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1.
Parasite ; 28: 53, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34142955

RESUMO

Taeniasis remains a prevalent public health problem in Thailand. National helminthiasis surveys report only the incidence of Taenia spp. eggs. The ability to differentiate Taenia species using morphological and molecular techniques is vital for epidemiological surveys. This study detected taeniasis carriers and other helminthic infections by Kato's thick smear technique and identified the Taenia species by multiplex PCR. The study subjects were the ethnic Karen people in Tha Song Yang District, Tak Province, Thailand, bordering Myanmar. In total, 983 faecal samples from villagers were examined for helminthiases. Interview-based questionnaires were used to gather information on possible risk factors for infection. The prevalence of helminth infections was 42.7% (420/983), including single (37.3%, 367/983) and mixed infections (5.4%, 53/983). The most common infection (19.23%, 189/983) was Ascaris lumbricoides, whereas taeniasis carriers comprised 2.8% (28/983). Multiplex PCR of Cox1 was used for species identification of Taenia tapeworms, eggs, or both in 22 taeniasis carriers. Most of the parasites (20 cases) were Taenia solium, with two cases of Taenia saginata. Taenia saginata asiatica was not found in the villagers examined. The analysis of 314 completed questionnaires showed that a statistically significant (p < 0.05) risk of taeniasis was correlated with being male, a history of being allowed to forage during childhood, a history of seeing tapeworm proglottids, and a history of raw or undercooked pork consumption. Health education programmes must seek to reduce and prevent reinfection in these communities.


Assuntos
Taenia , Teníase , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Mianmar , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Teníase/epidemiologia , Tailândia/epidemiologia
2.
One Health ; 11: 100191, 2020 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33392380

RESUMO

Toxocariasis is a zoonotic helminthiasis caused by the migrating larvae of Toxocara canis and T. cati, common roundworms of dogs and cats. Our previous study in Savannakhet Province of Lao PDR showed an infection rate of 44.1% of Toxocara spp. in dogs. Thus, we investigate if this previous high prevalence in the definitive hosts influenced the occurrence of human toxocariasis. For that we used a 38 kDa recombinant protein derived from T. canis larvae excretion secretion products in ELISA. Human serum samples were collected in the Lahanam area of Savannakhet province. The population attending the study in Lahanam village were aged from 7 to 59 years old (y/o) 65.9% (54/82) were male and 34.1% (28/82) were female. The total percentage of seropositivity to Toxocara sp. was 30.4% (25/82). Males were more likely to test positive for toxocariasis with a risk ratio of 2.70 (CI95 0.87-4.93). No significant differences between ages were seen. However, it was possible to observe an increase of optical density (OD) values in ELISA according to age. The awareness of the health system on the high prevalence of seropositivity to Toxocara sp. in Savannakhet can prevent irreversible consequences as permanent vision loss and seizures caused by this silent chronic disease revealed in the Lahanam area.

3.
Parasite Epidemiol Control ; 4: e00083, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30662968

RESUMO

The time is passing, and the worms are still a major struggle for local people in Asian countries, especially the less empowered and in a situation of social vulnerability. We are working in the field in Laos, Thailand, and the Philippines where the usual control programs based only on human treatment are partially effective. Areas with mass drug administration could diminish, but not eliminate STHs of endemic areas. The persistence of helminthic NTDs in the environment and animal hosts makes the eradication a very difficult task. Great changes in the landscapes of endemic areas, such as construction of dams, can change the fauna and the lifestyle of local people. Those changes can improve infrastructure, but it can also lead to social vulnerability. The challenge, then, is to conceive new and directed control programs for helminthiasis based on multi- and transdisciplinary approaches diminishing the health gap in a globalized world. In this short review, we summarize the actual scenario concerning the main helminths in Southeast Asia and how an environmental DNA approach and the use of GIS could contribute to surveillance and control programs.

