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1.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 240, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypokalemia and acute kidney injury (AKI) occur in patients administered liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB), a wide-spectrum anti-fungicidal drug. However, the association between potassium supplementation and the occurrence of AKI in patients with hypokalemia who were administered L-AMB is not well understood. METHODS: Using nationwide claims data and laboratory data, the occurrence of AKI during L-AMB treatment was retrospectively compared between patients with hypokalemia who were or were not supplemented with potassium and between those adequately or inadequately supplemented with potassium (serum potassium levels corrected to ≥3.5 mEq/L or remained < 3.5 mEq/L, respectively) before or after L-AMB treatment initiation. RESULTS: We identified 118 patients who developed hypokalemia before L-AMB treatment initiation (43 received potassium supplementation [25 adequate and 18 inadequate supplementation] and 75 did not receive potassium supplementation), and 117 patients who developed hypokalemia after L-AMB initiation (79 received potassium supplementation [including 23 adequate and 15 inadequate supplementation] and 38 did not receive potassium supplementation). The occurrence of any stage of AKI was similar between patients with hypokalemia, regardless of potassium supplementation (i.e., before L-AMB treatment initiation [supplementation, 51%; non-supplementation, 45%; P = 0.570] or after L-AMB initiation [supplementation, 28%; non-supplementation, 32%; P = 0.671]). After adjusting for confounding factors, we found that the occurrence of any stage of AKI was not associated with potassium supplementation before L-AMB initiation (odds ratio [OR]: 1.291, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.584-2.852, P = 0.528) or after L-AMB initiation (OR: 0.954, 95% CI: 0.400-2.275, P = 0.915). The occurrence of any stage of AKI tended to decline in patients with hypokalemia who were adequately supplemented with potassium (44%) before, but not after, L-AMB initiation relative to that in patients inadequately supplemented with potassium (61%), however this result was not significant (P = 0.358). CONCLUSION: Potassium supplementation was not associated with any stage of AKI in patients with hypokalemia who were administered L-AMB.

2.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(10): 1471-1476, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183236

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB), a broad spectrum anti-fungicidal drug, is often administered to treat invasive fungal infections (IFIs). However, the most suitable time to initiate treatment in septic shock patients with IFI is unknown. METHODS: Patients with septic shock treated with L-AMB were identified from the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination national database and were stratified according to L-AMB treatment initiation either at septic shock onset (early L-AMB group) or after the onset (delayed L-AMB group) to determine their survival rates following septic shock onset and the shock cessation period. RESULTS: We identified 141 patients administered L-AMB on the day of or after septic shock onset: 60 patients received early treatment, whereas 81 patients received delayed treatment. Survival rates after septic shock onset were higher in the early L-AMB group than in the delayed L-AMB group (4 weeks: 68.4% vs 57.9%, P = 0.197; 6 weeks: 62.2% vs 44.5%, P = 0.061; 12 weeks: 43.4% vs 35.0%, P = 0.168, respectively). The septic shock cessation period was shorter in the early L-AMB group than in the delayed L-AMB group (7.0 ± 7.0 days vs 16.5 ± 15.4 days, P < 0.001), with a significant difference confirmed after adjusting for confounding factors with propensity score matching (7.1 ± 7.2 days vs 16.7 ± 14.0 days, P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Early L-AMB administration at septic shock onset may be associated with early shock cessation.


