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1.
J Psychiatr Pract ; 28(3): 184-192, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511094

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The loss of a patient to suicide has an enormous impact on clinicians, but few studies have examined its effects. METHOD: In this retrospective study, we compared clinicians who have and have not experienced a patient suicide using a survey of 2157 outpatient clinicians from 169 New York clinics to determine differences in their suicide prevention knowledge, practices, training, and self-efficacy. RESULTS: Approximately 25% of the clinician respondents lost patients to suicide; psychiatrists, nurses/nurse practitioners, and those with more years of experience were disproportionately affected. After controlling for these demographic/professional differences, clinicians who had experienced patient suicide reported feeling that they had insufficient training, despite actually having more suicide prevention training, greater knowledge of suicide prevention practices, and feeling more comfortable working with suicidal patients than clinicians who had not lost a patient to suicide. There were no differences in self-efficacy or utilization of evidence-based clinical practices. CONCLUSIONS: Controlling for demographic/professional differences, clinicians who experienced a patient suicide had more training, knowledge, and felt more comfortable working with suicidal patients. It is critical that sufficient training be available to clinicians, not only to reduce patient deaths, but also to help clinicians increase their comfort, knowledge, skill, and ability to support those bereaved by suicide loss.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Suicídio , Humanos , Prática Profissional , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Suicídio/psicologia
3.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 79(5): 430-443, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35319740

RESUMO

Importance: Task sharing, the training of nonspecialist workers with no formal experience in counseling, is a promising strategy for addressing the large gap in treatment for depression in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Objective: To examine the outcomes and moderators of task-shared psychological interventions associated with depression severity, response, and remission. Data Sources: Systematic literature searches in PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library up to January 1, 2021. Study Selection: Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of task-shared psychological interventions compared with control conditions for adults with depressive symptoms in LMICs were included. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Two researchers independently reviewed the titles, abstracts, and full text of articles from an existing generic meta-analytic database that includes all RCTs on psychotherapy for depression. A systematic review and individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis was used to estimate the outcomes of task-shared psychological interventions across patient characteristics using mixed-effects models. Procedures for abstracting data and assessing data quality and validity followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses reporting guideline. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcome was reduction in depression symptom severity measured by the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Response and remission rates were also estimated. Results: Of 13 eligible trials, 11 (4145 participants) contributed IPD. Task-shared psychological interventions were associated with a greater decrease in depressive symptom severity than control conditions (Hedges g, 0.32; 95% CI, -0.26 to -0.38). Participants in the intervention groups had a higher chance of responding (odds ratio, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.60 to 2.80) and remitting (odds ratio, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.20 to 1.99). The presence of psychomotor symptoms was significantly associated with the outcomes of task-shared psychological interventions (ß [SE], -1.21 [0.39]; P = .002). No other significant associations were identified. Heterogeneity among the trials with IPD was 74% (95% CI, 53%-86%). Conclusions and Relevance: In this meta-analysis of IPD, task-shared psychological interventions were associated with a larger reduction in depressive symptom severity and a greater chance of response and remission than control conditions. These findings show potential for the use of task-sharing of psychological interventions across different groups of patients with depression. Further research would help identify which people are most likely to benefit and strengthen larger-scale implementation of this strategy to address the burden of depression in LMICs.


Assuntos
Depressão , Intervenção Psicossocial , Adulto , Aconselhamento , Depressão/terapia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Psicoterapia
4.
Confl Health ; 16(1): 8, 2022 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35216637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Armed conflict and the HIV pandemic are significant global health issues. Evidence of the association between armed conflict and HIV infection has been conflicting. Our objective was to examine the role of mediating risk factors, such as engagement in transactional sex work, to elucidate the relation between armed conflict and HIV infection. METHODS: We used multistage sampling across three Northeastern Ugandan districts to randomly select 605 women aged 13 to 49 to answer cross-sectional surveys from January to May of 2016. We used multivariate logistic regression model with R 4.0.3 to examine if exposure to armed conflict has an indirect effect on reporting having an HIV-positive serostatus through engagement in transactional sex work. Age and district residence were included as covariates. RESULTS: Exposure to armed conflict ß = .16, SE = .04, p < .05, OR = 1.17, 95% [CI .08, .23] was significantly associated with reporting a HIV-positive serostatus. For each 1-unit increase in exposure to armed conflict (i.e., additional type of armed conflict exposure), there was a 17% increase in the odds of reporting a HIV-positive serostatus. Engagement in transactional sex work was not associated with reporting a HIV-positive serostatus ß = .04, SE = .05, p = .37, 95% [CI - .051, .138]. We found district of residence, age, and interaction effects. CONCLUSIONS: Although exposure to armed was associated with reporting an HIV-positive serostatus, this relationship was not mediated by engagement in transactional sex. Further research is needed on risk factors that mediate this relationship. The likelihood of reporting a HIV-positive serostatus increased with each additional type of exposure to armed conflict. Thus, screening for exposure to multiple traumatic stressors should occur in HIV prevention settings. Healthcare services that are trauma-informed and consider mental distress would likely improve HIV outcomes.

