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1.
Environ Res ; 212(Pt C): 113360, 2022 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500859

RESUMO

Epigenetic mechanisms may underlie air pollution-health outcome associations. We estimated gaseous air pollutant-DNA methylation (DNAm) associations using twelve subpopulations within Women's Health Initiative (WHI) and Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohorts (n = 8397; mean age 61.3 years; 83% female; 46% African-American, 46% European-American, 8% Hispanic/Latino). We used geocoded participant address-specific mean ambient carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO2; NOx), ozone (O3), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) concentrations estimated over the 2-, 7-, 28-, and 365-day periods before collection of blood samples used to generate Illumina 450 k array leukocyte DNAm measurements. We estimated methylome-wide, subpopulation- and race/ethnicity-stratified pollutant-DNAm associations in multi-level, linear mixed-effects models adjusted for sociodemographic, behavioral, meteorological, and technical covariates. We combined stratum-specific estimates in inverse variance-weighted meta-analyses and characterized significant associations (false discovery rate; FDR<0.05) at Cytosine-phosphate-Guanine (CpG) sites without among-strata heterogeneity (PCochran's Q > 0.05). We attempted replication in the Cooperative Health Research in Region of Augsburg (KORA) study and Normative Aging Study (NAS). We observed a -0.3 (95% CI: -0.4, -0.2) unit decrease in percent DNAm per interquartile range (IQR, 7.3 ppb) increase in 28-day mean NO2 concentration at cg01885635 (chromosome 3; regulatory region 290 bp upstream from ZNF621; FDR = 0.03). At intragenic sites cg21849932 (chromosome 20; LIME1; intron 3) and cg05353869 (chromosome 11; KLHL35; exon 2), we observed a -0.3 (95% CI: -0.4, -0.2) unit decrease (FDR = 0.04) and a 1.2 (95% CI: 0.7, 1.7) unit increase (FDR = 0.04), respectively, in percent DNAm per IQR (17.6 ppb) increase in 7-day mean ozone concentration. Results were not fully replicated in KORA and NAS. We identified three CpG sites potentially susceptible to gaseous air pollution-induced DNAm changes near genes relevant for cardiovascular and lung disease. Further harmonized investigations with a range of gaseous pollutants and averaging durations are needed to determine the effect of gaseous air pollutants on DNA methylation and ultimately gene expression.

2.
Aging Cell ; : e13608, 2022 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35546478

RESUMO

DNA methylation (DNAm) has been reported to be associated with many diseases and with mortality. We hypothesized that the integration of DNAm with clinical risk factors would improve mortality prediction. We performed an epigenome-wide association study of whole blood DNAm in relation to mortality in 15 cohorts (n = 15,013). During a mean follow-up of 10 years, there were 4314 deaths from all causes including 1235 cardiovascular disease (CVD) deaths and 868 cancer deaths. Ancestry-stratified meta-analysis of all-cause mortality identified 163 CpGs in European ancestry (EA) and 17 in African ancestry (AA) participants at p < 1 × 10-7 , of which 41 (EA) and 16 (AA) were also associated with CVD death, and 15 (EA) and 9 (AA) with cancer death. We built DNAm-based prediction models for all-cause mortality that predicted mortality risk after adjusting for clinical risk factors. The mortality prediction model trained by integrating DNAm with clinical risk factors showed an improvement in prediction of cancer death with 5% increase in the C-index in a replication cohort, compared with the model including clinical risk factors alone. Mendelian randomization identified 15 putatively causal CpGs in relation to longevity, CVD, or cancer risk. For example, cg06885782 (in KCNQ4) was positively associated with risk for prostate cancer (Beta = 1.2, PMR  = 4.1 × 10-4 ) and negatively associated with longevity (Beta = -1.9, PMR  = 0.02). Pathway analysis revealed that genes associated with mortality-related CpGs are enriched for immune- and cancer-related pathways. We identified replicable DNAm signatures of mortality and demonstrated the potential utility of CpGs as informative biomarkers for prediction of mortality risk.