Assuntos
Choque Séptico , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Choque Séptico/tratamento farmacológico
4.
Clin Exp Nephrol ; 25(3): 279-287, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB), a broad-spectrum antifungicidal drug, is often used to treat fungal infections. However, clinical evidence of its use in patients with renal dysfunction, especially those receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT), is limited. Therefore, we evaluated the usage and occurrence of adverse reactions during L-AMB therapy in patients undergoing RRT. METHODS: Using claims data and laboratory data, we retrospectively evaluated patients who were administered L-AMB. The presence of comorbidities, mortality rate, treatment with L-AMB and other anti-infective agents, and the incidence of adverse reactions were compared between patients receiving RRT, including continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) and maintenance hemodialysis (HD), and those that did not receive RRT. RESULTS: In total, 900 cases met the eligibility criteria: 24, 19, and 842 cases in the maintenance HD, CRRT, and non-RRT groups, respectively. Of the patients administered L-AMB, mortality at discharge was higher for those undergoing either CRRT (15/19; 79%) or maintenance HD (16/24; 67%) than for those not receiving RRT (353/842; 42%). After propensity score matching, the average daily and cumulative dose, treatment duration, and dosing interval for L-AMB were not significantly different between patients receiving and not receiving RRT. L-AMB was used as the first-line antifungal agent for patients undergoing CRRT in most cases (12/19; 63%). Although the number of subjects was limited, the incidence of adverse events did not markedly differ among the groups. CONCLUSION: L-AMB may be used for patients undergoing maintenance HD or CRRT without any dosing, duration, or interval adjustments.

5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15033, 2020 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929112

RESUMO

Liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB) is a broad-spectrum antifungal drug that is used to treat fungal infections. However, clinical evidence of its use in patients with renal failure is limited. Here, we aimed to identify factors associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients administered L-AMB. We retrospectively utilized a combination of Diagnosis Procedure Combination data and laboratory data obtained from hospitals throughout Japan between April 2008 and January 2018. In total, 507 patients administered L-AMB were identified. After L-AMB treatment initiation, AKI, which was defined as a ≥ 1.5-fold increase within 7 days or ≥ 0.3 mg/dL increase within 2 days in serum creatinine according to the KDIGO criteria, was recognized in 37% of the total patients (189/507). The stages of AKI were stage 1 in 20%, stage 2 in 11%, and stage 3 in 7%. Five factors were associated with AKI of all stages: prior treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin-receptor blockers or carbapenem; concomitant administration of catecholamines or immunosuppressants; and ≥ 3.52 mg/kg/day of L-AMB dosing. Serum potassium < 3.5 mEq/L before L-AMB therapy was associated with severe AKI of stage 2 and 3. Altogether, these factors should be carefully considered to reduce the occurrence of AKI in patients administered L-AMB.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Anfotericina B/efeitos adversos , Antifúngicos/efeitos adversos , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Injúria Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Idoso , Anfotericina B/administração & dosagem , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Carbapenêmicos/administração & dosagem , Catecolaminas/administração & dosagem , Creatinina/sangue , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Lipossomos/administração & dosagem , Lipossomos/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micoses/complicações
6.
J Infect Chemother ; 26(9): 873-881, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32565151

RESUMO

The nationwide surveillance on antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial respiratory pathogens from the patients in Japan was conducted by the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy, the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases, and the Japanese Society for Clinical Microbiology in 2016. The isolates were collected from clinical specimens obtained from well-diagnosed adult patients with respiratory tract infections during the period between February 2016 and August 2016 by three societies. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted at the central reference laboratory according to the method recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. Susceptibility testing was evaluated in 1062 strains (143 Staphylococcus aureus, 210 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 17 Streptococcus pyogenes, 248 Haemophilus influenzae, 151 Moraxella catarrhalis, 134 Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 159 Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Ratio of methicillin-resistant S. aureus was 48.3%, and those of penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae was 99.5%. Among H. influenzae, 14.1% of them were found to be ß-lactamase-producing ampicillin-resistant strains, and 41.1% to be ß-lactamase-non-producing ampicillin-resistant strains. Extended spectrum ß-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae and multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa with metallo ß-lactamase were 4.5% and 0.6%, respectively.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Infecções Respiratórias , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Haemophilus influenzae , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia
7.
J Infect Chemother ; 26(9): 882-889, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591324