4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(2): e0006260, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29420601

RESUMO

Most part of Southeast Asia is considered endemic for human-infecting Taenia tapeworms; Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica. However, until now there was no report of the occurrence of human cases of T. asiatica in Lao PDR. This study, conducted in Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR, microscopically examined a total of 470 fecal samples by Kato Katz method and found 86% of people harboring at least one helminth. Hookworms were detected in 56% of the samples besides Opisthorchis like eggs (42%), Trichuris trichiura (27%), Ascaris spp. (14%), and Taenia spp. (4%) eggs. Serology for cysticercosis showed 6.8% positives with results varying from 3% to 14.3% in Ethnic School students and Kalouk Kao village respectively. Species-specific PCR targeting mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 28 tapeworms, recovered from 16 patients, revealed T. solium (n = 2), T. saginata (n = 21), and T. asiatica (n = 5). Two patients were confirmed to be coinfected with T. saginata and T. asiatica, indicating the endemicity of the 3 human Taenia in Lao PDR. However, nucleotide sequencing of a nuclear DNA gene, DNA polymerase delta (pold) revealed that all the tapeworms identified as T. asiatica using mtDNA had T. saginata type allele at pold locus, demonstrating that they are not "pure T. asiatica" but the hybrid descendants between the two species, confirming the wide distribution of hybrids of T. saginata/ T. asiatica in Southeast Asia. The high prevalence of several helminthic NTDs in east Savannakhet area even with conventional control measures indicates the importance to establish wide and multifaceted health programs to sustainably improve the quality of life of the populations living in these communities.


Assuntos
Cisticercose/epidemiologia , Doenças Endêmicas , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Taenia/isolamento & purificação , Teníase/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Criança , Cisticercose/sangue , Cisticercose/tratamento farmacológico , Cisticercose/parasitologia , DNA de Helmintos/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Laos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Negligenciadas/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie , Taenia/classificação , Taenia/genética , Taenia/imunologia , Taenia saginata/genética , Taenia saginata/imunologia , Taenia saginata/isolamento & purificação , Taenia solium/genética , Taenia solium/imunologia , Taenia solium/isolamento & purificação , Teníase/parasitologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Acta Parasitol ; 62(2): 393-400, 2017 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28426425

RESUMO

Dogs have been bred since ancient times for companionship, hunting, protection, shepherding and other human activities. Some canine helminth parasites can cause significant clinical diseases in humans as Opisthorchis viverrini causing cholangiocarcinoma in Southeast Asian Countries. In this study, socio-cultural questionnaire, canine parasitological analysis, necropsy, parasite molecular confirmation and dog roaming data were evaluated in Savannakhet, Lao-PDR, a typical Mekong Basin area. Dog owners comprised 48.8% of the studied population, with 61.2% owning one dog, 25.1% 2 dogs, 8.5% 3 dogs and 1.8% owning more than 4 dogs. Data from GPS logger attached to dogs showed they walked from 1.4 to 13.3 km per day, covering an area of 3356.38m2 average, with a routine of accessing water sources. Thirteen zoonotic helminth species were observed. Causative agents of visceral and cutaneous larva migrans occurred in 44.1% and 70% of the samples respectively. Spirometra erinaceieuropaei was detected in 44.1% of samples. Importantly, O. viverrini was found in 8.8% of samples. Besides the known importance of dogs in the transmission of Ancylostoma spp., Toxocara spp. and S. erinaceieuropaei, the observed roaming pattern of dogs confirmed it as an important host perpetuating O. viverrini in endemic areas; their routine access to waterbodies may spread O. viverrini eggs in a favorable environment for the fluke development, facilitating the infection of fishes, and consequently infecting humans living in the same ecosystem. Therefore, parasitic NTDs control programs in humans should be done in parallel with parasite control in animals, especially dogs, in the Mekong River basin area.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Helmintíase/parasitologia , População Rural , Zoonoses , Animais , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/transmissão , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/transmissão , Humanos , Vale do Mecom/epidemiologia , Rios
6.
Korean J Parasitol ; 54(4): 543-7, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27658609

RESUMO

In the present study, we report on the occurrence of paramphistomes, Fischoederius cobboldi and Paramphistomum epiclitum, in Lao PDR with the basis of molecular data. Parasite materials were collected from bovines bred in Ban Lahanam area, Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR at Lahanam public market. Morphological observations indicated 2 different species of paramphistomes. The mitochondrial gene cox1 of the specimens was successfully amplified by PCR and DNA sequencing was carried out for diagnosis of 11 specimens. Pairwise alignment of cox1 sequences were performed and confirmed F. cobboldi and P. epiclitum infecting bovines in Laos. Although there were many limiting points, as the small number of worm samples, and the restricted access of the animal host materials, we confirmed for the first time that 2 species of paramphistomes, F. cobboldi and P. epiclitum, are distributed in Lao PDR. More studies are needed to confirm the paramphistome species present in Savannakhet and its hosts to clear the natural history of these parasites of ruminants in the region and measure the impact of this parasite infection in the life and health of the local people.