3.
Allergy ; 2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35437756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epigenomic (e.g., DNA methylation [DNAm]) changes have been hypothesized as intermediate step linking environmental exposures with allergic disease. Associations between individual DNAm at CpGs and allergic diseases have been reported, but their joint predictive capability is unknown. METHODS: Data were obtained from 240 children of the German LISA cohort. DNAm was measured in blood clots at 6 (N = 234) and 10 years (N = 227) using the Illumina EPIC chip. Presence of aeroallergen sensitization was measured in blood at 6, 10, and 15 years. We calculated six methylation risk scores (MRS) for allergy-related phenotypes, like total and specific IgE, asthma, or any allergies, based on available publications and assessed their performances both cross-sectionally (biomarker) and prospectively (predictor of the disease). Dose-response associations between aeroallergen sensitization and MRS were evaluated. RESULTS: All six allergy-related MRS were highly correlated (r > .86), and seven CpGs were included in more than one MRS. Cross-sectionally, we observed an 81% increased risk for aeroallergen sensitization at 6 years with an increased MRS by one standard deviation (best-performing MRS, 95% confidence interval = [43%; 227%]). Significant associations were also seen cross-sectionally at 10 years and prospectively, though the effect of the latter was attenuated when restricted to participants not sensitized at baseline. A clear dose-response relationship with levels of aeroallergen sensitization could be established cross-sectionally, but not prospectively. CONCLUSION: We found good classification and prediction capabilities of calculated allergy-related MRS cross-sectionally, underlining the relevance of altered gene-regulation in allergic diseases and providing insights into potential DNAm biomarkers of aeroallergen sensitization.

4.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2022 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35234888

RESUMO

Progressive dilation of the infrarenal aortic diameter is a consequence of the ageing process and is considered the main determinant of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA). We aimed to investigate the genetic and clinical determinants of abdominal aortic diameter (AAD). We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in ten cohorts (n = 13 542) imputed to the 1000 Genome Project reference panel including 12 815 subjects in the discovery phase and 727 subjects (PBIO) as replication. Maximum anterior-posterior diameter of the infrarenal aorta was used as AAD. We also included exome array data (n = 14 480) from seven epidemiologic studies. Single-variant and gene-based associations were done using SeqMeta package. A Mendelian randomization analysis was applied to investigate the causal effect of a number of clinical risk factors on AAD. In GWAS on AAD, rs74448815 in the intronic region of LDLRAD4 reached genome-wide significance (beta = -0.02, SE = 0.004, p-value = 2.10 × 10-8). The association replicated in the PBIO1 cohort (p-value = 8.19 × 10-4). In exome-array single-variant analysis (p-value threshold = 9 × 10-7), the lowest p-value was found for rs239259 located in SLC22A20 (beta = 0.007, p-value =1.2 × 10-5). In the gene-based analysis (p-value threshold = 1.85 × 10-6), PCSK5 showed an association with AAD (p-value = 8.03 × 10-7). Furthermore, in Mendelian randomization analyses, we found evidence for genetic association of pulse pressure (beta = -0.003, p-value = 0.02), triglycerides (beta = -0.16, p-value = 0.008) and height (beta = 0.03, p-value<0.0001), known risk factors for AAA, consistent with a causal association with AAD. Our findings point to new biology as well as highlighting gene regions in mechanisms that have previously been implicated in the genetics of other vascular diseases.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35172329

RESUMO

Educational inequalities in all-cause mortality have been observed for decades. However, the underlying biological mechanisms are not well known. We aimed to assess the role of DNA methylation changes in blood captured by epigenetic clocks in explaining these inequalities. Data were from eight prospective population-based cohort studies, representing 13,021 participants. First, educational inequalities and their portion explained by Horvath DNAmAge, Hannum DNAmAge, DNAmPhenoAge, and DNAmGrimAge epigenetic clocks were assessed in each cohort via counterfactual-based mediation models, on both absolute (hazard difference) and relative (hazard ratio) scales, and by sex. Second, estimates from each cohort were pooled through a random effect meta-analysis model. Men with low education had an excess mortality from all causes of 57 deaths per 10,000 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI): 38, 76) compared to their more advantaged counterparts. For women, the excess mortality was 4 deaths per 10,000 person-years (95% CI: -11, 19). On the relative scale, educational inequalities corresponded to hazard ratios of 1.33 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.57) for men and 1.15 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.37) for women. DNAmGrimAge accounted for the largest proportion, approximately 50%, of the educational inequalities for men, while the proportion was negligible for women. Most of this mediation was explained by differential effects of unhealthy lifestyles and morbidities of the WHO risk factors for premature mortality. These results support DNA methylation-based epigenetic aging as a signature of educational inequalities in life expectancy emphasizing the need for policies to address the unequal social distribution of these WHO risk factors.

