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1.
Front Vet Sci ; 6: 372, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696124

RESUMO

Protozoa morphologically consistent with Caryospora sp. are one of the few pathogens associated with episodic mass mortality events involving free-ranging sea turtles. Parasitism of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) by these coccidia and associated mortality was first reported in maricultured turtles in the Caribbean during the 1970s. Years later, epizootics affecting wild green turtles in Australia occurred in 1991 and 2014. The first clinical cases of Caryospora-like infections reported elsewhere in free-ranging turtles were from the southeastern US in 2012. Following these initial individual cases in this region, we documented an epizootic and mass mortality of green turtles along the Atlantic coast of southern Florida from November 2014 through April 2015 and continued to detect additional, sporadic cases in the southeastern US in subsequent years. No cases of coccidial disease were recorded in the southeastern US prior to 2012 despite clinical evaluation and necropsy of stranded sea turtles in this region since the 1980s, suggesting that the frequency of clinical coccidiosis has increased here. Moreover, we also recorded the first stranding associated with infection by a Caryospora-like organism in Hawai'i in 2018. To further characterize the coccidia, we sequenced part of the 18S ribosomal and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I genes of coccidia collected from 62 green turtles found in the southeastern US and from one green turtle found in Hawai'i. We also sequenced the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer regions from selected cases and compared all results with those obtained from Caryospora-like coccidia collected from green turtles found in Australia. Eight distinct genotypes were represented in green turtles from the southeastern US. One genotype predominated and was identical to that of coccidia collected from the green turtle found in Hawai'i. We also found a coccidian genotype in green turtles from Florida and Australia with identical 18S and mitochondrial sequences, and only slight inter-regional differences in the internal transcribed spacer 2. We found no evidence of geographical structuring based on phylogenetic analysis. Low genetic variability among the coccidia found in green turtle populations with minimal natural connectivity suggests recent interoceanic dissemination of these parasites, which could pose a risk to sea turtle populations.

2.
Vet Dermatol ; 30(1): 68-e20, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30474318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cercopithifilaria bainae is a tick-vectored filarioid nematode associated with erythematous dermatitis in dogs. It has not been reported previously in the United States. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical, histological and parasitological diagnosis and treatment of C. bainae in a dog. ANIMALS: An 11-month-old golden retriever/standard poodle mixed breed dog from Florida (USA). METHODS AND MATERIALS: The dog had no travel history within or outside the United States, was presented with a one month history of annular erythematous plaques on the head and ulcers on the medial canthi. Lesions were unresponsive to antibiotic treatment. RESULTS: Histopathological evaluation of skin biopsies revealed an eosinophilic to lymphohistiocytic perivascular dermatitis with multiple microgranulomas and rare 5-10 µm diameter microfilariae within microgranulomas. Microfilarial morphology was consistent with C. bainae. PCR and sequencing of 18S rRNA and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I genes confirmed the nematodes as C. bainae. The dog was treated with a commercial spot-on containing imidacloprid and moxidectin, and clinical resolution occurred. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of C. bainae in a dog in the United States and the first description of dermatological lesions caused primarily by C. bainae.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Filariose/veterinária , Filarioidea , Nematoides , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Antinematódeos/administração & dosagem , Antinematódeos/uso terapêutico , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Quimioterapia Combinada , Ectoparasitoses/diagnóstico , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Ectoparasitoses/patologia , Feminino , Filariose/diagnóstico , Filariose/parasitologia , Filariose/patologia , Florida , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Neonicotinoides/administração & dosagem , Neonicotinoides/uso terapêutico , Nitrocompostos/administração & dosagem , Nitrocompostos/uso terapêutico , Rhipicephalus sanguineus/parasitologia , Pele/parasitologia , Pele/patologia
3.
Anim Health Res Rev ; 20(1): 47-60, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895020