5.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 137: 108694, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35067398

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Alcohol misuse and intimate partner violence (IPV) are major public health burdens with a well-established association. These problems are difficult to remedy individually and can exacerbate one another, compounding treatment complexity. Though scarce, integrated alcohol misuse and IPV treatments exist. Yet implementation remains inadequate. Thus, the current study applied the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) to examine barriers and facilitators of implementing such integrated treatments. METHODS: Through purposive sampling, we conducted in-depth interviews with diverse IPV and alcohol treatment experts (n = 21) whose ages ranged from 27 to 72 and who averaged 17 years of experience working in alcohol and IPV treatment. The research team conducted analysis using Grounded Theory Methods. RESULTS: Experts identified barriers and facilitators for integrated treatment of alcohol misuse and IPV in three CFIR domains: intervention, inner setting and provider, and outer setting. CONCLUSIONS: Leveraging the facilitators of implementation and addressing barriers at multiple organizational and intervention levels through an implementation science lens can help to close the research-to-practice gap for integratively treating alcohol misuse and IPV.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Adulto , Idoso , Alcoolismo/terapia , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa
6.
J Affect Disord ; 300: 511-531, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34974074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During adolescence, suicide risk increases; effective treatments are needed to reduce risk. METHODS: Databases were searched (1995-2020) for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) concerning psychosocial treatments for suicide prevention in adolescents (10-18 yrs). Data were extracted from the timepoint closest to 6 months. Cohen's ds were estimated for reducing suicidal ideation (SI), self-harming behaviors (SHB) excluding strictly non-suicidal self-injury, and suicide attempts (SA) and analyzed using generalized least square regression. Meta-analytic innovations included within-person correlations to reflect trait suicidality; annualization to control for exposure; estimated lifetime risk based on ages; and modeling inclusion/exclusion criteria. Alternate approaches included relative risk and comparison of intervention and control treatments to baseline. RESULTS: Of 30 RCTs, 6 assessing SHB (4 measuring SA), and 7 assessing SI demonstrated treatment effectiveness. Overall, interventions decreased SI (n = 25) with low effect size (d = 0.08, p = 0.01), non-significant after controlling for publication bias (d = 0.05, p = 0.1); interventions were non-significant for SHB (n = 25, d = 0.001, p = 0.97) or SA (n = 18, d = 0.03, p = 0.52). To prevent one SHB, the number needed to treat (NNT) was 45[26,156]; for SA, NNT=42[24,149]. Non-superiority may relate to effectiveness of control treatments. Thus, experimental and control treatments also were compared to baseline: both reduced SI (p < 0.0001), and effectiveness improved for SHB (NNT=12) and SA (NNT=11). LIMITATIONS: Study heterogeneity and inconsistent statistical reporting limited meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Psychosocial interventions for suicide risk in adolescents showed little effectiveness compared with control treatments; suicide outcomes improved in both groups compared to baseline. Different approaches may be needed, including precision medicine methodologies and standardized statistical reporting criteria.