6.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(3)2022 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35158906

RESUMO

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play key roles in cell processes and are good candidates for cancer risk prediction. Few studies have investigated the association between individual genotypes and lncRNA expression. Here we integrate three separate datasets with information on lncRNA expression only, both lncRNA expression and genotype, and genotype information only to identify circulating lncRNAs associated with the risk of gallbladder cancer (GBC) using robust linear and logistic regression techniques. In the first dataset, we preselect lncRNAs based on expression changes along the sequence "gallstones → dysplasia → GBC". In the second dataset, we validate associations between genetic variants and serum expression levels of the preselected lncRNAs (cis-lncRNA-eQTLs) and build lncRNA expression prediction models. In the third dataset, we predict serum lncRNA expression based on individual genotypes and assess the association between genotype-based expression and GBC risk. AC084082.3 and LINC00662 showed increasing expression levels (p-value = 0.009), while C22orf34 expression decreased in the sequence from gallstones to GBC (p-value = 0.04). We identified and validated two cis-LINC00662-eQTLs (r2 = 0.26) and three cis-C22orf34-eQTLs (r2 = 0.24). Only LINC00662 showed a genotyped-based serum expression associated with GBC risk (OR = 1.25 per log2 expression unit, 95% CI 1.04-1.52, p-value = 0.02). Our results suggest that preselection of lncRNAs based on tissue samples and exploitation of cis-lncRNA-eQTLs may facilitate the identification of circulating noncoding RNAs linked to cancer risk.

7.
Nat Genet ; 54(1): 18-29, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980917

RESUMO

We determined the relationships between DNA sequence variation and DNA methylation using blood samples from 3,799 Europeans and 3,195 South Asians. We identify 11,165,559 SNP-CpG associations (methylation quantitative trait loci (meQTL), P < 10-14), including 467,915 meQTL that operate in trans. The meQTL are enriched for functionally relevant characteristics, including shared chromatin state, High-throuhgput chromosome conformation interaction, and association with gene expression, metabolic variation and clinical traits. We use molecular interaction and colocalization analyses to identify multiple nuclear regulatory pathways linking meQTL loci to phenotypic variation, including UBASH3B (body mass index), NFKBIE (rheumatoid arthritis), MGA (blood pressure) and COMMD7 (white cell counts). For rs6511961 , chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) validates zinc finger protein (ZNF)333 as the likely trans acting effector protein. Finally, we used interaction analyses to identify population- and lineage-specific meQTL, including rs174548 in FADS1, with the strongest effect in CD8+ T cells, thus linking fatty acid metabolism with immune dysregulation and asthma. Our study advances understanding of the potential pathways linking genetic variation to human phenotype.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Variação Genética , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Ásia , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Ilhas de CpG , Replicação do DNA , Europa (Continente) , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
8.
Elife ; 112022 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35023833

RESUMO

Protein biomarkers have been identified across many age-related morbidities. However, characterising epigenetic influences could further inform disease predictions. Here, we leverage epigenome-wide data to study links between the DNA methylation (DNAm) signatures of the circulating proteome and incident diseases. Using data from four cohorts, we trained and tested epigenetic scores (EpiScores) for 953 plasma proteins, identifying 109 scores that explained between 1% and 58% of the variance in protein levels after adjusting for known protein quantitative trait loci (pQTL) genetic effects. By projecting these EpiScores into an independent sample (Generation Scotland; n = 9537) and relating them to incident morbidities over a follow-up of 14 years, we uncovered 137 EpiScore-disease associations. These associations were largely independent of immune cell proportions, common lifestyle and health factors, and biological aging. Notably, we found that our diabetes-associated EpiScores highlighted previous top biomarker associations from proteome-wide assessments of diabetes. These EpiScores for protein levels can therefore be a valuable resource for disease prediction and risk stratification.


