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1.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0277621, 2022 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35863028

RESUMO

Little is known about the bacteria that reside in the human gallbladder and the mechanisms that allow them to survive within this harsh environment. Here we describe interactions between two strains from a human bile sample, one Ruminococcus gauvreauii (IPLA60001), belonging to the Lachnospiraceae family, and the other, designated as Ruminococcoides bili (IPLA60002T; DSM 110008) most closely related to Ruminococcus bromii within the family Ruminococcaceae. We provide evidence for bile salt resistance and sporulation for these new strains. Both differed markedly in their carbohydrate metabolism. The R. bili strain mainly metabolized resistant starches to form formate, lactate and acetate. R. gauvreauii mainly metabolized sugar alcohols, including inositol and also utilized formate to generate acetate employing the Wood Ljungdahl pathway. Amino acid and vitamin biosynthesis genomic profiles also differed markedly between the two isolates, likely contributing to their synergistic interactions, as revealed by transcriptomic analysis of cocultures. Transcriptome analysis also revealed that R. gauvreauii IPLA60001 is able to grow using the end-products of starch metabolism formed by the R. bili strain such as formate, and potentially other compounds (such as ethanolamine and inositol) possibly provided by the autolytic behavior of R. bili. IMPORTANCE Unique insights into metabolic interaction between two isolates; Ruminococcus gauvreauii IPLA60001 and Ruminococcoides bili IPLA60002, from the human gallbladder, are presented here. The R. bili strain metabolized resistant starches while R. gauvreauii failed to do so but grew well on sugar alcohols. Transcriptomic analysis of cocultures of these strains, provides new data on the physiology and ecology of two bacteria from human bile, with a particular focus on cross-feeding mechanisms. Both biliary strains displayed marked resistance to bile and possess many efflux transporters, potentially involved in bile export. However, they differ markedly in their amino acid catabolism and vitamin synthesis capabilities, a feature that is therefore likely to contribute to the strong synergistic interactions between these strains. This is therefore the first study that provides evidence for syntrophic metabolic cooperation between bacterial strains isolated from human bile.

2.
J Gerontol Nurs ; 48(6): 7-11, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35648578

RESUMO

China is increasingly turning to community care (CC) to fill the growing gap between the care needs of older adults and availability of that care. The specific application of this concept in China takes two forms: state cash-for-care programs and a market-oriented operational approach. State cash-for-care programs offer cash payments or vouchers, and older adults have a statutory entitlement to apply for the relief of CC charges. The market-oriented operational model comprises urban community care service "supermarkets," where older adults can buy services according to their needs. Even with these two programs, CC still has many shortcomings. Deficits include lack of national standards for individual services and personnel development, and absence of an independent department or systems to oversee supervision and quality assessment. This policy brief offers key recommendations for government investment through supportive social policies and improvements to the quantity and quality of the care workforce. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 48(6), 7-11.].


Assuntos
Política Pública , Idoso , China , Humanos , Recursos Humanos
3.
Int J Intercult Relat ; 88: 83-94, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35492377

RESUMO

While the ensuing COVID-19 pandemic has significantly altered individuals' lives worldwide, it has been perhaps especially disruptive to the lives of sojourners as many have been unable to return home and are absent from their families, a familiar culture, and normal social support systems. While it is important to ask how such individuals can successfully survive in such a crisis, we were interested in extending our knowledge and understanding by asking "how can such individuals move beyond mere surviving to a state of thriving?" In answering this question, we utilized a positive psychology framework to develop a theoretical model wherein we expected higher/lower levels of perceived social support from host country people (i.e., host country support) to result in higher/lower levels of perceived gratitude, which would then result in higher/lower levels of thriving, and ethnocentrism moderated this indirect effect. To test our model, we utilized a sample of sojourners who responded to a survey measuring ethnocentrism (February 2020). We then administered daily surveys measuring perceived host country support, gratitude, and thriving over a nine-day period during the COVID-19 crisis (March 26-April 3, 2020). Results supported the indirect effect of host country support on thriving via gratitude. Further, we found that sojourners with lower levels of ethnocentrism exhibited stronger host country support- gratitude link, hence stronger indirect effect of host country support on thriving via gratitude. We close by offering implications for the existing literature, future research, and organizational practices.