Assuntos
Parasitologia de Alimentos , Paramphistomatidae/isolamento & purificação , Rúmen/parasitologia , Animais , Bovinos , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Laos , Microscopia , Paramphistomatidae/anatomia & histologia , Paramphistomatidae/classificação , Paramphistomatidae/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
7.
Trop Med Health ; 44: 5, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27398064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Third (infective)-stage Gnathostoma spinigerum larvae (L3) mainly cause human gnathostomiasis. G. spinigerum L3 migrate throughout the subcutaneous tissues, vital organs, and central nervous system and can cause various pathogenesis including sudden death. Interestingly, G. spinigerum L3 can survive and evade host cellular immunity for months or years. The effects of G. spinigerum excretory-secretory (ES) products involved in larval migration and immune-evasive strategies are unknown. Monocytes are innate immune cells that act as phagocytic and antigen-presenting cells and also play roles against helminthic infections via a complex interplay between other immune cells. Fc gamma receptor I (FcγRI) is a high-affinity receptor that is particularly expressed on monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. The cross-linking of FcγRI and antigen-antibody complex initiates signal transduction cascades in phagocytosis, cytokine production, and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). This study investigated whether ES antigen (ESA) from G. spinigerum L3 affects monocyte functions. RESULTS: Cultures of normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) separated from healthy buffy coats were used as a human immune cell model. ESA was prepared from G. spinigerum L3 culture. Using Real-Time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), the effect of ESA to down-regulate FcγRI mRNA expression in monocytes during 90 min of observation was not well delineated. Flow cytometry analysis revealed a significant phenotypic-decreased FcγRI expression on the monocyte surface at 12 hours (h) of cultivation with the ESA (p = 0.033). Significantly reduced monocyte-mediated phagocytosis capacity was consistently observed after 12 h of ESA pretreatment (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that G. spinigerum ESA modulates monocyte function via depletion of FcγRI expression. This study provides preliminary information for future in-depth studies to elucidate mechanisms of the immune-evasive strategy of G. spinigerum larvae.

8.
Glob Health Action ; 8: 29106, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26689458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction recommended the implementation of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, which aims to achieve substantial risk reduction and to avoid various disaster-associated losses, including human lives and livelihoods, based on the lessons from the implementation of the Hyogo framework. However, the recommendations did not lay enough stress on the school and the Safe School Concept, which are the core components of a disaster response. OBJECTIVE: To raise the issue of the importance of schools in disaster response. RESULTS: For human capacity building to avoid the damage caused by natural disasters, we should focus on the function of schools in the community and on school health framework. Schools perform a range of functions, which include being a landmark place for evacuation, acting as a participatory education hub among communities (students are usually from the surrounding communities), and being a sustainable source of current disaster-related information. In 2007, the Bangkok Action Agenda (BAA) on school education and disaster risk reduction (DRR) recommended the integration of DRR into education policy development, the enhancement of participatory mechanisms to improve DRR education, and the extension of DRR education from schools to communities. Based on our discussion and the recommendations of the BAA, we suggest that our existing challenges are to construct a repository of disaster-related lessons, develop training materials based on current information drawn from previous disasters, and disseminate the training to schools and communities. CONCLUSIONS: Schools linked with school health can provide good opportunities for DRR with a focus on development of school health policy and a community-oriented participatory approach.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Fortalecimento Institucional/métodos , Planejamento em Saúde Comunitária , Abrigo de Emergência/organização & administração , Saúde Global , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Tailândia
9.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 23(1): 80-4, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24728365

