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1.
Lancet Respir Med ; 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal lung disease accounting for 1% of UK deaths. In the familial form of pulmonary fibrosis, causal genes have been identified in about 30% of cases, and a majority of these causal genes are associated with telomere maintenance. Prematurely shortened leukocyte telomere length is associated with IPF and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a disease with similar demographics and shared risk factors. Using mendelian randomisation, we investigated evidence supporting a causal role for short telomeres in IPF and COPD. METHODS: Mendelian randomisation inference of telomere length causality was done for IPF (up to 1369 cases) and COPD (13 538 cases) against 435 866 controls of European ancestry in UK Biobank. Polygenic risk scores were calculated and two-sample mendelian randomisation analyses were done using seven genetic variants previously associated with telomere length, with replication analysis in an IPF cohort (2668 cases vs 8591 controls) and COPD cohort (15 256 cases vs 47 936 controls). FINDINGS: In the UK Biobank, a genetically instrumented one-SD shorter telomere length was associated with higher odds of IPF (odds ratio [OR] 4·19, 95% CI 2·33-7·55; p=0·0031) but not COPD (1·07, 0·88-1·30; p=0·51). Similarly, an association was found in the IPF replication cohort (12·3, 5·05-30·1; p=0·0015) and not in the COPD replication cohort (1·04, 0·71-1·53; p=0·83). Meta-analysis of the two-sample mendelian randomisation results provided evidence inferring that shorter telomeres cause IPF (5·81 higher odds of IPF, 95% CI 3·56-9·50; p=2·19 × 10-12). There was no evidence to infer that telomere length caused COPD (OR 1·07, 95% CI 0·90-1·27; p=0·46). INTERPRETATION: Cellular senescence is hypothesised as a major driving force in IPF and COPD; telomere shortening might be a contributory factor in IPF, suggesting divergent mechanisms in COPD. Defining a key role for telomere shortening enables greater focus in telomere-related diagnostics, treatments, and the search for a cure in IPF. Investigation of therapies that improve telomere length is warranted. FUNDING: Medical Research Council.

4.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106845

RESUMO

Risk for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is determined by both cigarette smoking and genetic susceptibility, but little is known about gene-by-smoking interactions. We performed a genome-wide association analysis of 179,689 controls and 21,077 COPD cases from UK Biobank subjects of European ancestry recruited from 2006 to 2010, considering genetic main effects and gene-by-smoking interaction effects simultaneously (2-degree-of-freedom test) as well as interaction effects alone (1-degree-of-freedom interaction test). We sought to replicate significant results in the COPDGene study and SpiroMeta Consortium. We considered two smoking variables: (1) ever/never and (2) current/non-current. In the 1-degree-of-freedom interaction test, we identified one genome-wide significant locus on 15q25.1 (CHRNB4) for ever- and current-smoking and identified PI*Z allele (rs28929474) of SERPINA1 for ever-smoking and 3q26.2 (MECOM) for current-smoking in an analysis of previously reported COPD loci. In the 2-degree-of-freedom test, most of the significant signals were also significant for genetic marginal effects, aside from 16q22.1 (SMPD3) and 19q13.2 (EGLN2). The significant effects at 15q25.1 and 19q13.2 loci, both previously described in prior genome-wide association studies of COPD or smoking, were replicated in the COPDGene and SpiroMeta. We identified interaction effects at previously reported COPD loci, however, we failed to identify novel susceptibility loci.