RESUMO

Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of vector-borne disease (VBD) in pets is one cornerstone of companion animal practices. Veterinarians are facing new challenges associated with the emergence, reemergence, and rising incidence of VBD, including heartworm disease, Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, and ehrlichiosis. Increases in the observed prevalence of these diseases have been attributed to a multitude of factors, including diagnostic tests with improved sensitivity, expanded annual testing practices, climatologic and ecological changes enhancing vector survival and expansion, emergence or recognition of novel pathogens, and increased movement of pets as travel companions. Veterinarians have the additional responsibility of providing information about zoonotic pathogen transmission from pets, especially to vulnerable human populations: the immunocompromised, children, and the elderly. Hindering efforts to protect pets and people is the dynamic and ever-changing nature of VBD prevalence and distribution. To address this deficit in understanding, the Companion Animal Parasite Council (CAPC) began efforts to annually forecast VBD prevalence in 2011. These forecasts provide veterinarians and pet owners with expected disease prevalence in advance of potential changes. This review summarizes the fidelity of VBD forecasts and illustrates the practical use of CAPC pathogen prevalence maps and forecast data in the practice of veterinary medicine and client education.

5.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0203658, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30248128

RESUMO

Diseases in introduced broilers can possibly spill over to wild birds on the Galapagos. Knowledge about the current burden of exposure to pathogens in broilers on the Galapagos is very limited. The objective of the study reported here was to measure the burden of exposure to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), and intestinal parasites in a sample of broiler chickens on 13 farms on Santa Cruz Island and San Cristobal Island in July 2017. Blood serum samples were tested for detection of antibodies to IBDV, IBV, NDV, and MG by using an IDEXX Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay. In addition, fecal samples and pen bedding environmental samples were processed and analyzed for diagnosis of intestinal parasite eggs under a compound light microscope. The frequency of seropositive broilers to IBDV was 74/130 or 56% (95% CI = 48, 65%), to IBV was 27/130 or 20% (14, 28%), and to NDV was 1/130 or 0.7% (0.1, 4%). All broilers tested negative to MG antibodies. Eimeria spp. infection was common in study broilers. Finally, we observed interaction between broiler chickens and wild birds (finches) inside broiler pens, as well as the presence of backyard chickens inside property limits of study farms. This study produced evidence that exposure to IBDV, IBV, and intestinal parasites in broilers on Santa Cruz Island and San Cristobal Island is important. Study results are relevant because (i) they provide new baseline data on the burden of exposure to avian pathogens in broiler farms, (ii) justify the need to verify standard operating procedures in hatcheries that supply (non-vaccinated) day-old chicks to the Galapagos and (iii) to implement enhanced biosecurity standards on broiler chicken farms to mitigate risk of disease transmission between broilers, backyard poultry, and wild birds on the Galapagos.


Assuntos
Galinhas/microbiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Espécies Introduzidas , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Doença de Newcastle/transmissão , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/transmissão , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Aves/microbiologia , Aves/parasitologia , Aves/virologia , Galinhas/parasitologia , Galinhas/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Equador , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/imunologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/transmissão , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/imunologia , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/imunologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia
6.
J Parasitol ; 2018 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30141720

RESUMO

Knowledge regarding endoparasites of Galapagos sea lions, Zalophus wollebaeki Sivertsen, 1953, is limited to 1 report. Herein, we examined feces extracted from the lower gastro-intestinal tract of 15 Galapagos sea lions (GSL) plus 14 fecal mounds nearby GSL at 4 locations on San Cristobal Island, Galapagos beginning in May continuing through June 2016. Using standard fecal flotation and sedimentation techniques, lungworm larvae, suggestive of Parafilaroides and Otostrongylus sp., eggs of pseudophyllidea cestodes and anisakid nematodes, and coccidian oocysts were collected from study samples. This is the first report of potential lungworm larvae, anisakids, pseudophyllidea cestodes and coccidian parasites in GSL.

7.
Prev Vet Med ; 157: 99-104, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30086856

RESUMO

Dog overpopulation and diseases are hazards to native island species and humans on the Galapagos. The main objective of the study reported here was to estimate the observed human:dog ratio on Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos in September 2016. In addition, dog demographic data were used to model the expected annual dog population growth in the next 10 years. A secondary objective was to measure the burden of dogs infected with intestinal parasites. The observed human:dog ratio was 964:202 (or 4.77:1), which extrapolates to 3290 dogs; an increase of 31% in the dog population on Santa Cruz from 2014 to 2016. Study results show that current spay-neuter efforts (about 300 dogs per year; 60% females, 40% males) are not enough to keep the population stable (i.e., current baseline of 3290 dogs). The frequency of dogs infected with Ancylostoma spp., an intestinal parasite in dogs that can cause cutaneous larval migrans in humans, was 18/44 or 41% (95% CI = 27%, 55%). These results provide the most complete assessment of the dog overpopulation on the Galapagos to date.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Enteropatias Parasitárias/transmissão , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Zoonoses , Animais , Demografia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , Equador , Feminino , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Masculino , Densidade Demográfica , Dinâmica Populacional , Crescimento Demográfico
8.
Vet Parasitol ; 255: 69-73, 2018 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29773139

