Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 15 de 15
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242873, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227027

RESUMO

The animal-human relationship is essential for farm animal welfare and production. Generally, gentle tactile and vocal interactions improve the animal-human relationship in cattle. However, cows that are fearful of humans avoid their close presence and touch; thus, the animal-human relationship first has to be improved to a point where the animals accept stroking before their perception of the interactions and consequently the animal-human relationship can become positive. We tested whether the animal-human relationship of cows fearful of humans is improved more effectively by gentle interactions during restraint, allowing physical contact from the beginning, or if the gentle interactions are offered while the animals are free to move, giving them more control over the situation and thus probably a higher level of agency and a more positive perception of the interactions. Thirty-six dairy cows (median avoidance distance 1.6 m) were assigned to three treatments (each n = 12): gentle vocal and tactile interactions during restraint in the feeding rack (LOCK); gentle vocal and, if possible, tactile interactions while free in the barn (FREE); routine management without additional interactions (CON). Treatments were applied for 3 min per cow on 10 d per fortnight for 6 weeks (i.e., three periods). Avoidance and approach behaviour towards humans was tested before the start of the treatment period, and then at 2-week intervals. The recorded variables were reduced to one score by Principal Component Analysis. The resulting relationship score (higher values implying a better relationship with humans) increased in all groups; the increase was stronger in FREE than in CON, with the increase in LOCK being not significantly different from the other treatment groups. Thus, we recommend that gentle interactions with cows should take place while they are unrestrained, if possible.

2.
J Dairy Res ; 87(S1): 148-153, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213569

RESUMO

In this Research Communication we address the hypotheses that reduced contact with humans during the first week of life would impair the relationship of dairy calves reared in dam-calf-contact systems to humans in comparison with artificially reared animals, but that this difference would vanish over time. Artificially reared calves (Artificial) that had been separated from their mother within 12 h after birth were bottle-fed with colostrum for 5 d and thereafter sucked milk from an automatic milk feeder. Animals reared with dam-calf contact (Dam-contact) were kept in the calving pen with their dam for 5 d, and then had permanent access to the cow barn and thus to their dam. Calves were weaned at an age of 12 weeks and kept in young stock groups mixed of both treatments until integration into the cow herd. We tested the animals' relationship with humans by assessing the animals' responses towards an unfamiliar person in an avoidance distance (AD) test in the home environment at 4 weeks of age, at 15 months and at 33 months. In calves, we additionally measured AD in a novel arena after a stationary person test. Artificial animals had lower AD, i.e. showed lower level of fear, than Dam-contact calves. However, the AD in Dam-contact calves decreased with increasing number of days they experienced assistance for suckling. Further, there was no significant difference in later ages. In conclusion, gentle human contact in combination with feeding during the first 5 d of life improved calves' relationship to humans leading to differences between the two treatments as well as within the Dam-contact calves. Potential effects under different conditions regarding quantity and quality of human-animal interactions need further research.

3.
J Dairy Res ; 87(S1): 144-147, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213574

RESUMO

The aim of the study reported in this Research Communication was to compare play behaviour and social interactions of dairy calves either separated from their mother and reared in a calf group (Artificial) or with access to their mother and the cow herd (cow-calf contact: Contact). Contact calves had access to a calf area and also to the cow barn where they could suckle their dam. Artificial calves were fed whole milk up to 16 kg per day via an automatic milk feeder and were only kept in the calf area. We observed the animals on 3 d during the first three months of life. Contact calves showed solitary play, consisting predominantly of locomotor play, for longer than Artificial calves and mainly in the cow barn. This indicates higher welfare in Contact calves. In addition, Artificial calves hardly experienced any agonistic interaction, while Contact calves both initiated and received agonistic interactions, which might contribute to the development of higher social competence.

4.
J Dairy Res ; 87(S1): 122-127, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213581

RESUMO

This position paper describes a common stand on methodology of human attitudes and behaviour that is suitable to use in studies regarding cow-calf contact (CCC) in dairy production, in order to create a common knowledge base and foundation for future recommendations of CCC systems. We describe how different quantitative and qualitative methods can be used to study human attitudes to CCC as well as farmer or consumer behaviour. We aim to contribute to a better understanding of the available methods, and hope that this paper can be used as a guideline for future studies in this area.

5.
J Dairy Res ; 87(S1): 108-114, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213583

RESUMO

Due to increasing public concern regarding separation of the dairy cow and calf within the first days after birth, alternative systems, where cows and calves stay in contact for an extended period, are receiving increasing interest from a broad array of researchers and other stakeholders. With more research in the area, there is a risk of inconsistencies emerging in the use of terminology. To create a better consensus in further discussions, the aim of this Research Reflection is to provide definitions and propose a common terminology for cow-calf contact in dairy production. We also suggest definitions for various systems allowing cow-calf contact and describe the distinct phases of cow-calf contact systems.