RESUMO

We report on the findings of the first antimicrobial susceptibility surveillance study in Japan of isolates recovered from odontogenic infections. Of the 38 facilities where patients representing the 4 groups of odontogenic infections were seen, 102 samples were collected from cases of periodontitis (group 1), 6 samples from pericoronitis (group 2), 84 samples from jaw inflammation (group 3) and 54 samples from phlegmon of the jaw bone area (group 4) for a total of 246 samples. The positivity rates of bacterial growth on culture were 85.3%, 100%, 84% and 88.9%, respectively, for groups 1, 2, 3 and 4. Streptococcus spp. isolation rates according to odontogenic infection group were 22% (group 1), 17.7% (group 3) and 20.7% (group 4). Anaerobic isolation rates were 66.9% (group 1), 71.8% (group 3) and 68.2% (group 4). Drug susceptibility tests were performed on 726 strains excluding 121 strains that were undergrown. The breakdown of the strains subjected to testing was 186 Streptococcus spp., 179 anaerobic gram-positive cocci, 246 Prevotella spp., 27 Porphyromonas spp., and 88 Fusobacterium spp. The isolates were tested against 30 antimicrobial agents. Sensitivities to penicillins and cephems were good except for Prevotella spp. The low sensitivities of Prevotella spp is due to ß-lactamase production. Prevotella strains resistant to macrolides, quinolones, and clindamycin were found. No strains resistant to carbapenems or penems were found among all strains tested. No anaerobic bacterial strain was resistant to metronidazole. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing performed on the S. anginosus group and anaerobic bacteria, which are the major pathogens associated with odontogenic infections, showed low MIC90 values to the penicillins which are the first-line antimicrobial agents for odontogenic infections; however, for Prevotella spp., penicillins combined with ß-lactamase inhibitor showed low MIC90 values.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Infecções Bacterianas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias Anaeróbias , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Clindamicina/farmacologia , Clindamicina/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Penicilinas
8.
J Infect Chemother ; 25(9): 657-668, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196772

RESUMO

The nationwide surveillance on antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial respiratory pathogens from the patients in Japan was conducted by Japanese Society of Chemotherapy, the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases, and the Japanese Society for Clinical Microbiology in 2014. The isolates were collected from clinical specimens obtained from well-diagnosed adult patients with respiratory tract infections during the period between January 2014 and April 2015 by three societies. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted at the central reference laboratory according to the method recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. Susceptibility testing was evaluated in 1534 strains (335 Staphylococcus aureus, 264 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 29 Streptococcus pyogenes, 281 Haemophilus influenzae, 164 Moraxella catarrhalis, 207 Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 254 Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Ratio of methicillin-resistant S. aureus was 43.6%, and those of penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae was 100%. Among H. influenzae, 8.2% of them were found to be ß-lactamase-producing ampicillin-resistant strains, and 49.1% to be ß-lactamase-non-producing ampicillin-resistant strains. Extended spectrum ß-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae and multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa with metallo ß-lactamase were 9.2% and 0.4%, respectively.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Haemophilus influenzae/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Moraxella catarrhalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Streptococcus pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus pyogenes/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
J Infect Chemother ; 23(9): 587-597, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28669567

RESUMO

The nationwide surveillance on antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial respiratory pathogens from the patients in Japan was conducted by Japanese Society of Chemotherapy, Japanese association for infectious diseases and Japanese society for Clinical Microbiology in 2012. The isolates were collected from clinical specimens obtained from well-diagnosed adult patients with respiratory tract infections during the period between January and December in 2012 by three societies. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted at the central reference laboratory according to the method recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standard Institutes. Susceptibility testing was evaluated in 1236 strains (232 Staphylococcus aureus, 225 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 16 Streptococcus pyogenes, 231 Haemophilus influenzae, 147 Moraxella catarrhalis, 167 Klebsiella pneumoniae and 218 Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Ratio of methicillin-resistant S. aureus was 51.3%, and those of penicillin-intermediate S. pneumoniae was 0.4%. Among H. influenzae, 5.6% of them were found to be ß-lactamase-producing ampicillin-resistant strains, and 37.2% to be ß-lactamase-non-producing ampicillin-resistant strains. Extended spectrum ß-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae and multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa with metallo ß-lactamase were 4.2% and 3.2%, respectively. Continuous national surveillance is important to determine the actual situation of the resistance shown by bacterial respiratory pathogens to antimicrobial agents.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Sistema Respiratório/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Haemophilus influenzae/efeitos dos fármacos , Haemophilus influenzae/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Japão , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Moraxella catarrhalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Moraxella catarrhalis/isolamento & purificação , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus pyogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus pyogenes/isolamento & purificação , beta-Lactamases/análise
10.
J Infect Chemother ; 21(6): 410-20, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25817352