5.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 50(12): 1391-1399, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying early stages of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is hampered by variable presentation, heterogeneous or undetected causal antigens and lack of gold-standard biomarkers. Krebs von den Lungen (KL)-6 is pathophysiological biomarker of alveolar epithelial damage. Pigeon fanciers, susceptible to HP, provide a model to investigate early HP. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that plasma concentrations of KL-6 are increased in early-stage acute HP. METHODS: Clinical history, spirometry and blood samples were obtained from pigeon fanciers, 20 with intermittent acute symptoms indicative of developing HP, 27 with no symptoms and 10 healthy subjects with no avian exposure. Plasma KL-6 (units/mL) and pigeon antigen-specific IgG antibody were quantified by enzyme immunoassay. Blood lymphocytes were quantified by flow cytometry and antigen specificity by in vitro cytokine production. RESULTS: KL-6 was higher in fanciers than controls, median (IQR) 452 (244, 632) vs 274 (151, 377), P = .01. Although fanciers with symptoms had similar antigen exposure and lung function, they had higher KL-6 than those without, 632 (468, 1314) vs 320 (200, 480), P < .001. KL-6 correlated with IgG antibody titre in those with symptoms, r = .591, P = .006. High KL-6, irrespective of symptom category, was associated with higher antibody (P = .006) and lymphocyte proliferation (P = .041), and lower CD4+ T lymphocyte proportion (P = .032). CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Raised KL-6 is associated with acute symptoms of early-stage HP, and its correlation with antibody may support therapeutic strategies when HP is suspected. KL-6 may act as a mechanistic biomarker of early pathogenesis by linking lung pathophysiological changes with an endotype of immune hypersensitivity.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is a complex disease with multiple phenotypes that may differ in disease pathobiology and treatment response. IL33 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reproducibly associated with asthma. IL33 levels are elevated in sputum and bronchial biopsies of patients with asthma. The functional consequences of IL33 asthma SNPs remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine whether IL33 SNPs associate with asthma-related phenotypes and with IL33 expression in lung or bronchial epithelium. This study investigated the effect of increased IL33 expression on human bronchial epithelial cell (HBEC) function. METHODS: Association between IL33 SNPs (Chr9: 5,815,786-6,657,983) and asthma phenotypes (Lifelines/DAG [Dutch Asthma GWAS]/GASP [Genetics of Asthma Severity & Phenotypes] cohorts) and between SNPs and expression (lung tissue, bronchial brushes, HBECs) was done using regression modeling. Lentiviral overexpression was used to study IL33 effects on HBECs. RESULTS: We found that 161 SNPs spanning the IL33 region associated with 1 or more asthma phenotypes after correction for multiple testing. We report a main independent signal tagged by rs992969 associating with blood eosinophil levels, asthma, and eosinophilic asthma. A second, independent signal tagged by rs4008366 presented modest association with eosinophilic asthma. Neither signal associated with FEV1, FEV1/forced vital capacity, atopy, and age of asthma onset. The 2 IL33 signals are expression quantitative loci in bronchial brushes and cultured HBECs, but not in lung tissue. IL33 overexpression in vitro resulted in reduced viability and reactive oxygen species-capturing of HBECs, without influencing epithelial cell count, metabolic activity, or barrier function. CONCLUSIONS: We identify IL33 as an epithelial susceptibility gene for eosinophilia and asthma, provide mechanistic insight, and implicate targeting of the IL33 pathway specifically in eosinophilic asthma.

7.
JCI Insight ; 5(8)2020 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324168

RESUMO

The IL1RL1 (ST2) gene locus is robustly associated with asthma; however, the contribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in this locus to specific asthma subtypes and the functional mechanisms underlying these associations remain to be defined. We tested for association between IL1RL1 region SNPs and characteristics of asthma as defined by clinical and immunological measures and addressed functional effects of these genetic variants in lung tissue and airway epithelium. Utilizing 4 independent cohorts (Lifelines, Dutch Asthma GWAS [DAG], Genetics of Asthma Severity and Phenotypes [GASP], and Manchester Asthma and Allergy Study [MAAS]) and resequencing data, we identified 3 key signals associated with asthma features. Investigations in lung tissue and primary bronchial epithelial cells identified context-dependent relationships between the signals and IL1RL1 mRNA and soluble protein expression. This was also observed for asthma-associated IL1RL1 nonsynonymous coding TIR domain SNPs. Bronchial epithelial cell cultures from asthma patients, exposed to exacerbation-relevant stimulations, revealed modulatory effects for all 4 signals on IL1RL1 mRNA and/or protein expression, suggesting SNP-environment interactions. The IL1RL1 TIR signaling domain haplotype affected IL-33-driven NF-κB signaling, while not interfering with TLR signaling. In summary, we identify that IL1RL1 genetic signals potentially contribute to severe and eosinophilic phenotypes in asthma, as well as provide initial mechanistic insight, including genetic regulation of IL1RL1 isoform expression and receptor signaling.