RESUMO

The utility of therapeutic vaccination of bulls against Tritrichomonas foetus has been advocated in previous studies, but anecdotal reports suggest this practice does not clear infections and may additionally confound diagnostic testing by reducing parasite burdens below detectable limits. The objective of this study was to characterize the systemic humoral immune response to therapeutic vaccination in T. foetus-infected bulls over a period of four months using an indirect ELISA and to compare the dynamics of this response to culture and PCR results to establish the existence of a relationship (or lack thereof) between immunization and infection status. A study population of 4- to 6-year-old T. foetus-infected beef bulls (n = 20) was divided equally into a treatment group and a control group. The treatment group received two doses of commercially prepared whole cell killed vaccine 2 weeks apart while the control group received injections of vaccine diluent. Blood samples were collected at each injection and at 4 subsequent dates every 4 weeks thereafter (i.e. 0, 2, 6, 10, 14, and 18 wks) to measure IgG1 and IgG2 antibody subisotype response via an indirect ELISA. Preputial smegma samples were collected at the four monthly intervals following vaccination for diagnosis of infection via InPouch™ culture, Modified Diamond's Medium (MDM) culture, and PCR. Humoral response for both IgG isotypes from week 2 through week 18 were significantly increased in vaccinates compared to controls. No significant decrease in infection prevalence was detected in the treatment group for any of the diagnostic methods used. The apparent lack of pathogen clearance during a stimulated immune response suggests that therapeutic vaccination may not be a useful T. foetus management practice.


Assuntos
Imunidade Humoral , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Protozoárias/imunologia , Tritrichomonas foetus/imunologia , Vacinação/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Bovinos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/imunologia
9.
Vet Parasitol ; 254: 178-182, 2018 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29657005

RESUMO

Patient-side test kits for detecting antigenemia in dogs associated with sexually mature female heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis) have been available for three decades, and these tests are continually updated and improved. To define the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of contemporary antigen detection tests against cardiopulmonary D. immitis burden, we evaluated five patient-side kits-Anigen Rapid One Step® (Bio note), SNAP® 4Dx Plus Test Kit (IDEXX), WITNESS® Heartworm Canine Heartworm Antigen Test Kit (Zoetis), VetScan® Canine Heartworm Rapid Test (Abaxis), and Solo Step® CH Canine Heartworm Antigen Test (Heska), and one microplate ELISA (DiroCHEK®; Zoetis), using archived canine sera divided into five subclasses of female worms (0, 1-5, 6-20, 21-40, and >40). The patient-side tests were performed once, side-by-side according to each manufacturer's protocol by personnel blinded to the D. immitis status of each dog. The overall Se and Sp of the patient-side kits was ≥97.5 and =94.0%, respectively. For samples from dogs with 1-5, 6-20, and 21-40 D. immitis, the Se was between 96 and 100%, with a slight increase in Se in dogs with ≥41 worms. The agreement between tests for all subclasses of D. immitis burden was between 99 and 100%. The Se and Sp for the ELISA compared with the necropsy results of dogs was 99 and 96%, respectively. Agreement between each patient-side test and the ELISA was between 97 and 100%. All commercially available tests can give practitioners excellent patient-side information, allowing them to make informed decisions on the need for additional diagnostic work-up before instituting new or continuing D. immitis prophylaxis.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Helmintos/sangue , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/veterinária , Dirofilaria immitis/isolamento & purificação , Dirofilariose/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Animais , Dirofilariose/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 30(3): 442-446, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29528809