RESUMO

Trichostrongylids infection has gained significant public health importance since Trichostrongylus spp. infections have been reported in humans in Lao PDR. In this study, gastrointestinal nematodes were identified and the intensity of infections was determined in goats and cattle, which are animals greatly used for meat production in Lahanam Village, Lao PDR. The total number of goats and bovines was 23 and 29, respectively, pertaining to 32 households surveyed in the area. Feacal samples were randomly collected from 14 goats and 11 bovines. Ninety three percent (13/14) of goats and 36% (3/11) of cattle were infected, with an average of 1,728 and 86 eggs per gram of faeces (EPG), respectively. Coproculture showed Trichostrongylus spp. (goats 16%; bovines 48%), Haemonchus spp. (goats 69%; bovines 37%), Cooperia spp. (bovines 8%) and Oesophagostomum spp. (goats 15%; bovines 6%). After performing the necropsy on an adult goat, Trichuris spp. was also found. We confirmed the presence of Oesophagostomum spp., H. contortus and T. colubriformis by morphology and DNA sequencing analysis of the ITS region of rDNA. Due to interactions between humans and goats in Lahanam Village and high EPG results, the diagnosis of species and the intensity of gastrointestinal nematode infection in these animals are important public-health issues. Other ruminant parasites, such as Oesophagostomum and Haemonchus, found in caprines and bovines, are reported to be causes of zoonosis and their presence in humans should be investigated in future field surveys in this area.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Clima , Cabras , Laos , Zoonoses
10.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 23(1): 80-84, Jan-Mar/2014. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-707182

RESUMO

Trichostrongylids infection has gained significant public health importance since Trichostrongylus spp. infections have been reported in humans in Lao PDR. In this study, gastrointestinal nematodes were identified and the intensity of infections was determined in goats and cattle, which are animals greatly used for meat production in Lahanam Village, Lao PDR. The total number of goats and bovines was 23 and 29, respectively, pertaining to 32 households surveyed in the area. Feacal samples were randomly collected from 14 goats and 11 bovines. Ninety three percent (13/14) of goats and 36% (3/11) of cattle were infected, with an average of 1,728 and 86 eggs per gram of faeces (EPG), respectively. Coproculture showed Trichostrongylus spp. (goats 16%; bovines 48%), Haemonchus spp. (goats 69%; bovines 37%), Cooperia spp. (bovines 8%) and Oesophagostomum spp. (goats 15%; bovines 6%). After performing the necropsy on an adult goat, Trichuris spp. was also found. We confirmed the presence of Oesophagostomum spp., H. contortus and T. colubriformis by morphology and DNA sequencing analysis of the ITS region of rDNA. Due to interactions between humans and goats in Lahanam Village and high EPG results, the diagnosis of species and the intensity of gastrointestinal nematode infection in these animals are important public-health issues. Other ruminant parasites, such as Oesophagostomum and Haemonchus, found in caprines and bovines, are reported to be causes of zoonosis and their presence in humans should be investigated in future field surveys in this area.


Infecção por tricostrongilídeos ganhou significativa importância para a saúde pública, desde que infecções por Trichostrongylus spp. foram relatadas em humanos no Laos. Neste estudo, determinou-se a intensidade de verminoses gastrintestinais em caprinos e bovinos, importantes animais de produção na região de Lahanam Village, RPD do Laos. O número total de caprinos e bovinos foi 23 e 29, respectivamente, nas 32 famílias estudadas. Amostras de fezes foram coletadas, aleatoriamente, de 14 caprinos e 11 bovinos. Noventa e três por cento (13/14) dos caprinos e 36% (3/11) dos bovinos encontraram-se parasitados, com uma média de 1728 e 86 ovos por grama de fezes (OPG), respectivamente. Pela coprocultura, identificou-se Trichostrongylus spp. (caprinos 16%; bovinos48%), Haemonchus spp. (caprinos 69%; bovinos 37%), Cooperia spp. (bovinos 8%) e Oesophagostomum spp. (caprinos 15%; bovinos 6%). A necropsia de um caprino registrou também a presença de formas adultas de Trichuris spp. Morfologicamente e por análise do sequenciamento da região ITS do rDNA, foi confirmada a presença de Oesophagostomum spp., H. contortus e T. colubriformis. Devido às interações entre seres humanos e caprinos, em Lahanam Village, o alto OPG demonstrando o grau elevado de infecção por nematóides gastrintestinais nesses animais e a comprovação de espécies causadoras de zoonoses, aponta-se uma importante questão de saúde pública. Outros parasitos de ruminantes, como Oesophagostomum e Haemonchus, encontrados nos caprinos e bovinos estudados, são também relatados como agentes de zoonose, e sua presença em seres humanos deve ser investigada em futuras pesquisas de campo no local.