8.
Clin Rheumatol ; 39(4): 1173-1179, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916109

RESUMO

Although several genetic associations with scleroderma (SSc) are defined, very little is known on genetic susceptibility to SSc-associated interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD). A number of common polymorphisms have been associated with SSc-ILD, but most have not been replicated in separate populations. Four SNPs in IRF5, and one in each of STAT4, CD226 and IRAK1, selected as having been previously the most consistently associated with SSc-ILD, were genotyped in 612 SSc patients, of European descent, of whom 394 had ILD. The control population (n = 503) comprised individuals of European descent from the 1000 Genomes Project. After Bonferroni correction, two of the IRF5 SNPs, rs2004640 (OR (95% CI)1.30 (1.10-1.54), pcorr = 0.015) and rs10488631 (OR 1.48 (1.14-1.92), pcorr = 0.022), and the STAT4 SNP rs7574865 (OR 1.43 (1.18-1.73), pcorr = 0.0015) were significantly associated with SSc compared with controls. However, none of the SNPs were significantly different between patients with SSc-ILD and controls. Two SNPs in IRF5, rs10488631 (OR 1.72 (1.24-2.39), pcorr = 0.0098), and rs2004640 (OR 1.39 (1.11-1.75), pcorr = 0.03), showed a significant difference in allele frequency between controls and patients without ILD, as did STAT4 rs7574865 (OR 1.86 (1.45-2.38), pcorr = 6.6 × 10-6). A significant difference between SSc with and without ILD was only observed for STAT4 rs7574865, being less frequent in patients with ILD (OR 0.66 (0.51-0.85), pcorr = 0.0084). In conclusion, IRF5 rs2004640 and rs10488631, and STAT4 rs7574865 were significantly associated with SSc as a whole. Only STAT4 rs7574865 showed a significant difference in allele frequency in SSc-ILD, with the T allele being protective against ILD.Key points• We confirm the associations of the IRF5 SNPs rs2004640 and rs10488631, and the STAT4 SNP rs7574865, with SSc as a whole.• None of the tested SNPs were risk factors for SSc-ILD specifically.• The STAT4 rs7574865 T allele was protective against the development of lung fibrosis in SSc patients.• Further work is required to understand the genetic basis of lung fibrosis in association with scleroderma.

9.
Cell ; 179(4): 984-1002.e36, 2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675503

RESUMO

Genomic studies in African populations provide unique opportunities to understand disease etiology, human diversity, and population history. In the largest study of its kind, comprising genome-wide data from 6,400 individuals and whole-genome sequences from 1,978 individuals from rural Uganda, we find evidence of geographically correlated fine-scale population substructure. Historically, the ancestry of modern Ugandans was best represented by a mixture of ancient East African pastoralists. We demonstrate the value of the largest sequence panel from Africa to date as an imputation resource. Examining 34 cardiometabolic traits, we show systematic differences in trait heritability between European and African populations, probably reflecting the differential impact of genes and environment. In a multi-trait pan-African GWAS of up to 14,126 individuals, we identify novel loci associated with anthropometric, hematological, lipid, and glycemic traits. We find that several functionally important signals are driven by Africa-specific variants, highlighting the value of studying diverse populations across the region.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano/genética , Genômica , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Uganda/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
10.
Science ; 365(6460): 1409-1413, 2019 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604268

RESUMO

Translational genomics aims to improve human health by building on discoveries made through genetics research and applying them in the clinical setting. This progress has been made possible by technological advances in genomics and analytics and by the digital revolution. Such advances should enable the development of prognostic markers, tailored interventions, and the design of prophylactic preventive approaches. We are at the cusp of predicting disease risk for some disorders by means of polygenic risk scores integrated with classical epidemiological risk factors. This should lead to better risk stratification and clinical decision-making. A deeper understanding of the link between genome-wide sequence and association with well-characterized phenotypes will empower the development of biomarkers to aid diagnosis, inform disease progression trajectories, and allow better targeting of treatments to those patients most likely to respond.


