conditions in 2014. Therefore, reduced HO2 uptake on aerosol since then is likely not the reason for the increasing number of ozone pollution events in the North China Plain, contradicting conclusions made from model calculations reported in the literature.

2.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(18): 10676-10684, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418557

RESUMO

In contrast to summer smog, the contribution of photochemistry to the formation of winter haze in northern mid-to-high latitude is generally assumed to be minor due to reduced solar UV and water vapor concentrations. Our comprehensive observations of atmospheric radicals and relevant parameters during several haze events in winter 2016 Beijing, however, reveal surprisingly high hydroxyl radical oxidation rates up to 15 ppbv/h, which is comparable to the high values reported in summer photochemical smog and is two to three times larger than those determined in previous observations during winter in Birmingham (Heard et al. Geophys. Res. Lett. 2004, 31, (18)), Tokyo (Kanaya et al. J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 2007, 112, (D21)), and New York (Ren et al. Atmos. Environ. 2006, 40, 252-263). The active photochemistry facilitates the production of secondary pollutants. It is mainly initiated by the photolysis of nitrous acid and ozonolysis of olefins and maintained by an extremely efficiently radical cycling process driven by nitric oxide. This boosted radical recycling generates fast photochemical ozone production rates that are again comparable to those during summer photochemical smog. The formation of ozone, however, is currently masked by its efficient chemical removal by nitrogen oxides contributing to the high level of wintertime particles. The future emission regulations, such as the reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions, therefore are facing the challenge of reducing haze and avoiding an increase in ozone pollution at the same time. Efficient control strategies to mitigate winter haze in Beijing may require measures similar as implemented to avoid photochemical smog in summer.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Ozônio , Pequim , New York , Fotoquímica , Smog
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 685: 85-95, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174126

RESUMO

A field campaign was conducted from November to December 2017 at the campus of Peking University (PKU) to investigate the formation mechanism of the winter air pollution in Beijing with the measurement of hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl radical (OH and HO2) with the support from comprehensive observation of trace gases compounds. The extent of air pollution depends on meteorological conditions. The daily maximum OH radical concentrations are on average 2.0 × 106 cm-3 and 1.5 × 106 cm-3 during the clean and polluted episodes, respectively. The daily maximum HO2 radical concentrations are on average 0.4 × 108 cm-3 and 0.3 × 108 cm-3 during the clean and polluted episodes, respectively (diurnal averaged for one hour bin). A box model based on RACM2-LIM1 mechanism can reproduce the OH concentrations but underestimate the HO2 concentrations by 50% during the clean episode. The OH and HO2 concentrations are underestimated by 50% and 12 folds during the polluted episode, respectively. Strong dependence on nitric oxide (NO) concentration is found for both observed and modeled HO2 concentrations, with the modeled HO2 decreasing more rapidly than observed HO2, leading to severe HO2 underestimation at higher NO concentrations. The OH reactivity is calculated from measured and modeled species and inorganic compounds (carbon monoxide (CO), NO, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)) make up 69%-76% of the calculated OH reactivity. The photochemical oxidation rate denoted by the OH loss rate increases by 3 times from the clean to polluted episodes, indicating the strong oxidation capacity in polluted conditions. The comparison between measurements at PKU site and a suburban site from one previous study shows that chemical conditions are similar in both urban and suburban areas. Hence, the strong oxidation capacity and its potential contribution to the pollution bursts are relatively homogeneous over the whole Beijing city and its surrounding areas.

8.
Faraday Discuss ; 200: 229-249, 2017 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28574551

RESUMO

IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System) performs long-term routine in situ observations of atmospheric chemical composition (O3, CO, NOx, NOy, CO2, CH4), water vapour, aerosols, clouds, and temperature on a global scale by operating compact instruments on board of passenger aircraft. The unique characteristics of the IAGOS data set originate from the global scale sampling on air traffic routes with similar instrumentation such that the observations are truly comparable and well suited for atmospheric research on a statistical basis. Here, we present the analysis of 15 months of simultaneous observations of relative humidity with respect to ice (RHice) and ice crystal number concentration in cirrus (Nice) from July 2014 to October 2015. The joint data set of 360 hours of RHice-Nice observations in the global upper troposphere and tropopause region is analysed with respect to the in-cloud distribution of RHice and related cirrus properties. The majority of the observed cirrus is thin with Nice < 0.1 cm-3. The respective fractions of all cloud observations range from 90% over the mid-latitude North Atlantic Ocean and the Eurasian Continent to 67% over the subtropical and tropical Pacific Ocean. The in-cloud RHice distributions do not depend on the geographical region of sampling. Types of cirrus origin (in situ origin, liquid origin) are inferred for different Nice regimes and geographical regions. Most importantly, we found that in-cloud RHice shows a strong correlation to Nice with slightly supersaturated dynamic equilibrium RHice associated with higher Nice values in stronger updrafts.