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Clima , Cabras , Laos , Zoonoses
12.
Parasitology ; 140(13): 1595-601, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24112449

RESUMO

Partial sequences of the DNA polymerase delta (pold) gene from Taenia saginata-like adult worms were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that pold gene sequences were clearly divided into two clades, differing from each other in five to seven nucleotides. There is little doubt that T. saginata and Taenia asiatica were once separated into two distinct taxa as has been concluded in previous studies. On the other hand, most of the adult worms, which were identified as T. asiatica using mitochondrial DNA, were homozygous for an allele that originated from the allele of T. saginata via single nucleotide substitution. These results indicate that most of the adult worms, which had been called T. asiatica, are not actually 'pure T. asiatica' but instead originated from the hybridization of 'pure T. saginata' and 'pure T. asiatica'.


Assuntos
DNA Polimerase III/genética , DNA de Helmintos/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Genótipo , Taenia saginata/genética , Taenia/genética , Alelos , Animais , Quimera/genética , DNA Polimerase III/classificação , DNA de Helmintos/classificação , DNA Mitocondrial/classificação , Homozigoto , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Taenia/classificação , Teníase/parasitologia
13.
Acta Trop ; 126(1): 37-42, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23318934

RESUMO

There have been few studies on human trichostrongyliasis in Southeast Asia, information on its clinical manifestations is also sparse. Trichostrongyliasis occurs predominantly in areas where poor hygiene is common especially where human/animal feces are used as a fertilizer, thereby contaminating vegetables and stream water. The intimate coexistence of domestic animals and humans explains the prevalence of Trichostrongylus infection in such areas. The goal of the current study was to determine the prevalence of trichostrongyliasis among villagers in Thakamrien village, Sonkon district, Savannakhet province, Laos, and to investigate potential relationships between clinical features, laboratory data, and severity of infection. Of 272 villagers examined, 160 (58.8%) were determined positive for helminthic infections by fecal examination, and 59 (36.9%) of these were infected with Trichostrongylus. Only 58 cases were in the inclusion criteria of the study and then underwent further assessment, including a questionnaire on personal behaviors, physical examination, and laboratory tests. Villagers in the trichostrongyliasis group were more likely than the control group to have consumed fresh vegetables, not washed their hands before meals or after using the toilet, and to have had close contact with herbivorous animals (goats and cows). Similarly, villagers in the trichostrongyliasis group were more likely than the control group to have a history of loose feces, rash, or abdominal pain; however, no obvious clinical symptoms were observed during physical examination of the trichostrongyliasis patients. The degree of infection was determined by both fecal egg counts and quantification of adult worms after deworming. Laboratory data were evaluated for any relationship with severity of infection. No significant differences were found in laboratory values between the trichostrongyliasis and control groups, with most values being within normal limits; however, both groups had high eosinophil counts. This study demonstrated that the useful clinical characteristics of trichostrongyliasis patients include history of loose feces, rashes, and abdominal pain, as well as in personal behaviors, such as the regular consumption of fresh vegetables, lack of hand washing, and close contact with cattle.


Assuntos
Tricostrongilose/epidemiologia , Tricostrongilose/patologia , Trichostrongylus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Criança , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Laos/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Parasitol Int ; 61(1): 90-3, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21740979

RESUMO

Superfamily Opisthorchioidea Looss, 1899 consists of three well-known families, Opisthorchiidae, Heterophyidae, and Cryptogonimidae, with basic similarities in morphology and life-cycles. Many species in the first two of these families are human pathogens, such as Opisthorchis viverrini, O. felineus, Clonorchis sinensis, Haplorchis spp. and Metagonimus spp. Recently, a molecular phylogenetic study on the classification of Digenea revealed a paraphyletic relationship between Opisthorchiidae and Heterophyidae. For our study, we gathered and analyzed all available data in GenBank, together with new data of nuclear 18S ribosomal DNA and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequences of the families within the Opisthorchioidea. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses suggested that families Opisthorchiidae and Heterophyidae are inseparable from each other, with the former nested within the latter. Groupings in molecular trees are generally consistent with morphological features used in taxonomy.