6.
J Dairy Res ; 87(S1): 115-121, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213593

RESUMO

In this Research Reflection we describe a common standpoint on suitable methodology for controlled and observational studies in cow-calf contact systems in dairy production. Different methods to assess behaviour, health and production in cow-calf contact systems are outlined. Knowledge and experience from researchers working in this field supplement scientific literature whenever relevant. Specific methods including study design, early behaviour of cow and calf, social behaviour relevant to cow-calf contact systems, human-animal relationships and aspects related to management (milking, weaning and separation, health) are reviewed, and recommendations formed. We expect that this paper can contribute to a better understanding of the complexity of cow-calf contact systems and help to advance research in this area of dairy production.

7.
Front Psychol ; 11: 579346, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33178082

RESUMO

The quality of the animal-human relationship and, consequently, the welfare of animals can be improved by gentle interactions such as stroking and talking. The perception of different stimuli during these interactions likely plays a key role in their emotional experience, but studies are scarce. During experiments, the standardization of verbal stimuli could be increased by using a recording. However, the use of a playback might influence the perception differently than "live" talking, which is closer to on-farm practice. Thus, we compared heifers' (n = 28) reactions to stroking while an experimenter was talking soothingly ("live") or while a recording of the experimenter talking soothingly was played ("playback"). Each animal was tested three times per condition and each trial comprised three phases: pre-stimulus, stimulus (stroking and talking) and post-stimulus. In both conditions, similar phrases with positive content were spoken calmly, using long low-pitched vowels. All tests were video recorded and analyzed for behaviors associated with different affective states. Effects on the heifers' cardiac parameters were assessed using analysis of heart rate variability. Independently of the auditory stimuli, longer durations of neck stretching occurred during stroking, supporting our hypothesis of a positive perception of stroking. Observation of ear positions revealed longer durations of the "back up" position and less ear flicking and changes of ear positions during stroking. The predicted decrease in HR during stroking was not confirmed; instead we found a slightly increased mean HR during stroking with a subsequent decrease in HR, which was stronger after stroking with live talking. In combination with differences in HRV parameters, our findings suggest that live talking might have been more pleasurable to the animals and had a stronger relaxing effect than "playback." The results regarding the effects of the degree of standardization of the stimulus on the variability of the data were inconclusive. We thus conclude that the use of recorded auditory stimuli to promote positive affective states during human-animal interactions in experimental settings is possible, but not necessarily preferable.

8.
Front Vet Sci ; 7: 590867, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33240961

RESUMO

Domestic animals often seek and enjoy interacting with humans. Positive human-animal relationships can elicit positive emotions and other positive welfare outcomes. Nevertheless, our understanding of the underlying processes that govern the positive perception of humans by animals is incomplete. We cover the potential mechanisms involved in the development and maintenance of positive human-animal relationships from the perspective of the animal. This encompasses habituation, associative learning, and possibly attachment or bonding based on communication and social cognition. We review the indicators from the literature to assess a positive human-animal relationship. We operationally define this positive relationship as the animal showing voluntary approach and spatial proximity (seeking) and signs of anticipation, pleasure, relaxation, or other indicators of a rewarding experience from interacting with the human. For research, we recommend accounting for the baseline human-animal relationship in the animal's everyday life, and incorporating a control treatment rather than only comparing positive to negative interaction treatments. Furthermore, animal characteristics, such as previous experience, genetics, and individual predisposition, as well as contextual characteristics related to the social and physical environment, may modulate the perception of humans by animals. The human-animal relationship is also influenced by human characteristics, such as the person's familiarity to the animal, attitudes, skills, and knowledge. We highlight implications for current practices and suggest simple solutions, such as paying attention to the animal's behavioral response to humans and providing choice and control to the animal in terms of when and how to interact with humans. Practical applications to achieve a positive perception of humans could be better utilized, such as by incorporating training principles, while keeping in mind trust and safety of both partners. Overall, there is growing evidence in the scientific literature that a positive human-animal relationship can bring intrinsic rewards to the animals and thereby benefit animal welfare. Further research is needed on the underlying processes to establish an effective positive human-animal relationship, especially in regard to the type, frequency, and length of human interaction necessary. In particular, the importance of providing animals with a sense of agency over their interactions with humans remains poorly understood.