Although our genetic code does not change throughout our lives, our genes can be turned on and off as a result of epigenetics. Epigenetics can track how the environment and even certain behaviors add or remove small chemical markers to the DNA that makes up the genome. The type and location of these markers may affect whether genes are active or silent, this is, whether the protein coded for by that gene is being produced or not. One common epigenetic marker is known as DNA methylation. DNA methylation has been linked to the levels of a range of proteins in our cells and the risk people have of developing chronic diseases. Blood samples can be used to determine the epigenetic markers a person has on their genome and to study the abundance of many proteins. Gadd, Hillary, McCartney, Zaghlool et al. studied the relationships between DNA methylation and the abundance of 953 different proteins in blood samples from individuals in the German KORA cohort and the Scottish Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. They then used machine learning to analyze the relationship between epigenetic markers found in people's blood and the abundance of proteins, obtaining epigenetic scores or 'EpiScores' for each protein. They found 109 proteins for which DNA methylation patterns explained between at least 1% and up to 58% of the variation in protein levels. Integrating the 'EpiScores' with 14 years of medical records for more than 9000 individuals from the Generation Scotland study revealed 137 connections between EpiScores for proteins and a future diagnosis of common adverse health outcomes. These included diabetes, stroke, depression, Alzheimer's dementia, various cancers, and inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Age-related chronic diseases are a growing issue worldwide and place pressure on healthcare systems. They also severely reduce quality of life for individuals over many years. This work shows how epigenetic scores based on protein levels in the blood could predict a person's risk of several of these diseases. In the case of type 2 diabetes, the EpiScore results replicated previous research linking protein levels in the blood to future diagnosis of diabetes. Protein EpiScores could therefore allow researchers to identify people with the highest risk of disease, making it possible to intervene early and prevent these people from developing chronic conditions as they age.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Metilação de DNA/genética , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Epigenômica/métodos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Proteoma/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Biomarcadores , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Escócia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Brain ; 145(2): 644-654, 2022 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590685

RESUMO

Dystonia is a prevalent, heterogeneous movement disorder characterized by involuntarily abnormal postures. Biomarkers of dystonia are notoriously lacking. Here, a biomarker is reported for histone lysine methyltransferase (KMT2B)-deficient dystonia, a leading subtype among the individually rare monogenic dystonias. It was derived by applying a support vector machine to an episignature of 113 DNA CpG sites, which, in blood cells, showed significant epigenome-wide association with KMT2B deficiency and at least 1× log-fold change of methylation. This classifier was accurate both when tested on the general population and on samples with various other deficiencies of the epigenetic machinery, thus allowing for definitive evaluation of variants of uncertain significance and identifying patients who may profit from deep brain stimulation, a highly successful treatment in KMT2B-deficient dystonia. Methylation was increased in KMT2B deficiency at all 113 CpG sites. The coefficients of variation of the normalized methylation levels at these sites also perfectly classified the samples with KMT2B-deficient dystonia. Moreover, the mean of the normalized methylation levels correlated well with the age at onset of dystonia (P = 0.003)-being lower in samples with late or incomplete penetrance-thus serving as a predictor of disease onset and severity. Similarly, it may also function in monitoring the recently envisioned treatment of KMT2B deficiency by inhibition of DNA methylation.


Assuntos
Distonia , Distúrbios Distônicos , Biomarcadores , Metilação de DNA/genética , Distonia/genética , Distonia/terapia , Distúrbios Distônicos/genética , Distúrbios Distônicos/terapia , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Humanos , Mutação
10.
Hum Mol Genet ; 31(7): 1171-1182, 2022 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788810

RESUMO

Carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) is a biomarker of subclinical atherosclerosis and a predictor of future cardiovascular events. Identifying associations between gene expression levels and cIMT may provide insight to atherosclerosis etiology. Here, we use two approaches to identify associations between mRNA levels and cIMT: differential gene expression analysis in whole blood and S-PrediXcan. We used microarrays to measure genome-wide whole blood mRNA levels of 5647 European individuals from four studies. We examined the association of mRNA levels with cIMT adjusted for various potential confounders. Significant associations were tested for replication in three studies totaling 3943 participants. Next, we applied S-PrediXcan to summary statistics from a cIMT genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 71 128 individuals to estimate the association between genetically determined mRNA levels and cIMT and replicated these analyses using S-PrediXcan on an independent GWAS on cIMT that included 22 179 individuals from the UK Biobank. mRNA levels of TNFAIP3, CEBPD and METRNL were inversely associated with cIMT, but these associations were not significant in the replication analysis. S-PrediXcan identified associations between cIMT and genetically determined mRNA levels for 36 genes, of which six were significant in the replication analysis, including TLN2, which had not been previously reported for cIMT. There was weak correlation between our results using differential gene expression analysis and S-PrediXcan. Differential expression analysis and S-PrediXcan represent complementary approaches for the discovery of associations between phenotypes and gene expression. Using these approaches, we prioritize TNFAIP3, CEBPD, METRNL and TLN2 as new candidate genes whose differential expression might modulate cIMT.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
11.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 198, 2021 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Information on long-term alcohol consumption is relevant for medical and public health research, disease therapy, and other areas. Recently, DNA methylation-based inference of alcohol consumption from blood was reported with high accuracy, but these results were based on employing the same dataset for model training and testing, which can lead to accuracy overestimation. Moreover, only subsets of alcohol consumption categories were used, which makes it impossible to extrapolate such models to the general population. By using data from eight population-based European cohorts (N = 4677), we internally and externally validated the previously reported biomarkers and models for epigenetic inference of alcohol consumption from blood and developed new models comprising all data from all categories. RESULTS: By employing data from six European cohorts (N = 2883), we empirically tested the reproducibility of the previously suggested biomarkers and prediction models via ten-fold internal cross-validation. In contrast to previous findings, all seven models based on 144-CpGs yielded lower mean AUCs compared to the models with less CpGs. For instance, the 144-CpG heavy versus non-drinkers model gave an AUC of 0.78 ± 0.06, while the 5 and 23 CpG models achieved 0.83 ± 0.05, respectively. The transportability of the models was empirically tested via external validation in three independent European cohorts (N = 1794), revealing high AUC variance between datasets within models. For instance, the 144-CpG heavy versus non-drinkers model yielded AUCs ranging from 0.60 to 0.84 between datasets. The newly developed models that considered data from all categories showed low AUCs but gave low AUC variation in the external validation. For instance, the 144-CpG heavy and at-risk versus light and non-drinkers model achieved AUCs of 0.67 ± 0.02 in the internal cross-validation and 0.61-0.66 in the external validation datasets. CONCLUSIONS: The outcomes of our internal and external validation demonstrate that the previously reported prediction models suffer from both overfitting and accuracy overestimation. Our results show that the previously proposed biomarkers are not yet sufficient for accurate and robust inference of alcohol consumption from blood. Overall, our findings imply that DNA methylation prediction biomarkers and models need to be improved considerably before epigenetic inference of alcohol consumption from blood can be considered for practical applications.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/sangue , Biomarcadores/análise , Epigênese Genética/genética , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Área Sob a Curva , Biomarcadores/sangue , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética/fisiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
12.
PLoS Med ; 18(9): e1003786, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excess bodyweight and related metabolic perturbations have been implicated in kidney cancer aetiology, but the specific molecular mechanisms underlying these relationships are poorly understood. In this study, we sought to identify circulating metabolites that predispose kidney cancer and to evaluate the extent to which they are influenced by body mass index (BMI). METHODS AND FINDINGS: We assessed the association between circulating levels of 1,416 metabolites and incident kidney cancer using pre-diagnostic blood samples from up to 1,305 kidney cancer case-control pairs from 5 prospective cohort studies. Cases were diagnosed on average 8 years after blood collection. We found 25 metabolites robustly associated with kidney cancer risk. In particular, 14 glycerophospholipids (GPLs) were inversely associated with risk, including 8 phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and 2 plasmalogens. The PC with the strongest association was PC ae C34:3 with an odds ratio (OR) for 1 standard deviation (SD) increment of 0.75 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.68 to 0.83, p = 2.6 × 10-8). In contrast, 4 amino acids, including glutamate (OR for 1 SD = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.20 to 1.60, p = 1.6 × 10-5), were positively associated with risk. Adjusting for BMI partly attenuated the risk association for some-but not all-metabolites, whereas other known risk factors of kidney cancer, such as smoking and alcohol consumption, had minimal impact on the observed associations. A mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis of the influence of BMI on the blood metabolome highlighted that some metabolites associated with kidney cancer risk are influenced by BMI. Specifically, elevated BMI appeared to decrease levels of several GPLs that were also found inversely associated with kidney cancer risk (e.g., -0.17 SD change [ßBMI] in 1-(1-enyl-palmitoyl)-2-linoleoyl-GPC (P-16:0/18:2) levels per SD change in BMI, p = 3.4 × 10-5). BMI was also associated with increased levels of glutamate (ßBMI: 0.12, p = 1.5 × 10-3). While our results were robust across the participating studies, they were limited to study participants of European descent, and it will, therefore, be important to evaluate if our findings can be generalised to populations with different genetic backgrounds. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests a potentially important role of the blood metabolome in kidney cancer aetiology by highlighting a wide range of metabolites associated with the risk of developing kidney cancer and the extent to which changes in levels of these metabolites are driven by BMI-the principal modifiable risk factor of kidney cancer.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias Renais/sangue , Metaboloma , Obesidade/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Renais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Vitória/epidemiologia
13.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 143, 2021 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-coding RNA 886 (nc886) is coded from a maternally inherited metastable epiallele. We set out to investigate the determinants and dynamics of the methylation pattern at the nc886 epiallele and how this methylation status associates with nc886 RNA expression. Furthermore, we investigated the associations between the nc886 methylation status or the levels of nc886 RNAs and metabolic traits in the YFS and KORA cohorts. The association between nc886 epiallele methylation and RNA expression was also validated in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines. RESULTS: We confirm that the methylation status of the nc886 epiallele is mostly binomial, with individuals displaying either a non- or hemi-methylated status, but we also describe intermediately and close to fully methylated individuals. We show that an individual's methylation status is associated with the mother's age and socioeconomic status, but not with the individual's own genetics. Once established, the methylation status of the nc886 epiallele remains stable for at least 25 years. This methylation status is strongly associated with the levels of nc886 non-coding RNAs in serum, blood, and iPSC lines. In addition, nc886 methylation status associates with glucose and insulin levels during adolescence but not with the indicators of glucose metabolism or the incidence of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. However, the nc886-3p RNA levels also associate with glucose metabolism in adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that nc886 metastable epiallele methylation is tuned by the periconceptional conditions and it associates with glucose metabolism through the expression of the ncRNAs coded in the epiallele region.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/genética , RNA não Traduzido/análise , Adulto , Metilação de DNA/genética , Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , Epigênese Genética , Humanos
14.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(11): 1143-1155, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091768

RESUMO

Common carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is an index of subclinical atherosclerosis that is associated with ischemic stroke and coronary artery disease (CAD). We undertook a cross-sectional epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of measures of cIMT in 6400 individuals. Mendelian randomization analysis was applied to investigate the potential causal role of DNA methylation in the link between atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk factors and cIMT or clinical cardiovascular disease. The CpG site cg05575921 was associated with cIMT (beta = -0.0264, p value = 3.5 × 10-8) in the discovery panel and was replicated in replication panel (beta = -0.07, p value = 0.005). This CpG is located at chr5:81649347 in the intron 3 of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor gene (AHRR). Our results indicate that DNA methylation at cg05575921 might be in the pathway between smoking, cIMT and stroke. Moreover, in a region-based analysis, 34 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified of which a DMR upstream of ALOX12 showed the strongest association with cIMT (p value = 1.4 × 10-13). In conclusion, our study suggests that DNA methylation may play a role in the link between cardiovascular risk factors, cIMT and clinical cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Estudos Transversais , Epigenoma , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
15.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 121, 2021 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The difference between an individual's chronological and DNA methylation predicted age (DNAmAge), termed DNAmAge acceleration (DNAmAA), can capture life-long environmental exposures and age-related physiological changes reflected in methylation status. Several studies have linked DNAmAA to morbidity and mortality, yet its relationship with kidney function has not been assessed. We evaluated the associations between seven DNAm aging and lifespan predictors (as well as GrimAge components) and five kidney traits (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR], urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio [uACR], serum urate, microalbuminuria and chronic kidney disease [CKD]) in up to 9688 European, African American and Hispanic/Latino individuals from seven population-based studies. RESULTS: We identified 23 significant associations in our large trans-ethnic meta-analysis (p < 1.43E-03 and consistent direction of effect across studies). Age acceleration measured by the Extrinsic and PhenoAge estimators, as well as Zhang's 10-CpG epigenetic mortality risk score (MRS), were associated with all parameters of poor kidney health (lower eGFR, prevalent CKD, higher uACR, microalbuminuria and higher serum urate). Six of these associations were independently observed in European and African American populations. MRS in particular was consistently associated with eGFR (ß = - 0.12, 95% CI = [- 0.16, - 0.08] change in log-transformed eGFR per unit increase in MRS, p = 4.39E-08), prevalent CKD (odds ratio (OR) = 1.78 [1.47, 2.16], p = 2.71E-09) and higher serum urate levels (ß = 0.12 [0.07, 0.16], p = 2.08E-06). The "first-generation" clocks (Hannum, Horvath) and GrimAge showed different patterns of association with the kidney traits. Three of the DNAm-estimated components of GrimAge, namely adrenomedullin, plasminogen-activation inhibition 1 and pack years, were positively associated with higher uACR, serum urate and microalbuminuria. CONCLUSION: DNAmAge acceleration and DNAm mortality predictors estimated in whole blood were associated with multiple kidney traits, including eGFR and CKD, in this multi-ethnic study. Epigenetic biomarkers which reflect the systemic effects of age-related mechanisms such as immunosenescence, inflammaging and oxidative stress may have important mechanistic or prognostic roles in kidney disease. Our study highlights new findings linking kidney disease to biological aging, and opportunities warranting future investigation into DNA methylation biomarkers for prognostic or risk stratification in kidney disease.


Assuntos
Senilidade Prematura/mortalidade , Mortalidade/tendências , Insuficiência Renal/sangue , Idoso , Senilidade Prematura/epidemiologia , Senilidade Prematura/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal/mortalidade
16.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies on the relationship between renal function and the human plasma proteome have identified several potential biomarkers. However, investigations have been conducted largely in European populations, and causality of the associations between plasma proteins and kidney function has never been addressed. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 993 plasma proteins among 2,882 participants in four studies of European and admixed ancestries (KORA, INTERVAL, HUNT, QMDiab) identified trans-ethnic associations between eGFR/CKD and proteomic biomarkers. For the replicated associations, two-sample bidirectional Mendelian randomization (MR) was used to investigate potential causal relationships. Publicly available datasets and transcriptomic data from independent studies were used to examine the association between gene expression in kidney tissue and eGFR . RESULTS: Fifty-seven plasma proteins were associated with eGFR, including one novel protein. Twenty-three of these were additionally associated with CKD. The strongest inferred causal effect was the positive effect of eGFR on testican-2, in line with the known biological role of this protein and the expression of its protein-coding gene (SPOCK2) in renal tissue. We also observed suggestive evidence of an effect of melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA), carbonic anhydrase III, and cystatin-M on eGFR. CONCLUSIONS: In a discovery-replication setting, we identified 57 proteins trans-ethnically associated with eGFR. The revealed causal relationships are an important stepping-stone in establishing testican-2 as a clinically relevant physiological marker of kidney disease progression, and point to additional proteins warranting further investigation.

17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2830, 2021 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990564

RESUMO

Coffee and tea are extensively consumed beverages worldwide which have received considerable attention regarding health. Intake of these beverages is consistently linked to, among others, reduced risk of diabetes and liver diseases; however, the mechanisms of action remain elusive. Epigenetics is suggested as a mechanism mediating the effects of dietary and lifestyle factors on disease onset. Here we report the results from epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) on coffee and tea consumption in 15,789 participants of European and African-American ancestries from 15 cohorts. EWAS meta-analysis of coffee consumption reveals 11 CpGs surpassing the epigenome-wide significance threshold (P-value <1.1×10-7), which annotated to the AHRR, F2RL3, FLJ43663, HDAC4, GFI1 and PHGDH genes. Among them, cg14476101 is significantly associated with expression of the PHGDH and risk of fatty liver disease. Knockdown of PHGDH expression in liver cells shows a correlation with expression levels of genes associated with circulating lipids, suggesting a role of PHGDH in hepatic-lipid metabolism. EWAS meta-analysis on tea consumption reveals no significant association, only two CpGs annotated to CACNA1A and PRDM16 genes show suggestive association (P-value <5.0×10-6). These findings indicate that coffee-associated changes in DNA methylation levels may explain the mechanism of action of coffee consumption in conferring risk of diseases.


Assuntos
Café/efeitos adversos , Metilação de DNA , Epigenoma , Chá/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Ilhas de CpG , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fígado/enzimologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfoglicerato Desidrogenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfoglicerato Desidrogenase/genética , Fatores de Risco
18.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 111, 2021 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The metabolic syndrome (MetS), defined by the simultaneous clustering of cardio-metabolic risk factors, is a significant worldwide public health burden with an estimated 25% prevalence worldwide. The pathogenesis of MetS is not entirely clear and the use of molecular level data could help uncover common pathogenic pathways behind the observed clustering. METHODS: Using a highly multiplexed aptamer-based affinity proteomics platform, we examined associations between plasma proteins and prevalent and incident MetS in the KORA cohort (n = 998) and replicated our results for prevalent MetS in the HUNT3 study (n = 923). We applied logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, smoking status, and physical activity. We used the bootstrap ranking algorithm of least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) to select a predictive model from the incident MetS associated proteins and used area under the curve (AUC) to assess its performance. Finally, we investigated the causal effect of the replicated proteins on MetS using two-sample Mendelian randomization. RESULTS: Prevalent MetS was associated with 116 proteins, of which 53 replicated in HUNT. These included previously reported proteins like leptin, and new proteins like NTR domain-containing protein 2 and endoplasmic reticulum protein 29. Incident MetS was associated with 14 proteins in KORA, of which 13 overlap the prevalent MetS associated proteins with soluble advanced glycosylation end product-specific receptor (sRAGE) being unique to incident MetS. The LASSO selected an eight-protein predictive model with an (AUC = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.71-0.79) in KORA. Mendelian randomization suggested causal effects of three proteins on MetS, namely apolipoprotein E2 (APOE2) (Wald-Ratio = - 0.12, Wald-p = 3.63e-13), apolipoprotein B (APOB) (Wald-Ratio = - 0.09, Wald-p = 2.54e-04) and proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase receptor (RET) (Wald-Ratio = 0.10, Wald-p = 5.40e-04). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings offer new insights into the plasma proteome underlying MetS and identify new protein associations. We reveal possible casual effects of APOE2, APOB and RET on MetS. Our results highlight protein candidates that could potentially serve as targets for prevention and therapy.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Proteoma , Proteômica , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Apolipoproteína B-100/sangue , Apolipoproteína B-100/genética , Apolipoproteína E2/sangue , Apolipoproteína E2/genética , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteínas Sanguíneas/genética , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ret/sangue , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ret/genética , Medição de Risco
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9203, 2021 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33911114