RESUMO

The nationwide surveillance on antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial respiratory pathogens from patients in Japan, was conducted by Japanese Society of Chemotherapy, Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases and Japanese Society for Clinical Microbiology in 2010. The isolates were collected from clinical specimens obtained from well-diagnosed adult patients with respiratory tract infections during the period from January and April 2010 by three societies. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted at the central reference laboratory according to the method recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institutes using maximum 45 antibacterial agents. Susceptibility testing was evaluable with 954 strains (206 Staphylococcus aureus, 189 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 4 Streptococcus pyogenes, 182 Haemophilus influenzae, 74 Moraxella catarrhalis, 139 Klebsiella pneumoniae and 160 Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Ratio of methicillin-resistant S. aureus was as high as 50.5%, and those of penicillin-intermediate and -resistant S. pneumoniae were 1.1% and 0.0%, respectively. Among H. influenzae, 17.6% of them were found to be ß-lactamase-non-producing ampicillin (ABPC)-intermediately resistant, 33.5% to be ß-lactamase-non-producing ABPC-resistant and 11.0% to be ß-lactamase-producing ABPC-resistant strains. Extended spectrum ß-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae and multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa with metallo ß-lactamase were 2.9% and 0.6%, respectively. Continuous national surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility of respiratory pathogens is crucial in order to monitor changing patterns of susceptibility and to be able to update treatment recommendations on a regular basis.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Humanos , Japão , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
11.
J Infect Chemother ; 18(5): 609-20, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22766652

RESUMO

For the purpose of nationwide surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial respiratory pathogens from patients in Japan, the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy (JSC) started a survey in 2006. From 2009, JSC continued the survey in collaboration with the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases and the Japanese Society for Clinical Microbiology. The fourth-year survey was conducted during the period from January and April 2009 by the three societies. A total of 684 strains were collected from clinical specimens obtained from well-diagnosed adult patients with respiratory tract infections. Susceptibility testing was evaluable with 635 strains (130 Staphylococcus aureus, 127 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 4 Streptococcus pyogenes, 123 Haemophilus influenzae, 70 Moraxella catarrhalis, 78 Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 103 Pseudomonas aeruginosa). A maximum of 45 antibacterial agents including 26 ß-lactams (four penicillins, three penicillins in combination with ß-lactamase inhibitors, four oral cephems, eight parenteral cephems, one monobactam, five carbapenems, and one penem), four aminoglycosides, four macrolides (including ketolide), one lincosamide, one tetracycline, two glycopeptides, six fluoroquinolones, and one oxazolidinone were used for the study. Analysis was conducted at the central reference laboratory according to the method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI). Incidence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was as high as 58.5 %, and that of penicillin-intermediate and penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PISP and PRSP) was 6.3 % and 0.0 %, respectively. Among H. influenzae, 21.1 % of them were found to be ß-lactamase-non-producing ampicillin (ABPC)-intermediately resistant (BLNAI), 18.7 % to be ß-lactamase-non-producing ABPC-resistant (BLNAR), and 5.7 % to be ß-lactamase-producing ABPC-resistant (BLPAR) strains. A high frequency (76.5 %) of ß-lactamase-producing strains has been suspected in Moraxella catarrhalis isolates. Four (3.2 %) extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae were found among 126 strains. Four isolates (2.5 %) of P. aeruginosa were found to be metallo-ß-lactamase-producing strains, including three (1.9 %) suspected multi-drug resistant strains showing resistance against imipenem, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin. Continuous national surveillance of the antimicrobial susceptibility of respiratory pathogens is crucial to monitor changing patterns of susceptibility and to be able to update treatment recommendations on a regular basis.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Sociedades Científicas
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