9.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(5): 2519-2528, 2017 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28169528

RESUMO

Laboratory studies of atmospheric chemistry characterize the nature of atmospherically relevant processes down to the molecular level, providing fundamental information used to assess how human activities drive environmental phenomena such as climate change, urban air pollution, ecosystem health, indoor air quality, and stratospheric ozone depletion. Laboratory studies have a central role in addressing the incomplete fundamental knowledge of atmospheric chemistry. This article highlights the evolving science needs for this community and emphasizes how our knowledge is far from complete, hindering our ability to predict the future state of our atmosphere and to respond to emerging global environmental change issues. Laboratory studies provide rich opportunities to expand our understanding of the atmosphere via collaborative research with the modeling and field measurement communities, and with neighboring disciplines.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ozônio/química , Poluição do Ar , Atmosfera/química , Ecossistema , Humanos
14.
Faraday Discuss ; 189: 407-37, 2016 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27117015

RESUMO

The analysis of the individual composition of hydrocarbon (VOC) mixtures enables us to transform observed VOC-concentrations into their respective total VOC-reactivity versus OH radicals (RVOC = Σ(kOH+VOCi × [VOCi])). This is particularly useful because local ozone production essentially depends on this single parameter rather than on the details of the underlying hydrocarbon mixture (Klemp et al., Schriften des Forschungszentrums Jülich, Energy & Environment, 2012, 21). The VOC composition also enables us to pin down the major emission source of hydrocarbons in urban areas to be petrol cars with temporarily reduced catalyst efficiency (the so-called cold-start situation) whereas the source of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) is expected to be nowadays dominated by diesel cars. The observations in the vicinity of main roads in German cities show a decrease in the ratio of OH reactivities of VOC and NO2 (RVOC/RNO2) by a factor of 7.5 over the time period 1994-2014. This is larger than the expected decrease of a factor of 2.9 taking estimated trends of VOC and NOx traffic emissions in Germany (Umweltbundesamt Deutschland, National Trend Tables for the German Atmospheric Emission Reporting, 2015), during this time period. The observed reduction in the RVOC/RNO2 ratio leads to a drastic decrease in local ozone production driven by the reduction in hydrocarbons. The analysis reveals that the overall reduction of ozone production benefits from the low decrease of NOx emissions from road traffic which is a consequence of the eventual absence of catalytic converters for nitrogen oxide removal in diesel cars up to now.

15.
Science ; 348(6241): 1326, 2015 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26089508

RESUMO

Ye et al. have determined a maximum nitrous acid (HONO) yield of 3% for the reaction HO2·H2O + NO2, which is much lower than the yield used in our work. This finding, however, does not affect our main result that HONO in the investigated Po Valley region is mainly from a gas-phase source that consumes nitrogen oxides.

16.
Science ; 344(6181): 292-6, 2014 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24744373

RESUMO

Gaseous nitrous acid (HONO) is an important precursor of tropospheric hydroxyl radicals (OH). OH is responsible for atmospheric self-cleansing and controls the concentrations of greenhouse gases like methane and ozone. Due to lack of measurements, vertical distributions of HONO and its sources in the troposphere remain unclear. Here, we present a set of observations of HONO and its budget made onboard a Zeppelin airship. In a sunlit layer separated from Earth's surface processes by temperature inversion, we found high HONO concentrations providing evidence for a strong gas-phase source of HONO consuming nitrogen oxides and potentially hydrogen oxide radicals. The observed properties of this production process suggest that the generally assumed impact of HONO on the abundance of OH in the troposphere is substantially overestimated.

17.
Nature ; 506(7489): 476-9, 2014 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24572423

RESUMO

Forests emit large quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere. Their condensable oxidation products can form secondary organic aerosol, a significant and ubiquitous component of atmospheric aerosol, which is known to affect the Earth's radiation balance by scattering solar radiation and by acting as cloud condensation nuclei. The quantitative assessment of such climate effects remains hampered by a number of factors, including an incomplete understanding of how biogenic VOCs contribute to the formation of atmospheric secondary organic aerosol. The growth of newly formed particles from sizes of less than three nanometres up to the sizes of cloud condensation nuclei (about one hundred nanometres) in many continental ecosystems requires abundant, essentially non-volatile organic vapours, but the sources and compositions of such vapours remain unknown. Here we investigate the oxidation of VOCs, in particular the terpene α-pinene, under atmospherically relevant conditions in chamber experiments. We find that a direct pathway leads from several biogenic VOCs, such as monoterpenes, to the formation of large amounts of extremely low-volatility vapours. These vapours form at significant mass yield in the gas phase and condense irreversibly onto aerosol surfaces to produce secondary organic aerosol, helping to explain the discrepancy between the observed atmospheric burden of secondary organic aerosol and that reported by many model studies. We further demonstrate how these low-volatility vapours can enhance, or even dominate, the formation and growth of aerosol particles over forested regions, providing a missing link between biogenic VOCs and their conversion to aerosol particles. Our findings could help to improve assessments of biosphere-aerosol-climate feedback mechanisms, and the air quality and climate effects of biogenic emissions generally.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/química , Modelos Químicos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Aerossóis/análise , Aerossóis/metabolismo , Atmosfera/química , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Clima , Ecossistema , Finlândia , Gases/análise , Gases/química , Monoterpenos/química , Oxirredução , Ozônio/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Árvores/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Volatilização
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 109(34): 13503-8, 2012 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22869714