RESUMO

Preterm birth (PTB) is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and neurocognitive impairment later in life. We analyzed for the first time the associations of PTB with blood miRNA levels in adulthood. We also investigated the relationship of PTB associated miRNAs and adulthood phenotypes previously linked with premature birth. Blood MicroRNA profiling, genome-wide gene expression analysis, computer-based cognitive testing battery (CANTAB) and serum NMR metabolomics were performed for Young Finns Study subjects (aged 34-49 years, full-term n = 682, preterm n = 84). Preterm birth (vs. full-term) was associated with adulthood levels of hsa-miR-29b-3p in a fully adjusted regression model (p = 1.90 × 10-4, FDR = 0.046). The levels of hsa-miR-29b-3p were down-regulated in subjects with PTB with appropriate birthweight for gestational age (p = 0.002, fold change [FC] = - 1.20) and specifically in PTB subjects with small birthweight for gestational age (p = 0.095, FC = - 1.39) in comparison to individuals born full term. Hsa-miR-29b-3p levels correlated with the expressions of its target-mRNAs BCL11A and CS and the gene set analysis results indicated a target-mRNA driven association between hsa-miR-29b-3p levels and Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Insulin signaling and Regulation of Actin Cytoskeleton pathway expression. The level of hsa-miR-29b-3p was directly associated with visual processing and sustained attention in CANTAB test and inversely associated with serum levels of VLDL subclass component and triglyceride levels. In conlcusion, adult blood levels of hsa-miR-29b-3p were lower in subjects born preterm. Hsa-miR-29b-3p associated with cognitive function and may be linked with adulthood morbidities in subjects born preterm, possibly through regulation of gene sets related to neurodegenerative diseases and insulin signaling as well as VLDL and triglyceride metabolism.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Nascimento Prematuro/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Disfunção Cognitiva/sangue , Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/sangue , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Prognóstico , Transdução de Sinais
20.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 60, 2021 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is a key epigenetic modification that can directly affect gene regulation. DNA methylation is highly influenced by environmental factors such as cigarette smoking, which is causally related to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer. To date, there have been few large-scale, combined analyses of DNA methylation and gene expression and their interrelations with lung diseases. RESULTS: We performed an epigenome-wide association study of whole blood gene expression in ~ 6000 individuals from four cohorts. We discovered and replicated numerous CpGs associated with the expression of cis genes within 500 kb of each CpG, with 148 to 1,741 cis CpG-transcript pairs identified across cohorts. We found that the closer a CpG resided to a transcription start site, the larger its effect size, and that 36% of cis CpG-transcript pairs share the same causal genetic variant. Mendelian randomization analyses revealed that hypomethylation and lower expression of CHRNA5, which encodes a smoking-related nicotinic receptor, are causally linked to increased risk of COPD and lung cancer. This putatively causal relationship was further validated in lung tissue data. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide a large and comprehensive association study of whole blood DNA methylation with gene expression. Expression platform differences rather than population differences are critical to the replication of cis CpG-transcript pairs. The low reproducibility of trans CpG-transcript pairs suggests that DNA methylation regulates nearby rather than remote gene expression. The putatively causal roles of methylation and expression of CHRNA5 in relation to COPD and lung cancer provide evidence for a mechanistic link between patterns of smoking-related epigenetic variation and lung diseases, and highlight potential therapeutic targets for lung diseases and smoking cessation.


Assuntos
Células Sanguíneas , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Fumar Cigarros/genética , Metilação de DNA , Expressão Gênica , Pneumopatias/induzido quimicamente , Pneumopatias/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Receptores Nicotínicos/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Epigenoma , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pneumopatias/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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