5.
J Strength Cond Res ; 36(5): 1373-1382, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100786

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: McFadden, BA, Walker, AJ, Bozzini, BN, Hofacker, M, Russell, M, and Arent, SM. Psychological and physiological changes in response to the cumulative demands of a women's division I collegiate soccer season. J Strength Cond Res 36(5): 1373-1382, 2022-This study sought to determine the effects of a women's collegiate soccer season on psychological markers, biomarkers, sleep, and performance. Athletes participated in maximal countermovement vertical jump height (CMJ) assessments and biomarker monitoring in conjunction with subjective measures of psychological wellness and sleep questionnaires before preseason (S1) and every 4 weeks following (S2, S3, and S4). Training was monitored during practices and games using global positioning satellite systems and heart rate technology. Total training load was highest from S1 to S2, decreased from S2 to S3 (effect size [ES] = -2.5; p < 0.001), and remained stable from S3 to S4. CMJ declined at S2 (ES1-2 = -0.51; p = 0.001) and returned to baseline at S3. Increases from S1 to S2 were seen for creatine kinase (ES1-2 = 1.74), free testosterone (ES1-2 = 1.27), total testosterone (ES1-2 = 3.5), and free cortisol (ES1-2 = 0.88) (p < 0.03) before returning to baseline by S3 and S4 (free cortisol). Total cortisol was elevated throughout the season before declining at S4 (ES1-4 = -0.41; p = 0.03). Iron declined from S1 to S2 (ES1-2 = -0.73; p = 0.01) and returned to baseline values at S4, whereas growth hormone declined at S2 (ES1-2 = -0.50; p = 0.01) and remained depressed. Interleukin-6 increased at S4 (ES1-4 = 0.71; p = 0.02). Total training distress decreased from S1 to S2 (ES1-2 = -0.38; p = 0.02), returned to baseline by S3, and increased by S4 (ES1-4 = 0.57; p = 0.01). No changes were observed in markers of sleep (p > 0.05). Biomarkers showed notable changes after the highest workload period (S1-S2), which coincided with CMJ decrements. Biomarker perturbations preceded declines in subjective psychological wellness (S4) which occurred in the latter half of the season, indicating an accumulation of fatigue as the season progressed.


Assuntos
Futebol , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona , Estações do Ano , Futebol/fisiologia , Testosterona
6.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578840

RESUMO

Nutrition knowledge is a critical component of meeting sport nutrition guidelines. The present study aimed to evaluate the sport nutrition knowledge of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division III (DIII) athletes using a validated questionnaire, and to assess the dietary practices and sources of nutrition information in this population. A total of 331 student-athletes (n = 149 males, n = 181 females, n = 1 no sex indicated) completed the questionnaire. The mean score for total sport nutrition knowledge was 6.49 ± 8.9 (range -49 to 49) with a mean percent (%) correct score of 36.9 ± 19.1%. Athletes who had a previous college-level nutrition course (n = 62) had significantly higher (p < 0.05) total sport nutrition, carbohydrate, and hydration knowledge compared to those who did not (n = 268). Individual sport athletes (n = 90) scored significantly higher (p < 0.05) on hydration and micronutrients knowledge than team sport athletes (n = 237), while females scored higher than males for hydration knowledge (p < 0.05). The majority of athletes reported sensible dietary habits, such as not frequently skipping meals and eating carbohydrate and protein foods peri-workout. Athletes also reported their primary sources of nutrition information, the top three sources being social media, coaches, and athletic trainers, despite most frequently rating registered dietitians/nutritionists as "extremely knowledgeable". Despite low sport nutrition knowledge, NCAA DIII collegiate athletes practiced seemingly prudent dietary habits but lacked exposure to high-quality sources of nutrition information.