Assuntos
DNA de Helmintos/genética , Heterophyidae/classificação , Heterophyidae/genética , Opisthorchidae/classificação , Opisthorchidae/genética , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Funções Verossimilhança , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Trematódeos/classificação , Trematódeos/genética
15.
Parasitol Int ; 60(4): 503-6, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21946336

RESUMO

Six species of heterophyid intestinal flukes (HIFs) constitute the major endemic zoonotic fish-borne pathogens in Asia: Haplorchis taichui, H. pumilio, H. yokogawai, Procerovum varium, Stellantchasmus falcatus, and Centrocestus formosanus. Several different species of these parasites are often found co-infecting the same second intermediate fish host. Because of their morphological similarities, differentiating between species of HIF metacercariae is difficult, time-consuming, and frequently results in misidentification. In this study, we aimed to develop an efficient and accurate method of identifying metacercariae of these 6 HIFs. Metacercariae were roughly grouped together, based on morphological characteristics seen under a stereomicroscope. Then, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to identify the exact species of each metacercaria, using the 28S ribosomal RNA gene as the genetic marker and MboII as the restriction enzyme. Using a combination of morphological and molecular methods eliminates the need for DNA sequencing and infecting animal subjects to obtain adult worms, increases accuracy, and decreases the need for laborious morphological identification. Because the method is simple, rapid, and relatively cheap compared with PCR-sequencing, it may be an effective tool for epidemiological studies of HIFs in endemic areas.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/diagnóstico , Heterophyidae/genética , Intestinos/parasitologia , Metacercárias/genética , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Infecções por Trematódeos/diagnóstico , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária , Animais , Ásia/epidemiologia , Desoxirribonucleases de Sítio Específico do Tipo II/genética , Desoxirribonucleases de Sítio Específico do Tipo II/metabolismo , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peixes , Água Doce/parasitologia , Heterophyidae/classificação , Heterophyidae/isolamento & purificação , Heterophyidae/patogenicidade , Humanos , Metacercárias/classificação , Metacercárias/isolamento & purificação , Metacercárias/patogenicidade , Microscopia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , RNA Ribossômico 28S/análise , RNA Ribossômico 28S/genética , Infecções por Trematódeos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia
16.
J Parasitol ; 97(6): 1152-8, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21682557

RESUMO

Metacercariae, morphologically similar to those of small liver flukes, were found to parasitize red-tailed snakehead fish, Channa limbata, collected from the city of Vientiane, Lao People's Democratic Republic. Adult worms that were recovered from experimentally-infected hamsters showed characteristics distinctly different from Opisthorchis viverrini, but closely similar to Opisthorchis lobatus, which was first reported in poultry (Anas sp.) from Pakistan. The present study aimed to redescribe O. lobatus based on the adult worms recovered from experimentally-infected hamsters. Additionally, it aimed to document the genetic relationships among O. lobatus and other opisthorchiid liver flukes using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene and the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region. DNA alignment of the O. lobatus and O. viverrini COI partial sequences (330 bp) showed 3.03% fixed differences (2.72% of amino acids changed) while the ITS2 region (350 bp) indicated a 0.86% difference for nucleotides. Species boundaries between the 2 parasites were determined by neighbor-joining analysis using the molecular sequence data. The phenogram confirmed that O. lobatus was distinctly different from O. viverrini, representing the first reported instance of O. lobatus in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) and the first record of C. limbata as the second intermediate host of a small liver fluke. Questions regarding human infection and the extent of the geographic distribution of these species should be investigated further.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Opistorquíase/veterinária , Opisthorchis/isolamento & purificação , Perciformes/parasitologia , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , Cricetinae , DNA de Helmintos/química , DNA Intergênico/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Água Doce , Laos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Músculos/parasitologia , Opistorquíase/parasitologia , Opisthorchis/anatomia & histologia , Opisthorchis/classificação , Opisthorchis/genética
17.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 84(1): 52-4, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21212201

RESUMO

In Lahanam Village, Savannakhet Province, Laos, 125 of 253 villagers (49.4%) were found by fecal examination to harbor hookworm eggs. The eggs were heterogeneous in morphology and size, suggesting infections of mixed nematode species. To confirm the hookworm egg species, on a voluntary basis, 46 hookworm egg-positive participants were treated with albendazole, and post-treatment adult worms were collected from purged fecal samples. The common human hookworm was found in only 3 participants; 1 case of Necator americanus, and 2 cases of Ancylostoma duodenale. In contrast, adult Trichostrongylus worms were expelled from most participants (43 of 46, 93.5%). The Trichostrongylus species were confirmed by morphology and internal transcribed spacer 2 sequences; all worms were of the same species (T. colubriformis). In addition, some Trichostrongylus worms were obtained from a goat in the same village and identified as T. colubriformis. The results suggested that T. colubriformis was the main zoonotic species causing hookworm infections in the village.