Assuntos
Doença/genética , Genômica , Medicina de Precisão , Pesquisa Médica Translacional , Biomarcadores , Descoberta de Drogas , Genética Populacional , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Herança Multifatorial , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco
12.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 200(11): 1402-1413, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339356

RESUMO

Rationale: Interstitial lung abnormalities (ILAs) are associated with the highest genetic risk locus for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF); however, the extent to which there are unique associations among individuals with ILAs or additional overlap with IPF is not known.Objectives: To perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of ILAs.Methods: ILAs and a subpleural-predominant subtype were assessed on chest computed tomography (CT) scans in the AGES (Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility), COPDGene (Genetic Epidemiology of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease [COPD]), Framingham Heart, ECLIPSE (Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate End-points), MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis), and SPIROMICS (Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study) studies. We performed a GWAS of ILAs in each cohort and combined the results using a meta-analysis. We assessed for overlapping associations in independent GWASs of IPF.Measurements and Main Results: Genome-wide genotyping data were available for 1,699 individuals with ILAs and 10,274 control subjects. The MUC5B (mucin 5B) promoter variant rs35705950 was significantly associated with both ILAs (P = 2.6 × 10-27) and subpleural ILAs (P = 1.6 × 10-29). We discovered novel genome-wide associations near IPO11 (rs6886640, P = 3.8 × 10-8) and FCF1P3 (rs73199442, P = 4.8 × 10-8) with ILAs, and near HTRE1 (rs7744971, P = 4.2 × 10-8) with subpleural-predominant ILAs. These novel associations were not associated with IPF. Among 12 previously reported IPF GWAS loci, five (DPP9, DSP, FAM13A, IVD, and MUC5B) were significantly associated (P < 0.05/12) with ILAs.Conclusions: In a GWAS of ILAs in six studies, we confirmed the association with a MUC5B promoter variant and found strong evidence for an effect of previously described IPF loci; however, novel ILA associations were not associated with IPF. These findings highlight common genetically driven biologic pathways between ILAs and IPF, and also suggest distinct ones.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/genética , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucina-5B/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Proteínas Semelhantes à Proteína de Ligação a TATA-Box , beta Carioferinas/genética
13.
ERJ Open Res ; 5(2)2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31205927

RESUMO

Background: Specific common and rare single nucleotide variants (SNVs) increase the likelihood of developing sporadic idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We performed target-enriched sequencing on three loci previously identified by a genome-wide association study to gain a deeper understanding of the full spectrum of IPF genetic risk and performed a two-stage case-control association study. Methods: A total of 1.7 Mb of DNA from 181 IPF patients was deep sequenced (>100×) across 11p15.5, 14q21.3 and 17q21.31 loci. Comparisons were performed against 501 unrelated controls and replication studies were assessed in 3968 subjects. Results: 36 SNVs were associated with IPF susceptibility in the discovery stage (p<5.0×10-8). After meta-analysis, the strongest association corresponded to rs35705950 (p=9.27×10-57) located upstream from the mucin 5B gene (MUC5B). Additionally, a novel association was found for two co-inherited low-frequency SNVs (<5%) in MUC5AC, predicting a missense amino acid change in mucin 5AC (lowest p=2.27×10-22). Conditional and haplotype analyses in 11p15.5 supported the existence of an additional contribution of MUC5AC variants to IPF risk. Conclusions: This study reinforces the significant IPF associations of these loci and implicates MUC5AC as another key player in IPF susceptibility.

15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1561, 2019 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952951