Assuntos
Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estado Nutricional , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nutricionistas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398726

RESUMO

A strictly anaerobic, resistant starch-degrading, bile-tolerant, autolytic strain, IPLA60002T, belonging to the family Ruminococcaceae, was isolated from a human bile sample of a liver donor without hepatobiliary disease. Cells were Gram-stain-positive cocci, and 16S rRNA gene and whole genome analyses showed that Ruminococcus bromii was the phylogenetically closest related species to the novel strain IPLA60002T, though with average nucleotide identity values below 90 %. Biochemically, the new isolate has metabolic features similar to those described previously for gut R. bromii strains, including the ability to degrade a range of different starches. The new isolate, however, produces lactate and shows distinct resistance to the presence of bile salts. Additionally, the novel bile isolate displays an autolytic phenotype after growing in different media. Strain IPLA60002T is phylogenetically distinct from other species within the genus Ruminococcus. Therefore, we propose on the basis of phylogenetic, genomic and metabolic data that the novel IPLA60002T strain isolated from human bile be given the name Ruminococcoides bili gen. nov., sp. nov., within the new proposed genus Ruminococcoides and the family Ruminococcaceae. Strain IPLA60002T (=DSM 110008T=LMG 31505T) is proposed as the type strain of Ruminococcoides bili.


Assuntos
Bile/microbiologia , Filogenia , Ruminococcus/classificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ruminococcus/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA
8.
J Fish Biol ; 99(4): 1201-1221, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085709

RESUMO

This study quantifies the processes involved in regulating the European eel population of Lough Neagh, a lake in Northern Ireland. The relationship between glass eel input and silver eel output for the 1923-1997 cohorts was best described by a Beverton-Holt stock recruitment model. Glass eel input time series was not complete and was thus derived from the relationship between catches elsewhere in Europe and Lough Neagh, together with the addition of stocked glass eel. Silver eel output was the sum of silver eel escapement, catch and yellow eel catch converted to silver eel equivalents. Natural mortality increased with glass eel density, ranging from 0.017 to 0.142 year-1 . The mean carrying capacity increased from ≈3.25 M silver eels (≈26 kg ha-1 ) for the 1923-1943 cohorts to ≈5.0 M (≈40 kg ha-1 ) for the 1948-1971 cohorts before regressing back to ≈3.25 M. The total silver eel output was highest during the late 1970s/early 1980s at 35-45 kg ha-1  year-1 and lowest during the early years of the 20th century and is currently at 10-15 kg ha-1  year-1 . The findings are discussed in relation to (a) the ecological changes that have occurred within the lough, associated with eutrophication and the introduction of roach (Rutilus rutilus L.), and (b) the decline of the wider European eel stock across its distribution range. The findings from this study have relevance for the wider management of the European eel stock.


Assuntos
Anguilla , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Europa (Continente) , Lagos , Irlanda do Norte
9.
J Strength Cond Res ; 35(5): 1326-1330, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677462

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Sekiguchi, Y, Curtis, RM, Huggins, RA, Benjamin, CL, Walker, AJ, Arent, SM, Adams, WM, Anderson, T, and Casa, DJ. The relationships between perceived wellness of, sleep of, and acute: chronic training load on National Collegiate Athletics Association division I male soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 35(5): 1326-1330, 2021-The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between perceived wellness, sleep, and acute: chronic workload ratio (ACWR) throughout a collegiate men's soccer season. Sixty male collegiate soccer players (mean[M] ± SD; age, 21±2 year; body mass, 77.6 ± 6.5 kg; height, 180.1 ± 6.4 cm; body fat%, 9.9 ± 3.9% ; and V̇o2max, 53.1 ± 5.0 ml·kg-1·min-1) participated in this study. During each session, players used a heart rate and global positioning satellite-enabled chest strap to measure training impulse and ACWR. The ACWR values were trichotomized at the individual level giving an equal number of observations within each ACWR category of low, moderate, and high ACWR (M ± SD; low, 0.658 ± 0.23; moderate, 0.92 ± 0.15; and high, 1.17 ± 0.16). Stress, fatigue, and soreness levels were collected using 1-10 Likert scales and sleep duration, and sleep quality were measured by the Karolinska Sleep Diary. Stress, fatigue, soreness levels, and sleep quality were transformed to corresponding z-scores at the individual level. Fatigue levels were significantly higher when ACWR was high compared with low (mean difference [95% confidence intervals], effect size, p-value; 0.31 [0.21, 0.42], 0.29, p < 0.001) and moderate (0.14 [0.03, 0.24], 0.13, p = 0.01). Fatigue levels were also significantly higher when the ACWR was moderate compared with low (0.18 [0.07, 0.28], 0.16, p = 0.001). Soreness levels were significantly higher when the ACWR was high compared with low (0.25 [0.14, 0.36], 0.23, p < 0.001). Stress levels were significantly greater when the ACWR was high compared with low (0.19, [0.08, 0.29], 0.18, p < 0.001) and compared with moderate (0.15, [0.05, 0.25], 0.14, p = 0.004). There were no differences in sleep duration or sleep quality in different ACWR. The ACWR may be a useful tool to achieve an appropriate balance between training and recovery to manage daily fatigue and soreness levels in athletes.


