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1.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 710085, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489900

RESUMO

Listeria monocytogenes are Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, non-spore-forming bacteria that easily adapt to changing environmental conditions. The ability to grow at a wide range of temperatures, pH, and salinity determines the presence of the pathogen in water, sewage, soil, decaying vegetation, and animal feed. L. monocytogenes is an etiological factor of listeriosis, especially dangerous for the elderly, pregnant women, and newborns. The major source of L. monocytogenes for humans is food, including fresh and smoked products. Its high prevalence in food is associated with bacterial adaptation to the food processing environment (FPE). Since the number of listeriosis cases has been progressively increasing an efficient eradication of the pathogen from the FPE is crucial. Understanding the mechanisms of bacterial adaptation to environmental stress will significantly contribute to developing novel, effective methods of controlling L. monocytogenes in the food industry.

2.
J Clin Med ; 10(9)2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063654

RESUMO

The outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Thus far, the virus has killed over 2,782,112 people and infected over 126,842,694 in the world (state 27 March 2021), resulting in a pandemic for humans. Based on the present data, SARS-CoV-2 transmission from animals to humans cannot be excluded. If mutations allowing breaking of the species barrier and enhancing transmissibility occurred, next changes in the SARS-CoV-2 genome, leading to easier spreading and greater pathogenicity, could happen. The environment and saliva might play an important role in virus transmission. Therefore, there is a need for strict regimes in terms of personal hygiene, including hand washing and surface disinfection. The presence of viral RNA is not an equivalent of active viral infection. The positive result of the RT-PCR method may represent either viral residues or infectious virus particles. RNA-based tests should not be used in patients after the decline of disease symptoms to confirm convalescence. It has been proposed to use the test based on viral, sub-genomic mRNA, or serological methods to find the immune response to infection. Vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is still a little-known issue. In our review, we have prepared a meta-analysis of the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from mother to child depending on the type of delivery. Our study indicated that the transmission of the virus from mother to child is rare, and the infection rate is not higher in the case of natural childbirth, breastfeeding, or contact with the mother. We hope that this review and meta-analysis will help to systemize knowledge about SARS-CoV-2 with an emphasis on diagnostic implications and transmission routes, in particular, mother-to-child transmission.

3.
Int J Environ Health Res ; : 1-20, 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926318

RESUMO

Multi-drug resistant pathogens are a global problem. Flies are a potential vector of multi-drug resistant pathogens, which can be particularly dangerous in the hospital environment. This study aimed to evaluate flies as vectors of alert pathogens. The research material consisted of 100 flies (Musca domestica (46.0%), Lucilia sericata (28.0%), and Calliphora vicina (26.0%)) collected at the University Hospital No. 1 dr. A. Jurasz in Bydgoszcz (Poland) in 2018-2019 (summer months). The presence of bacteria of the genera: Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, Escherichia, Leclercia, Citrobacter, Hafnia, Providencia, Proteus, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Raoultella, Morganella, Moellerella, Bordetella, Pantoea, Serratia, Plesiomonas, Wohlfahrimonas, and Lelliottia was confirmed. The most frequently isolated species included: Enterococcus faecalis (n = 64), Escherichia coli (n = 43) and Moellerella wisconsensis (n = 24). The infection rate and antibiotic resistance of bacteria were assessed. One strain of Proteus mirabilis (isolated from Calliphora vicina) produced ESBLs (extended-spectrum beta-lactamases). The infection rate was 0.38%, 0.26%, and 0.20% for Musca domestica, Lucilia sericata, and Calliphora vicina, respectively. The flies from a hospital area were not a vector of alert pathogens. Monitoring flies as potential vectors of pathogens is an important aspect of public health, especially for hospitalized patients.

4.
Microorganisms ; 9(3)2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808031

RESUMO

The skin is the largest organ of the human body and it protects the body from the external environment. It has become the topic of interest of researchers from various scientific fields. Microorganisms ensure the proper functioning of the skin. Of great importance, are the mutual relations between such microorganisms and their responses to environmental impacts, as dysbiosis may contribute to serious skin diseases. Molecular methods, used for microorganism identification, allow us to gain a better understanding of the skin microbiome. The presented article contains the latest reports on the skin microbiota in health and disease. The review discusses the relationship between a properly functioning microbiome and the body's immune system, as well as the impact of internal and external factors on the human skin microbiome.

5.
Pathogens ; 10(1)2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450948

RESUMO

Yersinia enterocolitica, widespread within domestic and wild-living animals, is a foodborne pathogen causing yersiniosis. The goal of this study was to assess a genetic similarity of Y. enterocolitica and Y. enterocolitica-like strains isolated from different hosts using Multiple Locus Variable-Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA) and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) methods, and analyze the prevalence of virulence genes using multiplex-Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assays. Among 51 Yersinia sp. strains 20 virulotypes were determined. The most common virulence genes were ymoA, ureC, inv, myfA, and yst. Yersinia sp. strains had genes which may contribute to the bacterial invasion and colonization of the intestines as well as survival in serum. One wild boar Y. enterocolitica 1A strain possessed ail gene implying the possible pathogenicity of 1A biotype. Wild boar strains, represented mainly by 1A biotype, were not classified into the predominant Variable-Number Tandem Repeats (VNTR)/PFGE profile and virulotype. There was a clustering tendency among VNTR/PFGE profiles of pig origin, 4/O:3, and virulence profile. Pig and human strains formed the most related group, characterized by ~80% of genetic similarity what suggest the role of pigs as a potential source of infection for the pork consumers.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; 770: 145260, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513500

RESUMO

The new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, first identified in Wuhan (China) in December 2019, represents the same family as the Serve Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-1 (SARS-CoV-1). These viruses spread mainly via the droplet route. However, during the pandemic of COVID-19 other reservoirs, i.e., water (surface and ground), sewage, garbage, or soil, should be considered. As the infectious SARS-CoV-2 particles are also present in human excretions, such a non-droplet transmission is also possible. A significant problem is the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the hospital environment, including patients' rooms, medical equipment, everyday objects and the air. Relevant is selecting the type of equipment in the COVID-19 hospital wards on which the virus particles persist the shortest or do not remain infectious. Elimination of plastic objects/equipment from the environment of the infected person seems to be of great importance. It is particularly relevant in water reservoirs contaminated with raw discharges. Wastewater may contain coronaviruses and therefore there is a need for expanding Water-Based Epidemiology (WBE) studies to use obtained values as tool in determination of the actual percentage of the SARS-CoV-2 infected population in an area. It is of great importance to evaluate the available disinfection methods to control the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the environment. Exposure of SARS-CoV-2 to 65-70% ethanol, 0.5% hydrogen peroxide, or 0.1% sodium hypochlorite has effectively eliminated the virus from the surfaces. Since there are many unanswered questions about the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the research on this topic is still ongoing. This review aims to summarize current knowledge on the SARS-CoV-2 transmission and elucidate the viral survival in the environment, with particular emphasis on the possibility of non-droplet transmission.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Foods ; 9(9)2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937989

RESUMO

Listeria monocytogenes are the etiological factor of listeriosis, and their main source for humans is food. The aim of the current study was to assess the contamination of various types of meat and the drug susceptibility of isolated L. monocytogenes. Between 2016-2018, 6000 swabs were taken (2000 annually) from the surface of pork, beef, and poultry. The analysis of intermediate and finished product samples was carried out in accordance with ISO 11290-1 (International Organization for Standardization). The genetic similarity assessment of the isolates obtained was based on the Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) method, and drug-sensitivity assessment using the disc-diffusion method. We found 2.1% of collected samples were L. monocytogenes positive. The level of meat contamination varied depending on its matrix. Most L. monocytogenes were isolated from poultry. It was shown that 39 (32.5%) strains were sensitive to all tested antibiotics and eight (6.7%) were resistant to all five tested antimicrobials. Most strains tested were resistant to cotrimoxazole (55; 45.8%) and meropenem (52; 43.3%), followed by erythromycin (48; 40.0%), penicillin (31; 25.8%), and ampicillin (21; 17.5%). High prevalence of this pathogen may be a serious problem, especially when linked with antibiotic resistance and high percentage of serotypes responsible for listeriosis outbreaks.

8.
Microorganisms ; 8(4)2020 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32290491

RESUMO

Since bacterial biofilm may contribute to the secondary contamination of food during the manufacturing/processing stage there is a need for new methods allowing its effective eradication. Application of food additives such as vitamin C already used in food industry as antioxidant food industry antioxidants may be a promising solution. The aim of this research was evaluation of the impact of vitamin C (ascorbic acid), in a range of concentrations 2.50 µg mL-1-25.0 mg mL-1, on biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from food. The efficacy of ascorbic acid was assessed based on the reduction of optical density (λ = 595 nm). The greatest elimination of the biofilm was achieved at the concentration of vitamin C of 25.0 mg mL-1. The effect of the vitamin C on biofilm, however, was strain dependent. The concentration of 25.0 mg mL-1 reduced 93.4%, 74.9%, and 40.5% of E. coli, L. monocytogenes, and S. aureus number, respectively. For E. coli and S. aureus lower concentrations were ineffective. In turn, for L. monocytogenes the biofilm inhibition was observed even at the concentration of 0.25 mg mL-1. The addition of vitamin C may be helpful in the elimination of bacterial biofilms. Nonetheless, some concentrations can induce growth of the pathogens, posing risk for the consumers' health.

9.
Microorganisms ; 7(10)2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627472

RESUMO

The unpropitious conditions of the food processing environmenttrigger in Listeria monocytogenes stress response mechanisms that may affect the pathogen's virulence. To date, many studies have revealed that acid, osmotic, heat, cold and oxidative stress modify invasiveness of L. monocytogenes. Nonetheless, there is limited data on the duration of the stress effect on bacterial invasiveness. Since most food is stored at low or room temperatures we studied the impact of these temperatures on the duration of heat stress effect on invasiveness of 8 L. monocytogenes strains. Bacteria were heat-treated for 20 min at 54 °C and then incubated at 5 and 20 °C up to 14 days. A decrease in invasiveness over time was observed for bacteria not exposed to heating. It was found that heat shock significantly reduced the invasion capacity of all strains and the effect lasted between 7 and 14 days at both 5 and 20 °C. In conclusion, 20-min heating reduces invasion capacity of all L. monocytogenes strains; however, the stress effect is temporary and lasts between 7 and 14 days in the food storage conditions. The invasiveness of bacteria changes along with the incubation time and is temperature-dependent.

10.
Microorganisms ; 7(9)2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438656

RESUMO

Listeria monocytogenes is a one of the most important food-borne pathogens. Its ability to form biofilm contributes to increased resistance to disinfectants and inefficient disinfection, posing a serious threat for the food industry, and in the end the consumer. The aim of this study was the comparison of the biofilm formation ability of L. monocytogenes strains on stainless steel, under different environmental conditions (temperature, pH, NaCl concentration, nutrients availability), and the assessment of biofilm susceptibility to disinfectants. The bactericidal activity of four disinfectants in two concentrations (100% and 50% of working solution) against biofilm was conducted on four clinical strains, four strains isolated from food and one reference strain ATCC 19111. It was found that biofilm susceptibility to disinfectants was influenced by environmental conditions. Biofilm susceptibility correlated with the decrease of temperature, pH, nutrients availability and salinity of the environment. The least sensitive to disinfectants was biofilm produced at pH = 4 (the bacterial number ranged from 0.25 log CFU × cm-2 to 1.72 log CFU × cm-2) whereas the most sensitive was biofilm produced at pH = 9 (5.16 log CFU × cm-2 to 7.84 log CFU × cm-2). Quatosept was the most effective disinfectant, regardless of the conditions. In conclusion, biofilm susceptibility to disinfectants is strain-dependent and is affected by environmental conditions.

11.
Microorganisms ; 7(5)2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083467

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to compare the biocidal effectiveness of disinfectants solutions prepared with ozonated and non-ozonated water against Listeria monocytogenes. Six L. monocytogenes strains were the research material (four isolates from food: meat (LMO-M), dairy products (LMO-N), vegetables (LMO-W), and fish (LMO-R); one clinical strain (LMO-K) and reference strain ATCC 19111). The evaluation of the biocidal effectiveness of disinfectant solutions (QAC-quaternary ammonium compounds; OA-oxidizing agents; ChC-chlorine compounds; IC-iodine compounds; NANO-nanoparticles) was carried out, marking the MBC values. Based on the obtained results, the effectiveness coefficient (A) were calculated. The smaller the A value, the greater the efficiency of disinfection solutions prepared on the basis of ozonated versus non-ozonated water. Ozonated water showed biocidal efficacy against L. monocytogenes. Among tested disinfectentants, independent on type of water used for preparation, the most effective against L. monocytogenes were: QAC 1 (benzyl-C12-18-alkydimethyl ammonium chlorides) (1.00 × 10-5-1.00 × 10-4 g/mL) in quaternary ammonium compounds, OA 3 (peracetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, bis (sulphate) bis (peroxymonosulfate)) (3.08 × 10-4 -3.70 × 10-3 g/mL) in oxidizing agents, ChC 1 (chlorine dioxide) (5.00 × 10-8 -7.00 × 10-7 g/mL) in chlorine compounds, IC 1 (iodine) (1.05-2.15 g/mL) in iodine compounds, and NANO 1 (nanocopper) (1.08 × 10-4 - 1.47 × 10-4 g/mL) in nanoparticles. The values of the activity coefficient for QAC ranged from 0.10 to 0.40, for OA-0.15-0.84, for ChC-0.25-0.83, for IC-0.45-0.60, and for NANO-0.70-0.84. The preparation of disinfectants solution on the basis of ozonated water, improved the microbicidal efficiency of the tested disinfectant, especially the quaternary ammonium compounds. An innovative element of our work is the use of ozonated water for the preparation of working solutions of the disinfection agents. Use ozonated water can help to reduce the use of disinfectant concentrations and limit the increasing of microbial resistance to disinfectants. This paper provides many new information to optimize hygiene plans in food processing plants and limit the spread of microorganisms such as L. monocytogenes.

12.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 296: 75-82, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30851643

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to analyze the contamination of mold cheese (Brie, Camembert, Gorgonzola, Munster and Roquefort) with Listeria spp. and assessment of culturable cells number recovered from the biofilm formed on the surface of stainless steel by obtained strains. Identified isolates (MALDI TOF MS technique) were subjected to susceptibility testing (disk-diffusion method) and their genetic similarity (PFGE method), ability to form biofilm (quantitative method), biofilm dry weight, and biofilm survival on stainless steel were evaluated. Out of 250 samples of cheese 26 (10.4%) were Listeria spp. positive, including 15 isolates (6.0% of samples) of L. monocytogenes, 7 isolates of L. innocua (2.8% of samples) and 4 isolates of L. welshimeri species (1.6% of samples). Of the 26 isolates tested, 22 strains were genetically different. It was shown that L. innocua and L. welshimeri strains were sensitive to all antibiotics tested, while two (16.7%) L. monocytogenes strains were resistant to penicillin and one (8.3%) to erythromycin. L. monocytogenes formed biofilm most intensively on stainless steel, while L. welshimeri the least effectively. The median of bacteria number recovered from the biofilm for L. monocytogenes was 6.81 log CFU × cm-2, for L. innocua - 5.63 log CFU × cm-2, and for L. welshimeri - 4.93 log CFU × cm-2. The survival in the biofilm of Listeria spp. strains decreased along with the increase in a storage temperature of steel coupons. The longest survival time was reported at 4 °C, i.e. 47.58-124.41 days, with an elimination rate of 0.06-0.13 log CFU × day-1. Collectively, L. monocytogenes is the most prevalent species of Listeria genus in the mold cheese. The ability of L. monocytogenes strains to form biofilm on stainless steel and survive in the food processing environment increases chance of the secondary contamination of food posing risk to the consumer health.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Queijo/microbiologia , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Listeria monocytogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aço Inoxidável , Testes de Sensibilidade a Antimicrobianos por Disco-Difusão , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
13.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 7817063, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30915357

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of propylene film coated with solution of chitosan (CH), ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP), and bee pollen (EEBP) and its combination on L. monocytogenes number in wrapped salmon, salami, and cheese. Sterile fragments of propylene film were coated with solution containing CH, CH+EEP, CH+EEBP, and CH+EEP+EEBP. The coated film was applied directly after preparation (AP) after 10 days of storage from preparation (AS). L. monocytogenes strains isolated from cheese, salmon, and salami were transferred on adequate food type. ATCC 19111 reference strain was placed on all examined slices. Contaminated slices were wrapped in the coated film. The film adhered strictly to the slices surface and was left for 0, 1, 6, 12, and 24 hours. Antilisterial activity of AP film was additionally assessed during 15-day storage of products wrapped in the coated film. In conclusion, the chitosan-coated film exhibited antibacterial activity. Incorporation of EPP and EEBP enhanced this activity. The antilisterial activity depended on the type and concentration of solutions, the types of food, and the origin of strains. This study proved that the time that passed since the use of coated film for packing food was of great importance.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Quitosana/química , Embalagem de Alimentos , Listeria monocytogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Membranas Artificiais , Pólen/química , Polipropilenos/química , Própole/química , Animais , Abelhas , Microbiologia de Alimentos
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(1)2019 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30621173

RESUMO

Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase's (Nampt) association with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is unclear. The study was aimed at unraveling Nampt's clinical and diagnostic relevance. The serum concentration (Luminex-xMAP® technology) was measured in 113 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), 127 with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 60 non-IBD controls: 40 healthy individuals and 20 with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The leukocyte (44 CD/37 UC/19 IBS) and bowel expression (186 samples) was also evaluated (RT-qPCR). All were referred to IBD phenotype, activity, treatment, and inflammatory/nutritional/angiogenic/hypoxia indices. Serum-Nampt and leukocyte-Nampt were positively correlated and were more elevated in active-IBD than in IBS, with leukocyte-Nampt being a fair differential marker. Serum-Nampt in UC positively correlated with its clinical and endoscopic activity as well as with pro-inflammatory cytokines. Serum-Nampt ≤1.54 ng/mL was a good indicator of mucosal healing. The expression of Nampt was up-regulated both in inflamed and quiescent colon and reflected, similarly to leukocyte-Nampt, the clinical activity of IBD. Bowel-Nampt was independently associated with IL1B and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1A) expression in inflamed bowel but with FGF2 expression in quiescent bowel. In summary, Nampt's elevation in IBD at local and systemic levels, and protein and mRNA levels, reflects IBD activity and is associated with inflammation, hypoxia (active) and tissue repair (inactive disease).


Assuntos
Citocinas/biossíntese , Citocinas/sangue , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/diagnóstico , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase/biossíntese , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Colite Ulcerativa/diagnóstico , Colite Ulcerativa/metabolismo , Doença de Crohn/diagnóstico , Doença de Crohn/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
15.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 3057, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32038531

RESUMO

The aim of this study was the assessment of the effect of time exposure, temperature, distance, and organic contaminants on radiant catalytic ionization (RCI) microbicidal effectiveness. The number of all examined bacteria decreased together with time exposure of RCI. The lowest recovery was obtained, both from the rubber surface (6.36 log CFU × cm-2) and steel (6.04 log CFU × cm-2) in the case of Escherichia coli O157:H7. On the other hand, Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in the largest number (rubber: 7.88 log CFU × cm-2, steel: 7.79 log CFU × cm-2). Among the tested environmental conditions, the greatest bacterial population was re-isolated at 4°C (distance: 0.5 m, time: 24 h), whereas the lowest population was found at a distance of 0.5 m (temperature: 20°C, time: 24 h) and on surfaces without contamination. In the samples treated with RCI, the bacterial population was the lowest on non-contaminated surfaces, ranging from 3.76 log CFU × cm-2 (E. coli O157:H7) to 5.58 log CFU × cm-2 (S. aureus) for the rubber, and from 3.26 log CFU × cm-2 (E. coli O157:H7) to 5.20 log CFU × cm-2 (S. aureus) for the stainless steel. The highest bacteria number was isolated from surfaces contaminated with meat and fish pulp. The lowest bacterial reduction caused by RCI was found in the case of rubber contaminated with meat-fish pulp (24 h, 0.5 m, 20°C). The reduction rate was equal to 0.89 log CFU × cm-2 for S. aureus, 1.17 log CFU × cm-2 for Listeria monocytogenes, 1.43 log CFU × cm-2 for Salmonella Enteritidis and 1.61 log CFU × cm-2 for E. coli O157:H7. In turn, the greatest bacterial reduction was found in the case of non-contaminated steel (24 h, 0.5 m, 37°C). The reduction rate was equal to 4.52 log CFU × cm-2 for L. monocytogenes, 3.61 log CFU × cm-2 for S. Enteritidis, 2.98 log CFU × cm-2 for E. coli O157:H7 and 2.77 log CFU × cm-2 for S. aureus. RCI allows the inactivation of pathogens from stainless steel and rubber surfaces. Its efficacy is species-dependent and affected by environmental factors.

16.
Biomed Res Int ; 2018: 1457480, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30402461

RESUMO

During food production and food conservation, as well as the passage through the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract, L. monocytogenes is exposed to many adverse conditions which may elicit a stress response. As a result the pathogen may become more resistant to other unpropitious factors and may change its virulence. It has been shown that low and high temperature, salt, low pH, and high pressure affect the invasion capacity of L. monocytogenes. However, there is a scarcity of data on the duration of the stress effect on bacterial biology, including invasiveness. The aim of this work was to determine the period during which L. monocytogenes invasiveness remains altered under optimal conditions following exposure of bacteria to mild heat shock stress. Ten L. monocytogenes strains were exposed to heat shock at 54°C for 20 minutes. Then both heat-treated and nontreated control bacteria were incubated under optimal growth conditions, 37°C, for up to 72 hours and the invasion capacity was tested. Additionally, the expression of virulence and stress response genes was investigated in 2 strains. We found that heat stress exposure significantly decreases the invasiveness of all tested strains. However, during incubation at 37°C the invasion capacity of heat-treated strains recovered to the level of nontreated controls. The observed effect was strain-dependent and lasted from less than 24 hours to 72 hours. The invasiveness of 6 out of the 10 nontreated strains decreased during incubation at 37°C. The expression of inlAB correlated with the increase of invasiveness but the decrease of invasiveness did not correlate with changes of the level of these transcripts. Conclusions. The effect of heat stress on L. monocytogenes invasiveness is strain-dependent and was transient, lasting up to 72 hours.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Listeria monocytogenes/patogenicidade , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Genes Bacterianos , Células HT29 , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Humanos , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Listeria monocytogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Viabilidade Microbiana , Transcrição Genética
17.
Molecules ; 23(8)2018 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30126093

RESUMO

Hop cones preparations possess a wide range of biological activities including antimicrobial properties. In this work, we evaluated the effect of various organic extracts obtained from spent hops, as well as six hops flavonoids and their twenty natural and synthetic derivatives on human and plant microbial pathogens. Methylene chloride, acetone, ethyl acetate, and methanol were used as extractants. Seven flavonoids, among them two natural (α,ß-dihydroxanthohumol and 8-prenylnaringenin) showed significant activity against methicillin sensitive and resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis strains with the lowest MIC80 value of 0.5 µg/mL. The crude ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts from the spent hops exhibited antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum, F. culmorum, and F. semitectum with the lowest MIC50 of 0.5 mg/mL, while the methylene chloride extract exerted antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea with the MIC50 of 1 mg/mL. The preparation obtained after the removal of xanthohumol from the spent hops crude extracts retained up to 95% of activity. These findings suggest that various spent hops extracts may be effective agents for the control of plant pathogens of economic importance, like Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium oxysporum, while some compounds from spent hops or their derivatives may become useful for staphylococcal infections.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humulus/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia
18.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 282: 71-83, 2018 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29929178

RESUMO

The aim of this research was to investigate the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in fish and fish processing plant and to determine their transmission, virulence and antibiotic resistance. L. monocytogenes was isolated according to the ISO 11290-1. The identification of L. monocytogenes was confirmed by multiplex PCR method. Genetic similarity of L. monocytogenes strains was determined with the Pulsed-Filed Gene Electrophoresis (PFGE) method. The multiplex PCR was used for identification of L. monocytogenes serogroups and detection of selected virulence genes (actA, fbpA, hlyA, iap, inlA, inlB, mpl, plcA, plcB, prfA). The L. monocytogens isolates susceptibility to penicillin, ampicillin, meropenem, erythromycin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was evaluated with disc diffusion method according to EUCAST v. 7.1. The presence of 237 L. monocytogenes isolates (before genetic similarity assessment) in 614 examined samples was confirmed. After strain differentiation by PFGE techniques the presence of 161 genetically different strains were confirmed. The genetic similarity of the examined isolates suggested that the source of the L. monocytogenes strains were fishes originating from farms. All tested strains possessed all detected virulence genes. Among examined strains, the most (26, 38.6%) belonged to the group 1/2a-3a. The most of tested strains were resistant to erythromycin (47.1%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (47.1%).


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Manipulação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Peixes , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Sorogrupo , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo
19.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 82(3): 939-53, 2016 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26590290

RESUMO

A novel genomic island (LGI1) was discovered in Listeria monocytogenes isolates responsible for the deadliest listeriosis outbreak in Canada, in 2008. To investigate the functional role of LGI1, the outbreak strain 08-5578 was exposed to food chain-relevant stresses, and the expression of 16 LGI1 genes was measured. LGI1 genes with putative efflux (L. monocytogenes emrE [emrELm]), regulatory (lmo1851), and adhesion (sel1) functions were deleted, and the mutants were exposed to acid (HCl), cold (4°C), salt (10 to 20% NaCl), and quaternary ammonium-based sanitizers (QACs). Deletion of lmo1851 had no effect on the L. monocytogenes stress response, and deletion of sel1 did not influence Caco-2 and HeLa cell adherence/invasion, whereas deletion of emrE resulted in increased susceptibility to QACs (P < 0.05) but had no effect on the MICs of gentamicin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, tetracycline, acriflavine, and triclosan. In the presence of the QAC benzalkonium chloride (BAC; 5 µg/ml), 14/16 LGI1 genes were induced, and lmo1861 (putative repressor gene) was constitutively expressed at 4 °C, 37 °C, and 52 °C and in the presence of UV exposure (0 to 30 min). Following 1 h of exposure to BAC (10 µg/ml), upregulation of emrE (49.6-fold), lmo1851 (2.3-fold), lmo1861 (82.4-fold), and sigB (4.1-fold) occurred. Reserpine visibly suppressed the growth of the ΔemrELm strain, indicating that QAC tolerance is due at least partially to efflux activity. These data suggest that a minimal function of LGI1 is to increase the tolerance of L. monocytogenes to QACs via emrELm. Since QACs are commonly used in the food industry, there is a concern that L. monocytogenes strains possessing emrE will have an increased ability to survive this stress and thus to persist in food processing environments.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Genes MDR , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/farmacologia , Acriflavina/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Compostos de Benzalcônio/farmacologia , Células CACO-2 , Canadá/epidemiologia , Manipulação de Alimentos/normas , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/normas , Ilhas Genômicas , Células HeLa , Humanos , Listeria monocytogenes/fisiologia , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos da radiação , Listeriose/epidemiologia , Listeriose/microbiologia , Listeriose/prevenção & controle , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mutação , Triclosan/farmacologia
20.
Biomed Res Int ; 2015: 956507, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26539546

RESUMO

Incidence of 9 virulence-associated genes and genetic diversity was determined in 79 A. butzleri and 6 A. cryaerophilus isolates from pork, beef, and chicken meat. All A. butzleri isolates harboured the tlyA gene, and most of them carried ciaB, mviN, pldA, cadF, and cj1349 genes. ciaB was found to occur with higher frequency in poultry if compared with pork (p = 0.0007), while irgA was more frequent in poultry than in beef (p = 0.007). All 6 A. cryaerophilus isolates harboured the ciaB gene, while mviN and tlyA were detected in 3 out of these isolates. Only one isolate carried the cadF gene. All beef-derived A. cryaerophilus isolates carried ciaB, mviN, and tlyA genes. A. cryaerophilus isolates from chicken meat harboured ciaB gene only. The pork-derived isolate harboured ciaB and cadF genes. Seventy-four genotypes were distinguished within 79 A. butzleri isolates. Nineteen from 21 isolates derived from beef and pork were found to be closely related to A. butzleri from chicken meat. Each of the 6 A. cryaerophilus isolates was found to have unique genotype. We demonstrated that closely related genotypes can spread within pork, beef, and chicken meat populations of A. butzleri but not A. cryaerophilus.


Assuntos
Arcobacter/genética , Carne/microbiologia , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Animais , Bovinos , Galinhas , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Variação Genética , Incidência , Polônia , Suínos , Fatores de Virulência/classificação
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