RESUMO

Eosinophils within the central nervous system are abnormal and are usually associated with fungal or parasitic infections in horses. Causative agents include Halicephalobus gingivalis, Sarcocystis neurona, and Neospora hughesi. Confirmation of these organisms via specific testing is typically not performed, and final diagnoses are often presumptive. With molecular technology, many of these organisms can now be confirmed. This is important for emerging and zoonotic pathogens, including Angiostrongylus cantonensis, an emerging parasite of interest in the southeastern United States. We retrospectively analyzed eosinophilic encephalitides in Floridian horses for H. gingivalis, S. neurona, and A. cantonensis, applied descriptors to equine eosinophilic encephalitides, and determined if a relationship existed between these descriptions and specific etiologic agents. In a database search for horses with eosinophilic and other encephalitides submitted to the University of Florida, College of Veterinary Medicine, Anatomic Pathology Service, we identified 27 horses with encephalitis, and performed DNA isolation and rtPCR on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks from these cases. Real-time PCR identified 6 horses positive for S. neurona and 4 horses positive for H. gingivalis; all horses were negative for A. cantonensis. All 25 control horses were negative for H. gingivalis, S. neurona, and A. cantonensis. Pattern analysis and eosinophil enumeration were not useful in differentiating among causes of eosinophilic encephalitides in horses in our study.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Encefalomielite Equina/veterinária , Eosinofilia/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Infecções por Rhabditida/veterinária , Sarcocistose/veterinária , Animais , Coccidiose/patologia , Encefalomielite Equina/parasitologia , Encefalomielite Equina/patologia , Eosinofilia/parasitologia , Eosinofilia/patologia , Eosinófilos/patologia , Florida , Doenças dos Cavalos/sangue , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Cavalos , Neospora/genética , Neospora/isolamento & purificação , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rabditídios/genética , Rabditídios/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rhabditida/parasitologia , Infecções por Rhabditida/patologia , Sarcocystis/genética , Sarcocystis/isolamento & purificação , Sarcocistose/patologia
11.
Vet Clin Pathol ; 46(4): 629-634, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28817168

RESUMO

A 2-year-old female Flap-necked chameleon (Chamaeleo dilepis) was presented with a history of anorexia. On physical examination, three 11×4×2 mm, light tan-pink, raised, gelatinous, freely movable, poorly demarcated, raised nodules were identified within the oral cavity. An impression smear contained multiple, light blue to green structures exhibiting an 18×35 µm, elliptical-shaped anterior portion and a single 1×150 µm filament with a tapered end. Initial differential etiologies included trematode ova, flagellate protozoa, fungal sporangia, plant material, and sperm. Fungal culture yielded no growth. The structures described above did not stain with Gomori methenamine silver stain. A calcofluor white stain yielded positive fluorescence. The DNA was extracted from the impression smears and pan-trematode PCR was performed; products were directly sequenced and phylogenetic analysis revealed maximum similarity with a digenean trematode in the family Derogenidae that was distinct from other trematodes for which a reference sequence was available. To our knowledge, this is the first description of cytologic features of trematode ova from an oral lesion in a chameleon.


Assuntos
Lagartos/parasitologia , Doenças da Boca/veterinária , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Tipagem Molecular , Doenças da Boca/parasitologia , Filogenia , Trematódeos/classificação , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia
12.
PLoS One ; 12(5): e0177910, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28542310

RESUMO

The parasitic nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a major cause of eosinophilic meningitis in humans, and has been documented in other incidental hosts such as birds, horses, dogs and non-human primates. It is endemic in Hawaii, and there have been sporadic reports in the southern continental United States. This parasite uses rats as definitive hosts and snails as intermediate hosts. In this study, we collected potential definitive and intermediate hosts throughout Florida to ascertain the geographic distribution in the state: Rats, environmental rat fecal samples, and snails were collected from 18 counties throughout the state. Classical diagnostics and morphological identification, along with molecular techniques were used to identify nematode species and confirm the presence of A. cantonensis. Of the 171 Rattus rattus collected, 39 (22.8%) were positive for A. cantonensis, and 6 of the 37 (16.2%) environmental rat fecal samples collected in three of the surveyed counties were also positive for this parasite by real time PCR. We examined 1,437 gastropods, which represented 32 species; 27 (1.9%) were positive for A. cantonensis from multiple sites across Florida. Three non-native gastropod species, Bradybaena similaris, Zachrysia provisoria, and Paropeas achatinaceum, and three native gastropod species, Succinea floridana, Ventridens demissus, and Zonitoides arboreus, which are newly recorded intermediate hosts for the parasite, were positive for A. cantonensis. This study indicates that A. cantonensis is established in Florida through the finding of adult and larval stages in definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively, throughout the state. The ability for this historically subtropical nematode to thrive in a more temperate climate is alarming, however as the climate changes and average temperatures rise, gastropod distributions will probably expand, leading to the spread of this parasite in more temperate areas. Through greater awareness of host species and prevalence of A. cantonensis in the United States, potential accidental infections may be avoided.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus cantonensis/fisiologia , Geografia , Caramujos/parasitologia , Animais , Florida , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Ratos
13.
J Wildl Dis ; 52(4): 874-882, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27455196