RESUMO

Following numerous genome-wide association studies of disease susceptibility, there is increasing interest in genetic associations with prognosis, survival or other subsequent events. Such associations are vulnerable to index event bias, by which selection of subjects according to disease status creates biased associations if common causes of incidence and prognosis are not accounted for. We propose an adjustment for index event bias using the residuals from the regression of genetic effects on prognosis on genetic effects on incidence. Our approach eliminates this bias when direct genetic effects on incidence and prognosis are independent, and otherwise reduces bias in realistic situations. In a study of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, we reverse a paradoxical association of the strong susceptibility gene MUC5B with increased survival, suggesting instead a significant association with decreased survival. In re-analysis of a study of Crohn's disease prognosis, four regions remain associated at genome-wide significance but with increased standard errors.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Modelos Genéticos , Mucina-5B/genética , Simulação por Computador , Doença de Crohn/epidemiologia , Doença de Crohn/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/epidemiologia , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/genética , Incidência , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Regressão
16.
Lancet Respir Med ; 7(1): 20-34, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30552067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few genetic studies that focus on moderate-to-severe asthma exist. We aimed to identity novel genetic variants associated with moderate-to-severe asthma, see whether previously identified genetic variants for all types of asthma contribute to moderate-to-severe asthma, and provide novel mechanistic insights using expression analyses in patients with asthma. METHODS: In this genome-wide association study, we used a two-stage case-control design. In stage 1, we genotyped patient-level data from two UK cohorts (the Genetics of Asthma Severity and Phenotypes [GASP] initiative and the Unbiased BIOmarkers in PREDiction of respiratory disease outcomes [U-BIOPRED] project) and used data from the UK Biobank to collect patient-level genomic data for cases and controls of European ancestry in a 1:5 ratio. Cases were defined as having moderate-to-severe asthma if they were taking appropriate medication or had been diagnosed by a doctor. Controls were defined as not having asthma, rhinitis, eczema, allergy, emphysema, or chronic bronchitis as diagnosed by a doctor. For stage 2, an independent cohort of cases and controls (1:5) was selected from the UK Biobank only, with no overlap with stage 1 samples. In stage 1 we undertook a genome-wide association study of moderate-to-severe asthma, and in stage 2 we followed up independent variants that reached the significance threshold of p less than 1 × 10-6 in stage 1. We set genome-wide significance at p less than 5 × 10-8. For novel signals, we investigated their effect on all types of asthma (mild, moderate, and severe). For all signals meeting genome-wide significance, we investigated their effect on gene expression in patients with asthma and controls. FINDINGS: We included 5135 cases and 25 675 controls for stage 1, and 5414 cases and 21 471 controls for stage 2. We identified 24 genome-wide significant signals of association with moderate-to-severe asthma, including several signals in innate or adaptive immune-response genes. Three novel signals were identified: rs10905284 in GATA3 (coded allele A, odds ratio [OR] 0·90, 95% CI 0·88-0·93; p=1·76 × 10-10), rs11603634 in the MUC5AC region (coded allele G, OR 1·09, 1·06-1·12; p=2·32 × 10-8), and rs560026225 near KIAA1109 (coded allele GATT, OR 1·12, 1·08-1·16; p=3·06 × 10-9). The MUC5AC signal was not associated with asthma when analyses included mild asthma. The rs11603634 G allele was associated with increased expression of MUC5AC mRNA in bronchial epithelial brush samples via proxy SNP rs11602802; (p=2·50 × 10-5) and MUC5AC mRNA was increased in bronchial epithelial samples from patients with severe asthma (in two independent analyses, p=0·039 and p=0·022). INTERPRETATION: We found substantial shared genetic architecture between mild and moderate-to-severe asthma. We also report for the first time genetic variants associated with the risk of developing moderate-to-severe asthma that regulate mucin production. Finally, we identify candidate causal genes in these loci and provide increased insight into this difficult to treat population. FUNDING: Asthma UK, AirPROM, U-BIOPRED, UK Medical Research Council, and Rosetrees Trust.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Fator de Transcrição GATA3/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mucina-5AC , Proteínas , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
17.
Nat Genet ; 51(1): 51-62, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578418

RESUMO

In this trans-ethnic multi-omic study, we reinterpret the genetic architecture of blood pressure to identify genes, tissues, phenomes and medication contexts of blood pressure homeostasis. We discovered 208 novel common blood pressure SNPs and 53 rare variants in genome-wide association studies of systolic, diastolic and pulse pressure in up to 776,078 participants from the Million Veteran Program (MVP) and collaborating studies, with analysis of the blood pressure clinical phenome in MVP. Our transcriptome-wide association study detected 4,043 blood pressure associations with genetically predicted gene expression of 840 genes in 45 tissues, and mouse renal single-cell RNA sequencing identified upregulated blood pressure genes in kidney tubule cells.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Adolescente , Animais , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Túbulos Renais/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Regulação para Cima/genética
18.
Wellcome Open Res ; 3: 4, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30175238