Assuntos
Intervenção Psicossocial , Suicídio , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Risco , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Tentativa de Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 134: 108549, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210568

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Unhealthy alcohol use (UAU) is a major public health challenge, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Mozambique is the fourth poorest country in the world where half of the population lives below the poverty line. UAU is frequent among drinkers in Mozambique; however, resources and infrastructure to treat UAU are very limited. This paper examines how task-shifting and a provider-facing mobile health application are being used to improve access to care. In this paper, the feasibility, acceptability and appropriateness of a provider-facing mobile health application being used under a task-shifting model to identify UAU and provide a four-session brief motivational interviewing intervention are described. METHOD: The study used a sequential exploratory mixed-methods design with a QUAL â†’ quan structure. First, 15 psychiatric technicians and primary care providers in Mozambique's Nampula Province participated in semi-structured interviews. These interviews were recorded and transcribed. Then, 45 providers completed a 12-item quantitative survey on tablets. Quantitative analysis used descriptive statistic calculation and qualitative analysis used thematic analysis. RESULTS: Nonspecialized providers found the mobile health app to be acceptable, appropriate, and feasible when delivering a 4-session brief motivational intervention under a task-shifting model. Central benefits of the technology were enhanced standardization and efficiency of sessions as well as feelings of legitimacy when interacting with patients. Main concerns were feasibility of implementing the intervention due to time constraints of workload and internet connectivity issues. CONCLUSIONS: Provider-facing technology shows promise in supporting task-shifting models that can expand alcohol intervention services and increase access to care in low- and middle-income countries. Providers without specialized training in behavioral health interventions can provide critical services to patients with UAU and provider-facing mobile health applications may help bring such models to scale.


Assuntos
Aplicativos Móveis , Telemedicina , Terapia Comportamental , Humanos , Moçambique , Tecnologia , Telemedicina/métodos
8.
J Trauma Stress ; 34(5): 1016-1026, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647647

RESUMO

Northeastern Uganda has suffered from protracted armed conflict and HIV/AIDS and has some of the highest rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) globally. Little is known about how exposure to conflict and HIV influence individuals' syndemic risk markers or those of their partners. We conducted a population-based study using multistage sampling across three districts in Northeastern Uganda. We randomly surveyed 605 women aged 13-49 years and estimated syndemic problems for currently partnered women (N = 561) who reported for their male partners. Syndemic problems were lower in the low-conflict district than the high-conflict district, p = .009. Conflict exposure was associated with couples' syndemic scores, respondent: ß = 0.182, p < .001; partner: ß = .181, p < .001. Problem scores were significantly higher among women whose partner was either HIV positive, p = .031, or had an unknown HIV status, p = .016, compared with those whose partner was HIV negative. The total effects of women's, ß = .15, p = .034, and men's, ß = .137, p = .038, armed conflict exposure on male-to-female IPV were significant. For male partners, there were significant total effects of having an unknown, ß = .669, p < .001, or positive, ß = 1.143, p < .001, HIV status on experiencing female-to-male IPV. These results suggest that syndemic problems and corresponding treatments should consider couple influences. Addressing mediating problems of mental distress and alcohol misuse may reduce the risk of male-to-female IPV. Providing couple-based HIV psychosocial interventions could reduce men's exposure to IPV.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Infecções por HIV , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adolescente , Adulto , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Conflitos Armados , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sindemia , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Psychiatr Serv ; : appips202100247, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555922

RESUMO

Dispositional capacity assessment, which evaluates a patient's ability for self-care after hospital discharge, is a novel concept with important implications for work in consultation-liaison, inpatient, and emergency psychiatric settings. In this Open Forum, the authors present an illustrative case, review literature relevant to dispositional capacity, and explore social theory that elucidates the concept. Psychiatrists are specifically positioned to provide leadership in this area. Psychiatrists should consider further developing and formalizing criteria for dispositional capacity assessment.

10.
Harv Rev Psychiatry ; 29(4): 262-277, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34241978

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Advancements in global mental health implementation research have revealed promising strategies for improving access to evidence-based mental health care. These advancements have not translated, however, into a reduced prevalence of mental disorders. In this review we examine the relationships between determinants (i.e., barriers and facilitators) and outcomes of mental health services in low- and middle-income countries to identify opportunities for improving the population-level impact and sustainability of innovations in global mental health. We identified three key implementation and services outcomes that influenced the prevalence of mental disorders in the 56 included review articles: supply (access, implementation), demand (help seeking, utilization), and quality (effectiveness, quality of care) of mental health services. Determinants of these outcomes revealed seven themes: community stakeholder engagement; cultural relevance; stigma; human resource capacity; organization of services; governance, policy, and financing; and sociopolitical and community context. We developed a causal loop diagram to illustrate the relationships among these determinants and outcomes. The causal loop diagram revealed the central role of community stakeholder engagement in bridging implementation and patient outcomes, the importance of addressing stigma and social determinants of mental health, and the need to complement supply-side implementation strategies with approaches to equilibrate demand and improve the quality of services. Applying systems science methodologies to global mental health research presents an opportunity to examine the complex relationships among community and health system factors that influence implementation of evidence-based interventions in order to identify sustainable approaches to improve the population-level impact of mental health services in low- and middle-income countries.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Saúde Mental , Intervenção Psicossocial
11.
Work ; 69(3): 981-995, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite improved health and during a strong job market (pre-COVID-19), a substantial proportion of HIV+ adults remained unemployed. This study sought to provide time-limited counseling to promote employment goals. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether behavioral activation (BA) or supportive counseling (SC), would be more effective in promoting vocational goals (full or part-time, paid or volunteer). METHODS: The study included two groups: those with clinically significant fatigue, who were first treated with armodafinil. Once their fatigue diminished, they were enrolled in the counseling program. Those without fatigue were enrolled directly. Both BA and SC interventions were manualized, consisting of eight individual sessions plus a follow-up. RESULTS: 116 participants entered counseling, including 87 assigned to BA and 29 to SC. Of these, 79 completed counseling or found a job by session eight. By follow-up, 51%of BA versus 41%of SC participants had found jobs, a non-significant difference either clinically or statistically. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple issues contributed to difficulty in employment, including gaps in resumes, loss of contact with former colleagues, and uncertainty about career direction. Ongoing barriers included substance use, housing instability, ambivalence about forfeiting government benefits, as well as inadequately treated depression. Success in employment for about half of participants is, in this context, a reasonable outcome.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV , Adulto , Aconselhamento , Emprego , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Int J Drug Policy ; 95: 103291, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Problem drinking and co-occurring depression symptoms affect men at high rates and are associated with increased risk of family violence. In low- and middle-income countries, there is a large treatment gap for services due to a lack of human resources. Moreover, masculine norms are a barrier to men seeking treatment for drinking and depression in healthcare settings. We examined an approach for engaging peer-fathers to deliver an intervention to reduce alcohol use, improve depressive symptoms, and increase family involvement among fathers in Kenya with problem drinking. The intervention-LEAD (Learn, Engage, Act, Dedicate)-combines motivational interviewing, behavioral activation, and masculinity discussion strategies. METHODS: Community and religious leaders nominated fathers with no mental health training to serve as counselors (N=12); clients were recruited through community referrals. Nominated fathers completed a 10-day training beginning with treatment principles followed by manualized content. Three counselors were selected after training based on quantitative and qualitative assessments of communication skills, intervention knowledge, willingness to learn, ability to use feedback, and empathy. Supervision was tiered with local supervisors and clinical psychologist consultation. During LEAD delivery, counselor fidelity, delivery quality, and general and intervention-specific competencies were assessed. To evaluate acceptability, qualitative interviews were conducted with lay-counselors and clients (N=11). Descriptive statistics were calculated for quantitative outcomes; interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Peer-father lay counselors treated nine clients, with eight completing treatment. Counselors reached high rates of fidelity (93.8%) and high to optimal ratings on quality of delivery, clinical competency, and intervention-specific competencies. Qualitative results suggested high acceptability, with counselors expressing satisfaction and empowerment in their roles. Clients likewise described positive experiences with counselors. CONCLUSIONS: Findings provide initial support for the acceptability and feasibility of recruitment, selection, and training processes for peer-father lay counselors to deliver LEAD through a lens of masculinity that aligned with clients help-acceptance practices.


Assuntos
Conselheiros , Aconselhamento , Depressão , Pai , Humanos , Masculino , Masculinidade
14.
Psychiatr Serv ; 72(10): 1199-1208, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hazardous drinking imposes a major public health burden worldwide, especially in low-income countries such as Mozambique. Implementation of the Screening, Brief Intervention, Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) approach to address problem drinking is recommended. However, evidence regarding the best strategies to implement SBIRT at scale is needed. METHODS: Guided by the Reach Effectiveness Adoption Implementation Maintenance model, the authors will conduct a 2-year, cluster-randomized, hybrid type-2 implementation-effectiveness trial in 12 districts in Mozambique evaluating implementation, clinical effectiveness, outcomes, and cost. Eight districts will be randomly assigned to a mobile application-based health SBIRT condition and four to SBIRT-Conventional Training and Supervision. Interventions will be delivered by clinic-based community health workers. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research will guide the authors' mixed-methods assessments throughout the study. RESULTS: The study arm showing better cost-effectiveness will be scaled up in the other arms' districts. During this 12-month scale-up phase, Ministry of Health personnel will be charged with providing training, clinical activities, and supervision in all 12 districts without research team support. The SBIRT scale-up phase is critical to identify facilitators and barriers for tracking internal and external factors in clinics that continue using the superior arm and those that switch to it. NEXT STEPS: In a multistep process with stakeholders from multiple sectors, outcomes and lessons learned from this study will inform the development of an implementation tool kit to guide SBIRT scale-up of community services addressing hazardous drinking in other low- and middle-income countries and low-resource settings in high-income countries.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Telemedicina , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Intervenção na Crise , Humanos , Moçambique , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Encaminhamento e Consulta
15.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(8): 717-731, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115983

RESUMO

This scoping review of population-based epidemiological studies was done to provide background information on the prevalences and distribution of psychiatric disorders in Africa for calls to broaden diversity in psychiatric genetic studies. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science to retrieve relevant literature in English, French, and Portuguese from Jan 1, 1984, to Aug 18, 2020. In 36 studies from 12 African countries, the lifetime prevalence ranged from 3·3% to 9·8% for mood disorders, from 5·7% to 15·8% for anxiety disorders, from 3·7% to 13·3% for substance use disorders, and from 1·0% to 4·4% for psychotic disorders. Although the prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders appears to be lower than that observed in research outside the continent, we identified similar distributions by gender, although not by age or urbanicity. This review reveals gaps in epidemiological research on psychiatric disorders and opportunities to leverage existing epidemiological and genetic research within Africa to advance our understanding of psychiatric disorders. Studies that are methodologically comparable but diverse in geographical context are needed to advance psychiatric epidemiology and provide a foundation for understanding environmental risk in genetic studies of diverse populations globally.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , África/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência
16.
Psychiatr Serv ; 72(8): 891-897, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33993717

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Stepped mental health care requires a rapid method for nonspecialists to detect illness. This study aimed to develop and validate a brief instrument, the Mental Wellness Tool (mwTool), for identification and classification. METHODS: Cross-sectional development and validation samples included adults at six health facilities in Mozambique. Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview diagnoses were the criterion standard. Candidate items were from nine mental disorder and functioning assessments. Regression modeling and expert consultation determined best items for identifying any mental disorder and classifying positives into disorder categories (severe mental disorder, common mental disorder, substance use disorder, and suicide risk). For validation, sensitivity and specificity were calculated for any mental disorder (index and proxy respondents) and disorder categories (index). RESULTS: From the development sample (911 participants, mean±SD age=32.0±11 years, 63% female), 13 items were selected-three with 0.83 sensitivity (95% confidence interval [CI]=0.79-0.86) for any mental disorder and 10 additional items classifying participants with a specificity that ranged from 0.72 (severe mental disorder) to 0.90 (suicide risk). For validation (453 participants, age 31±11 years, 65% female), sensitivity for any mental disorder was 0.94 (95% CI=0.89-0.97) with index responses and 0.73 (95% CI=0.58-0.85) with family proxy responses. Specificity for categories ranged from 0.47 (severe mental disorder) to 0.93 (suicide risk). Removing one item increased severe mental disorder specificity to 0.63 (95% CI=0.58-0.68). CONCLUSIONS: The mwTool performed well for identification of any mental disorder with index and proxy responses to three items and for classification into treatment categories with index responses to nine additional items.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 57: 102557, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561780

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study explored perspectives of researchers working with the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Scale-Up Hubs, consisting of research partnerships for scaling up mental health interventions in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), to: 1) identify common barriers to conducting impactful research on the implementation of evidence-based mental health services; and 2) provide recommendations to overcome these implementation challenges. METHODS: A sequential qualitative approach was employed. First, an open-ended survey was distributed to the 10 Scale-Up Hubs and NIMH program staff asking informants to identify challenges in conducting mental health implementation research in LMICs. Second, survey findings guided an in-person workshop to generate implementation recommendations to inform the field. RESULTS: In total, 46 respondents completed surveys, and 101 researchers attended the workshop. The workshop produced implementation recommendations for low-resource settings: 1) identifying impact of research on policy and practice; 2) sustaining careers of early researchers in global mental health; 3) engaging policymakers and donors to value mental health research; 4) supporting the workforce for delivering evidence-based treatments for mental disorders; and 5) promoting sustainability of programs. CONCLUSIONS: These findings can strengthen collaboration between researchers and key stakeholders, and highlight important targets for improving mental health implementation research in LMICs.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Saúde Global , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Saúde Mental , National Institute of Mental Health (U.S.) , Estados Unidos
18.
Community Ment Health J ; 57(4): 777-791, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894398

RESUMO

In this Fresh Focus, we reassess what the mental health treatment gap may mean if we consider the role of traditional healing. Based on systematic reviews, patients can use traditional healers and qualitatively report improvement from general psychological distress and symptom reduction for common mental disorders. Given these clinical implications, some high-income countries have scaled up research into traditional healing practices, while at the same time in low-and middle-income countries, where the use of traditional healers is nearly ubiquitous, considerably less research funding has studied or capitalized on this phenomena. The World Health Organization 2003-2020 Mental Health Action Plan called for government health programs to include traditional and faith healers as treatment resources to combat the low- and middle-income country treatment gap. Reflection on the work which emerged during the course of this Mental Health Action Plan revealed areas for improvement. As we embark on the next Mental Health Action Plan, we offer lessons-learned for exploring potential relationships and collaborations between traditional healing and biomedicine.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Saúde Mental , Cura pela Fé , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Psicoterapia
19.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 60(5): 579-592, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171633

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and their continuity since childhood among young adults from the same ethnic group living in 2 low-income contexts. METHOD: Young adults (N = 2,004; ages 15-29) were followed (82.8% retention) as part of the Boricua Youth Study, a study of Puerto Rican youths recruited at ages 5-13 in the South Bronx (SBx), New York, and Puerto Rico (PR). We estimated prevalence (lifetime; past year) of major depressive (MDD), mania, hypomania, generalized anxiety (GAD), tobacco dependence, and any other substance use disorders (SUD). RESULTS: The prevalence of every disorder was higher among young women from the SBx compared with those from PR (eg, 9.2% versus 4.1% past-year SUD; 14% versus 6.8% for MDD/GAD). Among SBx young men, tobacco dependence and illicit SUD were elevated. Across both contexts, men had higher adjusted odds of illicit SUD than women, while women had higher GAD than men. MDD did not differ by gender. Young adulthood disorders (except for alcohol use disorder and GAD) followed childhood disorders. For example, childhood externalizing disorders preceded both MDD (young men and women) and illicit SUD (young women only). CONCLUSION: Young women raised in a context where adversities like ethnic discrimination concentrate are at high risk for psychiatric disorders. In certain high-poverty contexts, young men may present with MDD as often as women. Interventions to prevent psychiatric disorders may need to address gender-specific processes and childhood disorders. However, SUD prevention among young men may need to address other factors.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , New York , Psicopatologia , Porto Rico/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res ; 21(4): 743-751, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a need to evaluate the health equity of atypical antipsychotics users who obtain their medicines from the Brazilian National Health System (SUS) through the identification of key factors that influence their health status due to concerns with equity of care. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study among patients attending state pharmacies in Brazil. Individuals were included if they used atypical antipsychotics, aged ≥18 years, and answered the EQ-5D-3 L questionnaire. Sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical data were collected. The dependent variable was health status. Associations between the independent variables and the dependent variable were analyzed by adjusting a linear regression model. RESULTS: Overall, 388 individuals met the eligibility criteria and were included in the analysis. The final multiple linear regression model demonstrated a statistically significant association between VAS and suicide attempts, private care, current antipsychotics, comorbidities, and perceived family support. EXPERT COMMENTARY: The study identified several factors both individual and collective that correlate with the health status of atypical antipsychotic users and confirmed the importance of providing medicines for treating psychotic disorders. However, other factors are involved including social support. Our results suggest additional activities and policies are necessary including strategies to address the differences in private and public health care.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/administração & dosagem , Equidade em Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Transtornos Psicóticos/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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