9.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(7)2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698304

RESUMO

In this preliminary study, we compared changes in mechanical nociceptive thresholds (MNT) of calves and goat kids injected with clove oil or isoeugenol under the horn bud as a potential, more welfare-friendly alternative to hot-iron disbudding. Twenty male calves and goat kids were randomly allocated to clove oil (n = 10 per species) or isoeugenol (n = 10 per species) injection under the horn buds. MNT was measured via a pressure algometer in calves and kids at several locations around the horn buds at several time points before and up to 24 h after injection. In kids, von Frey filaments were used additionally at the same time points. In calves, linear mixed models revealed an effect on MNT of time point (p = 0.010) and side (p = 0.007), but not of injection (p = 0.298), nor of the interaction 'injection*time point', MNT waslowest 9 h post-injection. In goats, there was an effect of injection depending on time point (interaction injection*time point, p = 0.03) with MNT being lowest 24 h post-injection for clove oil, while MNT was similar to pre-injection in isoeugenol. In both species, variation in the individual response post-injection was very high. Our results suggest that clove oil and isoeugenol induced hypersensitivity, which was higher for clove oil, in goat kids, but they also suggest a transient anaesthetic effect in some animals and locations.

10.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(3)2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143274

RESUMO

Gentle animal-human interactions, such as stroking, can promote positive emotions and thus welfare in cattle. While previous studies showed that stroking at the ventral neck elicited the most positive reactions in cows, intra-specific allogrooming in cattle includes different body regions and is probably guided partly by the receiver. Thus, we compared heifers' (n = 28) reactions to stroking with the experimenter either reactively responding to perceived momentary preferences of the heifers or exclusively stroking the ventral neck. Independently of the stroking style, longer durations of neck stretching and contact occurred during stroking, supporting our hypothesis of a positive perception of stroking. We did not confirm the predicted decrease in heart rate and increase in heart rate variability, but instead found a slightly increased mean heart rate during stroking. The different stroking styles elicited differences in the heifers' ear positions: "reactive" stroking led to longer durations of low ear positions during stroking, while during "ventral neck" stroking, the duration of back up increased. However, no other behaviours differed significantly between different stroking styles, indicating that the exact manner of stroking applied in our treatments seemed to be less important in the promotion of positive affective states in cattle through gentle human-animal interactions.

11.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 115: 104636, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160578

RESUMO

Research on oxytocin (OT) has provided crucial insight into the neuroendocrine mechanisms of social behavior and human-animal interactions. Nonetheless, this peptide hormone remains challenging to sample, usually requiring invasive measures in the brain or blood, which limits its use. We conducted an analytical validation of the measurement of OT in the saliva of three common farm animal species: pigs, cattle and goats. We then investigated the biological significance of salivary OT concentrations by using a positive human-animal interaction paradigm. The paradigm varied in terms of human familiarity and included a control condition where the animal was alone in the testing pen. A total of 18 pigs, 18 cattle and 9 goats were subjected to each condition using a within-individual counterbalanced design. Animals were free to choose to interact with the human. Saliva samples were collected immediately before and after the 10-min test, and behavior during the test was analyzed. Oxytocin could be reliably measured by ELISA in the saliva of goats (without extraction), and in the saliva of pigs and cattle after extraction. Salivary OT concentration did not change consistently according to testing condition. However, salivary OT concentration was significantly associated with some behaviors, with different relationships depending on the species. In conclusion, OT can be reliably measured in the saliva of goats and, after extraction, in the saliva of pigs and cattle. The relationships of OT with human-animal interactions and animal behavior were complex and to some extent species-dependent, possibly reflecting the perception of the interaction by the animal.

12.
Animals (Basel) ; 9(9)2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491913

RESUMO

The focus of animal welfare science has shifted over the last decades from efforts to avoid negative states to ways of allowing animals the experience of positive emotions. They may influence physiological processes in farmed animals, potentially providing health benefits; in addition, the physiological changes might be used as indicators of emotional states. We investigated calves' salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) concentrations with regard to a possible circadian rhythm and two situations that elicit positive emotions. Ten saliva samples of 14 calves were taken on two consecutive days; within the course of a day we observed a significant decline in salivary sIgA concentrations at 14:00 h. Further, we probed the animals before and after milk feeding and, contrarily to our prediction, detected lower sIgA concentrations 5 min after feeding than 15 min before. A probable explanation might be an increase in salivary flow rate caused by milk ingestion. We also took samples before and after we stimulated play behavior in calves. There was no significant difference in sIgA concentrations between samples taken before and after play. Although there was a significant correlation between the change in sIgA concentrations and the amount of play behavior shown, the correlation depended on an unexpected decrease of sIgA in animals that played little, and thus, does not support our hypothesis. In general, the data showed a large variability that might arise from different factors that are difficult to standardize in animals. Thus, the use of salivary sIgA concentrations as a marker of positive emotions in calves is not supported conclusively by the present data.