RESUMO

The Multiple Chamber Aerosol Chemical Aging Study (MUCHACHAS) tested the hypothesis that hydroxyl radical (OH) aging significantly increases the concentration of first-generation biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA). OH is the dominant atmospheric oxidant, and MUCHACHAS employed environmental chambers of very different designs, using multiple OH sources to explore a range of chemical conditions and potential sources of systematic error. We isolated the effect of OH aging, confirming our hypothesis while observing corresponding changes in SOA properties. The mass increases are consistent with an existing gap between global SOA sources and those predicted in models, and can be described by a mechanism suitable for implementation in those models.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/química , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Atmosfera , Radicais Livres , Radical Hidroxila , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Modelos Químicos , Oxigênio/química , Ozônio , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Solventes/química , Raios Ultravioleta
19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 46(6): 3312-8, 2012 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22313249

RESUMO

A new method for stable carbon isotope ratio analysis of anhydrosugars from biomass burning aerosol particle source filter samples was developed by employing Thermal Desorption--2 Dimensional Gas Chromatography--Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (TD-2DGC-IRMS). Compound specific isotopic measurements of levoglucosan, mannosan, and galactosan performed by TD-2DGC-IRMS in a standard mixture show good agreement with isotopic measurements of the bulk anhydrosugars, carried out by Elemental Analyzer--Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (EA-IRMS). The established method was applied to determine the isotope ratios of levoglucosan, mannosan, and galactosan from source samples collected during combustion of hard wood, softwood, and crop residues. δ(13)C values of levoglucosan were found to vary between -25.6 and -22.2‰, being higher in the case of softwood. Mannosan and galactosan were detected only in the softwood samples showing isotope ratios of -23.5‰ (mannosan) and -25.7‰ (galactosan). The isotopic composition of holocellulose in the plant material used for combustion experiments was determined with δ(13)C values between -28.5 and -23.7‰. The difference in δ(13)C of levoglucosan in biomass burning aerosol particles compared to the parent fuel holocellulose was found to be -1.89 (±0.37)‰ for the investigated biomass fuels. Compound specific δ(13)C measurements of anhydrosugars should contribute to an improved source apportionment.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Hexoses/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Aerossóis , Biomassa , Cycadopsida , Temperatura Alta , Magnoliopsida
20.
J Phys Chem A ; 116(24): 6015-26, 2012 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22195640

RESUMO

The secondary formation of HO(2) radicals following OH + aromatic hydrocarbon reactions in synthetic air under normal pressure and temperature was investigated in the absence of NO after pulsed production of OH radicals. OH and HO(x) (=OH + HO(2)) decay curves were recorded using laser-induced fluorescence after gas-expansion. The prompt HO(2) yields (HO(2) formed without preceding NO reactions) were determined by comparison to results obtained with CO as a reference compound. This approach was recently introduced and applied to the OH + benzene reaction and was extended here for a number of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The measured HO(2) formation yields are as follows: toluene, 0.42 ± 0.11; ethylbenzene, 0.53 ± 0.10; o-xylene, 0.41 ± 0.08; m-xylene, 0.27 ± 0.06; p-xylene, 0.40 ± 0.09; 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene, 0.31 ± 0.06; 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 0.37 ± 0.09; 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, 0.29 ± 0.08; hexamethylbenzene, 0.32 ± 0.08; phenol, 0.89 ± 0.29; o-cresol, 0.87 ± 0.29; 2,5-dimethylphenol, 0.72 ± 0.12; 2,4,6-trimethylphenol, 0.45 ± 0.13. For the alkylbenzenes HO(2) is the proposed coproduct of phenols, epoxides, and possibly oxepins formed in secondary reactions with O(2). In most product studies the only quantified coproducts were phenols whereas only a few studies reported yields of epoxides. Oxepins have not been observed so far. Together with the yields of phenols from other studies, the HO(2) yields determined in this work set an upper limit to the combined yields of epoxides and oxepins that was found to be significant (≤0.3) for all investigated alkylbenzenes except m-xylene. For the hydroxybenzenes the currently proposed HO(2) coproducts are dihydroxybenzenes. For phenol and o-cresol the determined HO(2) yields are matching the previously reported dihydroxybenzene yields, indicating that these are the only HO(2) forming reaction channels. For 2,5-dimethylphenol and 2,4,6-trimethylphenol no complementary product studies are available.

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