RESUMO

Histologic lesions incidental to the cause of death were observed in the adrenal glands of 17 subadult and adult leatherback sea turtles ( Dermochelys coriacea ) found dead or moribund on or near shore in North America. Round bodies, 250-300 µm in diameter composed of an outer capsule and large multinucleated cells surrounding a central mass of acellular material were distributed throughout the affected glands. Protozoal etiology was suspected based on some resemblance to coccidia; however, features diagnostic for coccidial infection were lacking in all but one case, which had a focal area of adrenalitis containing zoites. A novel eucoccidian partial 18S rRNA genetic sequence was consistently detected in adrenal glands with lesions. With the use of quantitative PCR, a specific area of the V4 region of the coccidian 18S gene was quantified in affected adrenal glands and correlated significantly with density of the histologic lesions. A second distinct, but closely related, 18S sequence was also amplified from the adrenal gland of one turtle and from a fecal sample containing unsporulated coccidian oocysts. The two 18S sequences identified from leatherback sea turtles form a clade within the family Eimeriidae. Further investigation is required to understand better the morphology of the life stages, life cycle, and potential effects of this coccidian parasite on adrenal function.


Assuntos
Glândulas Suprarrenais/microbiologia , Coccídios/patogenicidade , Coccidiose/veterinária , Tartarugas/microbiologia , Animais , América do Norte
14.
Prev Vet Med ; 123: 128-137, 2016 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26700426

RESUMO

Dog overpopulation and diseases are hazards to native island species and humans on the Galapagos. Vaccination and importation of dogs are prohibited on the Galapagos. Risk management of these hazards requires the use of science-based risk assessment and risk communication. The objectives of the study reported here were (i) to estimate the human:dog ratio and (ii) the prevalence of and identify exposure factors associated with positive antibody titers to canine distemper virus (CDV) and other pathogens, as well as infection with intestinal parasites in owned dogs on Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos in September 2014. The observed human:dog ratio was 6.148:1 which extrapolates to 2503 dogs (two times more than a recent dog count conducted by Galapagos Biosecurity Agency in March 2014). The proportion of spayed female dogs (50%) was higher, compared to neutered male dogs (30%) (p=0.04). Prevalence of dogs with positive antibody titers to CDV was 36% (95% CI=26, 46%), to canine parvovirus was 89% (95% CI=82, 95%), and to canine adenovirus was 40% (95% CI=30, 51%). The frequency of seropositive dogs to CDV was lower in urban dogs (26%), compared to rural dogs (53%) (p<0.05). A positive interaction effect between rural residence and spay/neuter status on seropositivity to CDV was observed, which we discuss in this report. Because vaccination is prohibited, the dog population on Santa Cruz is susceptible to an outbreak of CDV (particularly among urban dogs) with potential spill over to marine mammals. Dog's age (1-2 or 3-14 years old, compared to younger dogs), and residence (rural, urban) were associated with positive antibody titers to parvovirus, adenovirus, Ehrlichia spp., or Anaplasma spp., as well as infection with Ancylostoma spp., an intestinal parasite in dogs that can be transmitted to humans, particularly children. These results provide the most comprehensive assessment of dog overpopulation and exposure to CDV and other pathogens on the Galapagos to date.