13.
Animals (Basel) ; 9(5)2019 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060258

RESUMO

Cage housing of growing rabbits is associated with welfare concerns. An alternative system that has already been introduced involves pens with non-wire floors. An important aspect of group pens, for which the best solution has not yet been clearly demonstrated, is the choice of floor material. The study investigated effects of two ground floor types-slatted plastic floor versus concrete floor with straw litter-on health-related parameters and weight of rabbits reared in large group pens on a commercial rabbit farm, i.e., with preventive coccidiostatic, and if required, additional therapeutic medical treatment. Pens were identical in dimensions, equipment (including platforms), and initial group size (60 animals/pen). Four pens were studied per ground floor type in three consecutive rearing periods (in total, 12 pens per floor type). A higher percentage of rabbits per pen had clean fur if reared on straw (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found in the load of coccidial oocysts in collective faecal samples, mortality, pathological alterations, or causes of loss (p > 0.05). Thus, often-expressed concerns that parasitic load and mortality would be higher in groups kept on straw were not confirmed when rabbits were housed under otherwise equal conditions. Average slaughter weight was higher in rabbits reared on a slatted plastic floor (p < 0.05), confirming previous findings of a negative impact of straw litter on weight gain.

14.
Prev Vet Med ; 92(1-2): 123-33, 2009 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19682757

RESUMO

The development of lameness is influenced by a number of different factors (housing, management, human-animal relationship and animal-related parameters). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the complex interactions of these aspects and to search for the relative importance of single factors. In 80 dairy herds of Austrian Simmental cows housed in cubicle loose housing in Upper and Lower Austria, risk factors for lameness, selected from the four factor groups housing, management, human-animal relationship and animal-related variables, were investigated during one farm visit in the autumn and winter months. To assess their relative importance, a multivariable analysis (regression trees) was calculated. The most important risk factor for lameness was the lying surface: straw bedding of at least 2 cm thickness or cow-comfort mats were associated with a lower percentage of lame cows. In case of insufficient quality of the lying surface, the next important parameter identified was the position of the neck rail: a neck rail diagonal greater than 1.94 m was associated with a lower percentage of lame cows. By contrast, on farms with high-quality lying surfaces, lameness prevalence was lower when at least parts of the alleys were constructed with solid floor and not slatted. Further variables associated with a low prevalence of lameness were a longer time span between calving and separation of the calf from the dam, the existence of an outside run, a lower percentage of fat cows, a greater space allowance, more cubicles than animals and a lower kerb height. In addition, further management factors such as the way in which heifers are integrated into the herd or management decisions taking into account the cows' welfare were related to less lameness. Human-animal relationship variables such as, for example, the behaviour and attitude of the stockpeople were explaining variables. In sum, important risk factors were found in all factor groups. Therefore it is necessary to optimise all those different aspects mentioned above to reduce the risk of lameness.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Abrigo para Animais , Coxeadura Animal/prevenção & controle , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Áustria/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos , Coxeadura Animal/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
15.
Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr ; 119(1-2): 68-73, 2006.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16450712

RESUMO

The teats of Brown Swiss and Austrian Simmental cows, divided into two groups, one milked by means of an automatic milking system, the other using a conventional milking parlour, were examined monthly by ultrasonography. Aim of the study was to compare the effects of two different milking machines upon the structures of the bovine teat canal and wall by ultrasonography and thereby evaluate ultrasonography as a research tool for visualisation of different influences on the bovine teat. Length and thickness of the teat canal and teat wall thickness were measured and analysed. During lactation, teat canal length and thickness increased in both groups, teat canal length decreased in conventional milked cows at the end of lactation. Shorter and narrower teat canals were observed in automatic milked cows. Differences between the groups in teat canal length and thickness were determined in early lactation. During lactation teat wall thickness showed a slight increase. Automatic milked cows displayed thinner teat walls than cows milked in the milking parlour. Teat morphology was influenced by the number and duration of lactations, milk yield, quarter of the udder and time and date of examination. It was concluded that the effect of the two different milking machines caused significant differences in bovine teat morphology and that ultrasonography proved to be an appropriate method for visualising influences of the milking technique on the bovine teat.


Assuntos
Bovinos/anatomia & histologia , Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Lactação/fisiologia , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Indústria de Laticínios/instrumentação , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Feminino , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/anatomia & histologia , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/patologia , Leite/metabolismo , Ultrassonografia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA