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1.
Midwifery ; 96: 102949, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631411

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a midwife-performed checklist and limited obstetric ultrasound on sensitivity and positive predictive value for a composite outcome comprising multiple gestation, placenta praevia, oligohydramnios, preterm birth, malpresentation, abnormal foetal heart rate. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental pre-post intervention study. SETTING: Maternity unit at a district hospital in Eastern Uganda. INTERVENTIONS: Interventions were implemented in a phased approach: standardised labour triage documentation (Phase 1), a triage checklist (Phase 2), and checklist plus limited obstetric ultrasound (Phase 3). PARTICIPANTS: Consenting women presenting to labour triage for admission after 28 weeks of gestation between February 2018 and June 2019 were eligible. Women not in labour or those requiring immediate care were excluded. 3,865 women and 3,937 newborns with similar sample sizes per phase were included in the analysis. MEASUREMENT AND FINDINGS: Outcome data after birth were used to determine true presence of a complication, while intake and checklist data were used to inform diagnosis before birth. Compared to Phase 1, Phase 2 and 3 interventions improved sensitivity (Phase 1: 47%, Phase 2: 68.8%, Phase 3: 73.5%; p ≤ 0.001) and reduced positive predictive value (65.9%, 55%, 48.7%, p ≤ 0.001) for the composite outcome. No phase differences in adverse maternal or foetal outcomes were observed. CONCLUSION: Both a triage checklist and a checklist plus limited obstetric ultrasound improved accurate identification of cases with some increase in false positive diagnosis. These interventions may be beneficial in a resource-limited maternity triage setting to improve midwives' diagnoses and clinical decision-making.

2.
Popul Health Metr ; 19(Suppl 1): 13, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Household surveys remain important sources of stillbirth data, but omission and misclassification are common. Classifying adverse pregnancy outcomes as stillbirths requires accurate reporting of vital status at birth and gestational age or birthweight for every pregnancy. Further categorisation, e.g. by sex, or timing (intrapartum/antepartum) improves data to understand and prevent stillbirth. METHODS: We undertook a cross-sectional population-based survey of women of reproductive age in five health and demographic surveillance system sites in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau and Uganda (2017-2018). All women answered a full birth history with pregnancy loss questions (FBH+) or a full pregnancy history (FPH). A sub-sample across both groups were asked additional stillbirth questions. Questions were evaluated using descriptive measures. Using an interpretative paradigm and phenomenology methodology, focus group discussions with women exploring barriers to reporting birthweight for stillbirths were conducted. Thematic analysis was guided by an a priori codebook. RESULTS: Overall 69,176 women reported 98,483 livebirths (FBH+) and 102,873 pregnancies (FPH). Additional questions were asked for 1453 stillbirths, 1528 neonatal deaths and 12,620 surviving children born in the 5 years prior to the survey. Completeness was high (> 99%) for existing FBH+/FPH questions on signs of life at birth and gestational age (months). Discordant responses in signs of life at birth between different questions were common; nearly one-quarter classified as stillbirths on FBH+/FPH were reported born alive on additional questions. Availability of information on gestational age (weeks) (58.1%) and birthweight (13.2%) was low amongst stillbirths, and heaping was common. Most women (93.9%) were able to report the sex of their stillborn baby. Response completeness for stillbirth timing (18.3-95.1%) and estimated proportion intrapartum (15.6-90.0%) varied by question and site. Congenital malformations were reported in 3.1% stillbirths. Perceived value in weighing a stillborn baby varied and barriers to weighing at birth a nd knowing birthweight were common. CONCLUSIONS: Improving stillbirth data in surveys will require investment in improving the measurement of vital status, gestational age and birthweight by healthcare providers, communication of these with women, and overcoming reporting barriers. Given the large burden and effect on families, improved data must be made available to end preventable stillbirths.

3.
Popul Health Metr ; 19(Suppl 1): 8, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, an estimated 5.1 million stillbirths and neonatal deaths occur annually, 98% in low- and middle-income countries. Limited coverage of civil and vital registration systems necessitates reliance on women's retrospective reporting in household surveys for data on these deaths. The predominant platform, Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), has evolved over the last 35 years and differs by country, yet no previous study has described these differences and the effects of these changes on stillbirth and neonatal death measurement. METHODS: We undertook a review of DHS model questionnaires, protocols and methodological reports from DHS-I to DHS-VII, focusing on the collection of information on stillbirth and neonatal deaths describing differences in approaches, questionnaires and geographic reach up to December 9, 2019. We analysed the resultant data, applied previously used data quality criteria including ratios of stillbirth rate (SBR) to neonatal mortality rate (NMR) and early NMR (ENMR) to NMR, comparing by country, over time and by DHS module. RESULTS: DHS has conducted >320 surveys in 90 countries since 1984. Two types of maternity history have been used: full birth history (FBH) and full pregnancy history (FPH). A FBH collecting information only on live births has been included in all model questionnaires to date, with data on stillbirths collected through a reproductive calendar (DHS II-VI) or using additional questions on non-live births (DHS-VII). FPH collecting information on all pregnancies including live births, miscarriages, abortions and stillbirths has been used in 17 countries. We found no evidence of variation in stillbirth data quality assessed by SBR:NMR over time for FBH surveys with reproductive calendar, some variation for surveys with FBH in DHS-VII and most variation among the surveys conducted with a FPH. ENMR:NMR ratio increased over time, which may reflect changes in data quality or real epidemiological change. CONCLUSION: DHS remains the major data source for pregnancy outcomes worldwide. Although the DHS model questionnaire has evolved over the last three and half decades, more robust evidence is required concerning optimal methods to obtain accurate data on stillbirths and neonatal deaths through household surveys and also to develop and test standardised data quality criteria.

4.
Popul Health Metr ; 19(Suppl 1): 15, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risks of neonatal death, stillbirth and miscarriage are highest in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where data has most gaps and estimates rely on household surveys, dependent on women reporting these events. Underreporting of pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) is common, but few studies have investigated barriers to reporting these in LMICs. The EN-INDEPTH multi-country study applied qualitative approaches to explore barriers and enablers to reporting pregnancy and APOs in surveys, including individual, community, cultural and interview level factors. METHODS: The study was conducted in five Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites in Guinea-Bissau, Ethiopia, Uganda, Bangladesh and Ghana. Using an interpretative paradigm and phenomenology methodology, 28 focus group discussions were conducted with 82 EN-INDEPTH survey interviewers and supervisors and 172 women between February and August 2018. Thematic analysis was guided by an a priori codebook. RESULTS: Survey interview processes influenced reporting of pregnancy and APOs. Women found questions about APOs intrusive and of unclear relevance. Across all sites, sociocultural and spiritual beliefs were major barriers to women reporting pregnancy, due to fear that harm would come to their baby. We identified several factors affecting reporting of APOs including reluctance to speak about sad memories and variation in recognition of the baby's value, especially for APOs at earlier gestation. Overlaps in local understanding and terminology for APOs may also contribute to misreporting, for example between miscarriages and stillbirths. Interviewers' skills and training were the keys to enabling respondents to open up, as was privacy during interviews. CONCLUSION: Sociocultural beliefs and psycho-social impacts of APOs play a large part in underreporting these events. Interviewers' skills, careful tool development and translation are the keys to obtaining accurate information. Reporting could be improved with clearer explanations of survey purpose and benefits to respondents and enhanced interviewer training on probing, building rapport and empathy.

6.
Popul Health Metr ; 19(Suppl 1): 12, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Termination of pregnancy (TOP) is a common cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries. Population-based surveys are the major data source for TOP data in LMICs but are known to have shortcomings that require improving. The EN-INDEPTH multi-country survey employed a full pregnancy history approach with roster and new questions on TOP and Menstrual Restoration. This mixed methods paper assesses the completeness of responses to questions eliciting TOP information from respondents and reports on practices, barriers, and facilitators to TOP reporting. METHODS: The EN-INDEPTH study was a population-based cross-sectional study. The Full Pregnancy History arm of the study surveyed 34,371 women of reproductive age between 2017 and 2018 in five Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) sites of the INDEPTH network: Bandim, Guinea-Bissau; Dabat, Ethiopia; IgangaMayuge, Uganda; Kintampo, Ghana; and Matlab, Bangladesh. Completeness and time spent in answering TOP questions were evaluated using simple tabulations and summary statistics. Exact binomial 95% confidence intervals were computed for TOP rates and ratios. Twenty-eight (28) focus group discussions were undertaken and analysed thematically. RESULTS: Completeness of responses regarding TOP was between 90.3 and 100.0% for all question types. The new questions elicited between 2.0% (1.0-3.4), 15.5% (13.9-17.3), and 11.5% (8.8-14.7) lifetime TOP cases over the roster questions from Dabat, Ethiopia; Matlab, Bangladesh; and Kintampo, Ghana, respectively. The median response time on the roster TOP questions was below 1.3 minutes in all sites. Qualitative results revealed that TOP was frequently stigmatised and perceived as immoral, inhumane, and shameful. Hence, it was kept secret rendering it difficult and uncomfortable to report. Miscarriages were perceived to be natural, being easier to report than TOP. Interviewer techniques, which were perceived to facilitate TOP disclosure, included cultural competence, knowledge of contextually appropriate terms for TOP, adaptation to interviewee's individual circumstances, being non-judgmental, speaking a common language, and providing detailed informed consent. CONCLUSIONS: Survey roster questions may under-represent true TOP rates, since the new questions elicited responses from women who had not disclosed TOP in the roster questions. Further research is recommended particularly into standardised training and approaches to improving interview context and techniques to facilitate TOP reporting in surveys.

7.
Popul Health Metr ; 19(Suppl 1): 11, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Household surveys remain important sources of maternal and child health data, but until now, standard surveys such as Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) have not collected information on maternity care for women who have experienced a stillbirth. Thus, nationally representative data are lacking to inform programmes to address the millions of stillbirths which occur annually. METHODS: The EN-INDEPTH population-based survey of women of reproductive age was undertaken in five Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau and Uganda (2017-2018). All women answered a full birth history with additional questions on pregnancy losses (FBH+) or full pregnancy history (FPH). A sub-sample, including all women reporting a recent stillbirth or neonatal death, was asked additional maternity care questions. These were evaluated using descriptive measures. Associations between stillbirth and maternal socio-demographic characteristics, babies' characteristics and maternity care use were assessed using a weighted logistic regression model for women in the FBH+ group. RESULTS: A total of 15,591 women reporting a birth since 1 January 2012 answered maternity care questions. Completeness was very high (> 99%), with similar proportions of responses for both live and stillbirths. Amongst the 14,991 births in the FBH+ group, poorer wealth status, higher parity, large perceived baby size-at-birth, preterm or post-term birth, birth in a government hospital compared to other locations and vaginal birth were associated with increased risk of stillbirth after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Regarding association with reported postnatal care, women with a stillbirth were more likely to report hospital stays of > 1 day. However, women with a stillbirth were less likely to report having received a postnatal check compared to those with a live birth. CONCLUSIONS: Women who had experienced stillbirth were able to respond to questions about pregnancy and birth, and we found no reason to omit questions to these women in household surveys. Our analysis identified several potentially modifiable factors associated with stillbirth, adding to the evidence-base for policy and action in low- and middle-income contexts. Including these questions in DHS-8 would lead to increased availability of population-level data to inform action to end preventable stillbirths.

8.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 160, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Uganda, there are persistent weaknesses in obtaining accurate, reliable and complete data on local and external investments in immunization to guide planning, financing, and resource mobilization. This study aimed to measure and describe the financial envelope for immunization from 2012 to 2016 and analyze expenditures at sub-national level. METHODS: The Systems of Health Accounts (SHA) 2011 methodology was used to quantify and map the resource envelope for immunization. Data was collected at national and sub-national levels from public and external sources of immunization. Data were coded, categorized and disaggregated by expenditure on immunization activities using the SHA 2011. RESULTS: Over the five-year period, funding for immunization increased fourfold from US$20.4 million in 2012 to US$ 85.6 million in 2016. The Ugandan government was the main contributor (55%) to immunization resources from 2012 to 2014 however, Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance contributed the majority (59%) of the resources to immunization in 2015 and 2016. Majority (66%) of the funds were managed by the National Medical Stores. Over the five-year period, 80% of the funds allocated to immunization activities were spent on facility based routine immunization (expenditure on human resources and outreaches). At sub-national level, districts allocated 15% of their total annual resources to immunization to support supervision of lower health facilities and distribution of vaccines. Health facilities spent 5.5% of their total annual resources on immunization to support outreaches. CONCLUSION: Development partner support has aided the improvement of vaccine coverage and increased access to vaccines however, there is an increasing dependence on this support for a critical national program raising sustainability concerns alongside other challenges like being off-budget and unpredictable. To ensure financial sustainability, there is need to operationalize the immunization fund, advocate and mobilize additional resources for immunization from the Government of Uganda and the private sector, increase the reliability of resources for immunization as well as leverage on health financing reforms like the National Health Insurance.

9.
Malar J ; 20(1): 5, 2021 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Consistent use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) have been recommended as cost-effective interventions for malaria prevention during pregnancy in endemic areas. However, the coverage and utilization of these interventions during pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa is still suboptimal. This study aimed to determine the uptake of IPTp and ITNs and associated factors among women during their recent pregnancy in Eastern Uganda. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 2062 women who had delivered within the last 12 months prior to the start of the study in three districts of Eastern Uganda. The primary outcomes were consistent ITN use and optimal uptake (at least 3 doses) of IPTp. A modified Poisson regression was used to examine the association between consistent ITN use and the uptake of optimal doses of IPTp with independent variables. Data were analysed using Stata 14 software. RESULTS: The level of uptake of IPTp3 (at least three doses) was 14.7%, while IPTp2 (at least two doses) was 60.0%. The majority (86.4%) of mothers reported regularly sleeping under mosquito nets for the full duration of pregnancy. Uptake of IPTp3 was associated with engaging in farming (adjusted PR = 1.71, 95% CI [1.28-2.28]) or business (adjusted PR = 1.60, 95% CI [1.05-2.44]), and attending at least 4 antenatal care (ANC) visits (adjusted PR = 1.72, 95% CI [1.34-2.22]). On the other hand, consistent ITN use was associated with belonging to the fourth wealth quintile (adjusted PR = 1.08, 95% CI [1.02-1.14]) or fifth wealth quintile (adjusted PR = 1.08, 95% CI [1.02-1.15]), and attending at least 4 ANC visits (adjusted PR = 1.07, 95% CI [1.03-1.11]). CONCLUSION: Uptake of IPTp3 and consistent ITN use during pregnancy were lower and higher than the current Ugandan national targets, respectively. Study findings highlight the need for more efforts to enhance utilization of ANC services, which is likely to increase the uptake of these two key malaria preventive measures during pregnancy.

11.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(12)2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334903

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Community and individual sociodemographic characteristics play an important role in child survival. However, a question remains how urbanisation and demographic changes in sub-Saharan Africa affect community-level determinants for child survival. METHODS: Longitudinal data from the Iganga/Mayuge Health and Demographic Surveillance Site was used to obtain postneonatal under-5 mortality rates between March 2005 and February 2015 in periurban and rural areas separately. Multilevel survival analysis models were used to identify factors associated with mortality. RESULTS: There were 43 043 postneonatal under-5 children contributing to 116 385 person years of observation, among whom 1737 died. Average annual crude mortality incidence rate (IR) differed significantly between periurban and rural areas (9.0 (8.1 to 10.0) per 1000 person-years vs 18.1 (17.1 to 19.0), respectively). In periurban areas, there was evidence for decreasing mortality from IR=11.3 (7.7 to 16.6) in 2006 to IR=4.5 (3.0 to 6.9) in 2015. The mortality fluctuated with no evidence for reduction in rural areas (IR=19.0 (15.8 to 22.8) in 2006; IR=15.5 (13.0 to 18.6) in 2015). BCG vaccination was associated with reduced mortality in periurban and rural areas (adjusted rate ratio (aRR)=0.45; 95% CI 0.30 to 0.67 and aRR=0.56; 95% CI 0.41 to 0.76, respectively). Maternal education level within the community was associated with reduced mortality in both periurban and rural sites (aRR=0.83; 95% CI 0.70 to 0.99; aRR=0.90; 95% CI 0.81 to 0.99). The proportion of households in the poorest quintile within the community was associated with mortality in rural areas only (aRR=1.08; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.18). In rural areas, a large disparity existed between the least poor and the poorest (aRR=0.50; 95% CI 0.27 to 0.92). CONCLUSION: We found evidence for a mortality decline in peri-urban but not rural areas. Investments in the known key health (eg, vaccination) and socio-economic interventions (education, and economic development) continue to be crucial for mortality declines. Focused strategies to eliminate the disparity between wealth quintiles are also warranted. There may be equitable access to health services in peri-urban areas but improved metrics of socioeconomic position suitable for peri-urban residents may be needed.

12.
Health Sci Rep ; 3(4): e196, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145442

RESUMO

Background: An estimated 2.8 million neonatal deaths occur each year globally, which accounts for at least 45% of deaths in children aged less than 5 years. Birthweight and gestational age-specific mortality estimates are limited in low-resource countries like Uganda. A deeper analysis of mortality by birthweight and gestational age is critical in identifying the cause and potential solutions to decrease neonatal mortality. Objectives: We studied mortality before discharge in relation to birthweight and gestational age using a large sample size from selected tertiary care facilities in Uganda. Methods: We used secondary data from the East Africa Preterm Birth Initiative study conducted in six tertiary care facilities. Birth records of infants born between October 2016 and March 2019 with a gestational age greater than or equal to 24 weeks and/or birthweight greater than or equal to 500 g were reviewed for inclusion in the analysis. Newborn death before discharge was the outcome variable of interest. Multivariable Poisson regression modeling was used to explore birthweight and gestational age-specific mortality rate. Results: We analysed 50 278 birth records. Among these 95.3% (47 913) were live births and 4.8% (2365) were stillbirths. Of the 47 913 live births, 50% (24 147) were males. Overall, pre-discharge mortality was 13.0 per 1000 live births. For each 1 kg increase in birthweight, mortality before discharge decreased by -0.016. As birthweight increases, the mortality before discharge decreased from 336 per 1000 live births among infants born between 500 and 999 g, to 4.7 per 1000 live births among infants born weighing 3500 to 3999 g, and increased again to 11.2 per 1000 live births among infants weighing more than 4500 g. Conclusions: Our study highlights the need for further research to understand newborn survival across different birthweight and gestational categories.

14.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(11)2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239338

RESUMO

In resource-constrained environments, priority setting is critical to making sustainable decisions for introducing new and underused vaccines and choosing among vaccine products. Donor organisations and national governments in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) recognise the need to support prioritisation of vaccine decisions driven by local health system capacity, epidemiology and financial sustainability.Successful efforts have supported the establishment of National Immunisation Technical Advisory Groups (NITAGs) to undertake evidence-informed decision making (EIDM) in LMICs. Now, attention is increasingly focused on supporting their function to leverage local expertise and priorities. EIDM and priority-setting functions are complex and dynamic processes. Here, we report a pilot of a web-based decision-support tool. Applying tenets of multicriteria decision analysis, SMART Vaccines 2.0 supported transparent, reproducible and evidence-informed priority setting with an easy-to-use interface and shareable outputs.The pilot was run by the Uganda NITAG who were requested by the Ministry of Health (MOH) in 2016 to produce recommendations on the prioritised introduction of five new vaccines. The tool was acceptable to the NITAG and supported their recommendations to the MOH. The tool highlighted sensitivity in the prioritisation process to the inherent biases of different stakeholders. This feature also enabled examination of the implications of data uncertainty. Feedback from users identified areas where the tool could more explicitly support evidence-to-recommendation frameworks, ultimately informing the next generation of the platform, PriorityVax.Country ownership and priority setting in vaccine decisions are central to sustainability. PriorityVax promotes auditable and rigorous deliberations; enables and captures the decision matrix of users; and generates shareable documentation of the process.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047332

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test whether introduction of a midwife-performed triage checklist and focused ultrasound improves diagnosis and referral for obstetric conditions, including multiple gestation, placenta previa, oligohydramnios, preterm birth, malpresentation, and abnormal fetal heart rate. METHODS: We implemented an intake log (Phase 1), a checklist (Phase 2), and a checklist plus ultrasound scan (Phase 3) at three primary health centers in Eastern Uganda for women presenting in labor. Intake diagnoses, referral status, and delivery outcomes were assessed, as well as sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV). RESULTS: Between February 2018 and July 2019, 1155, 961, and 603 women were enrolled across the three phases (n=2719); 2339 had outcome data. Incidence of any outcome-confirmed condition was 8.8%, 7.9%, and 7.1% (P=0.526) for each phase, respectively. The proportion of referred women with a condition did not change between Phases 1 and 2 (7.8% versus 8.6%, P=0.855), but increased in Phase 3 (48.4%, P<0.001). Sensitivity improved with each intervention; PPV decreased with ultrasound. CONCLUSION: Use of ultrasound plus checklist increased referrals and sensitivity for high-risk conditions, with decreased PPV. The checklist alone improved correct diagnosis, but not referral. Further evaluation of these triage interventions to maximize diagnostic accuracy, referral decisions, and outcomes are warranted.

17.
Glob Health Action ; 13(1): 1820714, 2020 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Complications due to prematurity are a threat to child survival and full developmental potential particularly in low-income settings. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the neurodevelopmental outcomes among preterm infants and identify any modifiable factors associated with neurodevelopmental disability (NDD). METHODS: We recruited 454 babies (242 preterms with birth weight <2.5 kg, and 212 term babies) in a cohort study at birth from Iganga hospital between May and July 2018. We followed up the babies at an average age of 7 months (adjusted for prematurity) and assessed 211 preterm and 187 term infants for neurodevelopmental outcomes using the Malawi Developmental Assessment tool. Mothers were interviewed on care practices for the infants. Data were analyzed using STATA version 14. RESULTS: The study revealed a high incidence of NDD of 20.4% (43/211) among preterm infants compared to 7.5% (14/187) among the term babies, p < 0.001, of the same age. The most affected domain was fine motor (11.8%), followed by language (9.0%). At multivariate analysis, malnutrition and Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) at home after discharge were the key factors that were significantly associated with NDD among preterm babies. The prevalence of malnutrition among preterm infants was 20% and this significantly increased the odds of developing NDD, OR = 2.92 (95% CI: 1.27-6.71). KMC practice at home reduced the odds of developing NDD, OR = 0.46, (95% CI: 0.21-1.00). Re-admission of preterm infants after discharge (a sign of severe illness) increased the odds of developing NDD but this was not statistically significant, OR = 2.33 (95% CI: 0.91-5.94). CONCLUSION: Our study has shown that preterm infants are at a high risk of developing NDD, especially those with malnutrition. Health system readiness should be improved to provide follow-up care with emphasis on improving nutrition and continuity of KMC at home.

19.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237656, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866167

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Preterm birth is the primary driver of neonatal mortality worldwide, but it is defined by gestational age (GA) which is challenging to accurately assess in low-resource settings. In a commitment to reducing preterm birth while reinforcing and strengthening facility data sources, the East Africa Preterm Birth Initiative (PTBi-EA) chose eligibility criteria that combined GA and birth weight. This analysis evaluated the quality of the GA data as recorded in maternity registers in PTBi-EA study facilities and the strength of the PTBi-EA eligibility criteria. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of maternity register data from March-September 2016. GA data from 23 study facilities in Migori, Kenya and the Busoga Region of Uganda were evaluated for completeness (variable present), consistency (recorded versus calculated GA), and plausibility (falling within the 3rd and 97th birth weight percentiles for GA of the INTERGROWTH-21st Newborn Birth Weight Standards). Preterm birth rates were calculated using: 1) recorded GA <37 weeks, 2) recorded GA <37 weeks, excluding implausible GAs, 3) birth weight <2500g, and 4) PTBi-EA eligibility criteria of <2500g and between 2500g and 3000g if the recorded GA is <37 weeks. RESULTS: In both countries, GA was the least recorded variable in the maternity register (77.6%). Recorded and calculated GA (Kenya only) were consistent in 29.5% of births. Implausible GAs accounted for 11.7% of births. The four preterm birth rates were 1) 14.5%, 2) 10.6%, 3) 9.6%, 4) 13.4%. CONCLUSIONS: Maternity register GA data presented quality concerns in PTBi-EA study sites. The PTBi-EA eligibility criteria of <2500g and between 2500g and 3000g if the recorded GA is <37 weeks accommodated these concerns by using both birth weight and GA, balancing issues of accuracy and completeness with practical applicability.


Assuntos
Coleta de Dados/normas , Idade Gestacional , Serviços de Saúde Materna/organização & administração , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Peso ao Nascer , Coleta de Dados/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido de Peso Extremamente Baixo ao Nascer , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Quênia/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Melhoria de Qualidade , Sistema de Registros/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Uganda/epidemiologia
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