Assuntos
Vírus da Cinomose Canina/imunologia , Cinomose/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Animais , Cinomose/virologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Equador/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/microbiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/virologia , Densidade Demográfica , Prevalência
16.
J Parasitol ; 101(2): 156-9, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25564891

RESUMO

Angiostrongylus cantonensis , the rat lungworm, is a zoonotic, parasitic nematode that uses the rat as a definitive host and gastropods as intermediate hosts. It is prevalent in parts of Asia, the Pacific islands, and the Caribbean. In the United States, A. cantonensis is established in Hawaii and in recent years has been reported in Alabama, California, Louisiana, and Florida, where it has been found in the reintroduced Lissachatina fulica (also known as Achatina fulica), the giant African snail that was once eradicated from the state. Since 2004, A. cantonensis has been identified as the causative agent for 2 non-human primate deaths in Florida, one attributed to ingestion of the snail Zachrysia provisoria. Our study further supports the presence of A. cantonensis in Z. provisoria in Florida and identifies 2 additional introduced terrestrial snails, Bradybaena similaris and Alcadia striata, that serve as intermediate hosts for A. cantonensis , as well as evidence of rat infection, in southern Florida. The finding of both definitive and intermediate hosts suggests that A. cantonensis may be established in south Florida.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus cantonensis/isolamento & purificação , Caramujos/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/transmissão , Angiostrongylus cantonensis/genética , Animais , DNA de Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Florida , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Ratos , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
17.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 25(6): 785-90, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24081933

RESUMO

A commercial facility producing hamsters with a history of infection by dwarf tapeworm (Hymenolepis nana) submitted 15 animals for necropsy and postmortem parasitological and microscopic examination. No tapeworms were detected grossly or microscopically. Fecal examination including gastrointestinal mucosal smears demonstrated mixed intestinal bacteria and low numbers of Giardia sp. Histologic examination of small intestine demonstrated filling of the small intestinal crypts by large numbers of 7-9 µm × 3 µm, rod to crescent or teardrop-shaped flagellates consistent with Spironucleus sp. These organisms had two 1-µm, basophilic, oval nuclei and multiple superficial flagella-like structures. Much larger 10-15 µm × 8-10 µm, oval to pear-shaped organisms were also present in lower numbers and usually located with the crypts. These larger flagellates had multiple flagella and a basophilic rod-shaped nucleus. The larger flagellates included Giardia sp., which had an intimate interface with the surface of the mucosal epithelium, bilaterally symmetry, and binucleation. Lower numbers of trichomonads were also present and were distinguished by an undulating surface membrane and a single nucleus. The mucosa was hyperplastic and moderately inflamed. Although the tapeworm infection was resolved, diagnosis of multiple intestinal flagellates by fecal examination is complicated by the varying sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of different types of fecal analysis for different flagellate types. Key differences in the morphology and location of the different types of flagellates as observed by histology of intestinal tissues provide important additional diagnostic information to distinguish trichomonads, Spironucleus sp., and Giardia sp.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Giardia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Mesocricetus , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Trichomonadida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Cricetinae , Evolução Fatal , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Histocitoquímica/veterinária , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia
18.
Parasitol Res ; 112(6): 2227-35, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23525691

RESUMO

Feline trichomoniasis is an intestinal disease in cats resulting in chronic diarrhea, flatulence, tenesmus, and fecal incontinence. Bovine trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted disease of cattle infecting the reproductive tract of cows causing pyometra and possible mid- to late-term abortions. The causative agent for both diseases has been reported to be the flagellated protozoan, Tritrichomonas foetus. However, several published reports support significant biological differences between T. foetus isolated from bovines and felines. In the present study, we describe Tritrichomonas blagburni n.sp. from the domestic cat (Felis catus) as the causative agent of feline intestinal trichomoniasis. We support our proposal based on results of experimental cross-infection studies between cats and cattle using both feline and bovine isolates of the parasite, differences in pathogenicity between the two parasites for the respective host species, and molecular gene sequencing differences between parasites obtained from domestic cats and parasites obtained from cattle.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Enteropatias/veterinária , Infecções por Protozoários/parasitologia , Tritrichomonas/classificação , Tritrichomonas/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Gatos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA de Protozoário/química , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/química , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Genes de RNAr , Enteropatias/parasitologia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , RNA de Protozoário/genética , RNA Ribossômico/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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