Assuntos
Tricostrongilose/epidemiologia , Trichostrongylus/classificação , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Humanos , Laos/epidemiologia , Masculino , Filogenia , População Rural , Tricostrongilose/tratamento farmacológico , Tricostrongilose/parasitologia , Trichostrongylus/genética , Trichostrongylus/isolamento & purificação
18.
Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health ; 42(5): 1065-71, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22299430

RESUMO

Sixty-eight residents of Ban Luang and Ban Pang Kae villages, in Nan Province, northern Thailand, visited our mobile field station in September 2006 and March 2007, seeking treatment for taeniasis. After treatment, 22 cases discharged tapeworm strobila in their fecal samples and 17 scolices were recovered. Among these, 3 were morphologically abnormal, with six suckers on the scolex. To confirm the species of these tapeworms, the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene was used as a molecular marker. The partial COI sequences (800 bp) of the abnormal tapeworms were identical to the sequences of Taenia saginata deposited in Genbank.


Assuntos
Fezes/parasitologia , Taenia saginata/genética , Teníase/parasitologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Feminino , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Carne/parasitologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taenia saginata/parasitologia , Tailândia/epidemiologia
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22299459

RESUMO

A 24 kDa protein from advanced third stage Gnathostoma spinigerum larvae (GsAL3) is used for gnathostomiasis serodiagnosis. This study investigated whether partially purified protein antigen (Ag) from GsAL3 (Gnath Ag), prepared by simple gel filtration chromatography, could be used for serodiagnosis. Using DNA microarray analysis, significant gene expression related to immunoreactivity was examined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) cocultured with Gnath Ag. Antigenicity was then determined by its capacity to induce antibody production among purified naive B cells stimulated with Gnath Ag and anti-CD40. Seven and 14 days post-exposure, immunoglobulin levels (Igs) in culture supernatants were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The Gnath Ag stimulated PBMC had a significant increase in gene expression related to an innate immune response and decreased cell mediated immunity, but the expression of gene related antibody production was not markedly increased. The Gnath Ag stimulated naive B cells or lipopolysaccharide primed B cells to produce low levels of specific antibody. Our findings support the assertion that partially purified Gnath Ag possess low antigenicity for Ig induction. Further studies are needed to improve G. spinigerum larva Ag for serodiagnosis.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/biossíntese , Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Gnathostoma/imunologia , Animais , Formação de Anticorpos , Antígenos de Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura , Regulação para Baixo , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunidade Celular/genética , Imunidade Inata/genética , Imunoglobulina G/biossíntese , Imunoglobulina M/biossíntese , Larva/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Testes Sorológicos , Regulação para Cima
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22299460

RESUMO

Hookworm infection is associated with anemia, especially among children and deworming can improve anemic status; however, little information is available about the degree to which anemia improves after deworming. We chose hookworm-endemic rural areas of Thailand, Nan Province in the north, Kanchanaburi Province in the west and Nakhon Si Thammarat Province in the south, to evaluate this problem. Subjects were selected by primary school-based stool egg examinations. Blood tests of 182 hookworm-positive primary school children, composed of 22 heavy, 65 moderate and 95 light infections, were compared with a control group of 57 children who were helminth-free both before and after receiving deworming medicine. Before deworming, the red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and albumin levels of the hookworm-infected groups were significantly lower than the helminth-free control group. The Hb and Hct levels showed an inverse relationship with intensity of hookworm infection. After deworming, the Hb, Hct, total protein and albumin levels of the hookworm-infected children improved within 2 months to become comparable with the helminth-free control group. One year after deworming, the mean blood test results in the 2 groups were not significantly different from each other.


Assuntos
Anemia/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Uncinaria/tratamento farmacológico , Estado Nutricional , Adolescente , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Anemia/epidemiologia , Anemia/etiologia , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Endêmicas , Feminino , Infecções por Uncinaria/complicações , Infecções por Uncinaria/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Mebendazol/uso terapêutico , Inquéritos Nutricionais , População Rural , Tailândia/epidemiologia
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