RESUMO

Background: Over 90 regions of the genome have been associated with lung function to date, many of which have also been implicated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods: We carried out meta-analyses of exome array data and three lung function measures: forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and the ratio of FEV 1 to FVC (FEV 1/FVC). These analyses by the SpiroMeta and CHARGE consortia included 60,749 individuals of European ancestry from 23 studies, and 7,721 individuals of African Ancestry from 5 studies in the discovery stage, with follow-up in up to 111,556 independent individuals. Results: We identified significant (P<2·8x10 -7) associations with six SNPs: a nonsynonymous variant in RPAP1, which is predicted to be damaging, three intronic SNPs ( SEC24C, CASC17 and UQCC1) and two intergenic SNPs near to LY86 and FGF10. Expression quantitative trait loci analyses found evidence for regulation of gene expression at three signals and implicated several genes, including TYRO3 and PLAU. Conclusions: Further interrogation of these loci could provide greater understanding of the determinants of lung function and pulmonary disease.

19.
Eur Respir J ; 52(5)2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30093573

RESUMO

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disease of women. Decline in lung function is variable, making appropriate targeting of therapy difficult. We used unbiased serum proteomics to identify markers associated with outcome in LAM.101 women with LAM and 22 healthy controls were recruited from the National Centre for LAM in the UK. 152 DNA and serum samples with linked lung function and outcome data were obtained from patients in the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute LAM Registry in the USA. Proteomic analysis was performed on a discovery cohort of 50 LAM and 20 control serum samples using a SCIEX SWATH mass spectrometric workflow. Protein levels were quantitated by ELISA and single nucleotide polymorphisms in GC (group-specific component) encoding vitamin D binding protein (VTDB) were genotyped.Proteomic analysis showed VTDB was 2.6-fold lower in LAM than controls. Serum VTDB was lower in progressive compared with stable LAM (p=0.001) and correlated with diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (p=0.01). Median time to death or lung transplant was reduced by 46 months in those with CC genotypes at rs4588 and 38 months in those with non-A-containing haplotypes at rs7041/4588 (p=0.014 and 0.008, respectively).The VTDB axis is associated with disease severity and outcome, and GC genotype could help predict transplant-free survival in LAM.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Linfangioleiomiomatose/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteína de Ligação a Vitamina D/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Haplótipos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Transplante de Pulmão , Linfangioleiomiomatose/sangue , Linfangioleiomiomatose/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteômica , Análise de Sobrevida , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos , Proteína de Ligação a Vitamina D/sangue
20.
Wellcome Open Res ; 3: 13, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29682616

RESUMO

Background: The CCL3L1-CCR5 signaling axis is important in a number of inflammatory responses, including macrophage function, and T-cell-dependent immune responses. Small molecule CCR5 antagonists exist, including the approved antiretroviral drug maraviroc, and therapeutic monoclonal antibodies are in development. Repositioning of drugs and targets into new disease areas can accelerate the availability of new therapies and substantially reduce costs. As it has been shown that drug targets with genetic evidence supporting their involvement in the disease are more likely to be successful in clinical development, using genetic association studies to identify new target repurposing opportunities could be fruitful. Here we investigate the potential of perturbation of the CCL3L1-CCR5 axis as treatment for respiratory disease. Europeans typically carry between 0 and 5 copies of CCL3L1 and this multi-allelic variation is not detected by widely used genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism studies.  Methods: We directly measured the complex structural variation of CCL3L1 using the Paralogue Ratio Test and imputed (with validation) CCR5del32 genotypes in 5,000 individuals from UK Biobank, selected from the extremes of the lung function distribution, and analysed DNA and RNAseq data for CCL3L1 from the 1000 Genomes Project. Results: We confirmed the gene dosage effect of CCL3L1 copy number on CCL3L1 mRNA expression levels.  We found no evidence for association of CCL3L1 copy number or CCR5del32 genotype with lung function. Conclusions: These results suggest that repositioning CCR5 antagonists is unlikely to be successful for the treatment of airflow obstruction.

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