Assuntos
Futebol , Adulto , Atletas , Fadiga , Humanos , Masculino , Sono , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
10.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6650414, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33623785

RESUMO

"Active ageing" has become the leading scientific and policy conceptualization of a later life over the past two decades in the European Union (EU). It has been used as a key strategy for responding to demographic ageing. In the United States, in contrast, discourses around successful ageing have been more prevalent. This review article charts the development of active ageing responses to demographic change, showing how the concept compares with the notion of successful ageing and other terms associated with "ageing well." It identifies how, in practice, active ageing has been dominated by a narrow economic or productivist interpretation that prioritizes the extension of working life (to reduce the "burden" of population ageing). Such interpretations of active ageing undermine its value and emphasize the need for a more comprehensive approach which is set out. The development of the Active Ageing Index in 2012 provided a new analytical tool to promote evidence-based strategies towards population ageing. However, in practice, we show how it has not yet engaged fully with a comprehensive approach to active ageing or with the critical role of the life course in shaping the experience of old age. Nonetheless, this review article shows that the concept of active ageing still has an important role to play in our understanding of and responses to population ageing.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Promoção da Saúde , União Europeia , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Estados Unidos
11.
J Strength Cond Res ; 35(8): 2316-2320, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30908370

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Sanders, DJ, Walker, AJ, Prior, KE, Poyssick, AN, and Arent, SM. Training demands and physiological profile of cross-disciplined collegiate female dancers. J Strength Cond Res 35(8): 2316-2320, 2021-Little is known about the physical demands of high-level dance training. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological demands of a typical ballet and modern class through training load (TL) and to assess differences in TL between the 2 class types. In addition, a physiological profile of cross-disciplined collegiate female dancers was determined. Seventeen college-aged female dancers were recruited and performed a battery of performance tests assessing body fat (%BF), lean body mass, vertical jump (VJ), peak power, maximal oxygen consumption (V̇o2max), and ventilatory threshold (VT). Two ballet and modern dance classes were monitored for TL and exercise energy expenditure (EEE) using the Polar Team2 Pro System. Performance testing results were as follows: M%BF = 24.1 ± 4.2%, MLBM = 46.8 ± 8.5 kg, MV̇o2max = 42.9 ± 4.3 ml·kg-1·min-1, MVT = 76.2 ± 6.5% of V̇o2max, MVJ = 44.1 ± 1.4 cm, and MPP = 519.1 ± 177.5 W. Training load of 41.0 ± 17.0 for ballet and 44.8 ± 27.4 for modern dance was found, with an EEE of 394.0 ± 111.9 and 421.9 ± 161.4 kcal, respectively. Time spent at or above VT was 1.2 ± 2.6 minutes in ballet and 3.4 ± 8.3 minutes in modern. Compared with other female power-endurance athletes, the dancers accumulated a much lower TL during both class types. Low TL may inhibit typical adaptations seen in other athletes, which may explain why dancers in this study had lower aerobic and anaerobic capacities and higher body fat percentage than other collegiate female athletes. Also, it suggests that supplemental conditioning could be incorporated into a dancers training paradigm to optimize performance.


Assuntos
Dança , Consumo de Oxigênio , Atletas , Composição Corporal , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Eur J Ageing ; 18(2): 239-255, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082738

RESUMO

Intersectionality has received an increasing amount of attention in health inequalities research in recent years. It suggests that treating social characteristics separately-mainly age, gender, ethnicity, and socio-economic position-does not match the reality that people simultaneously embody multiple characteristics and are therefore potentially subject to multiple forms of discrimination. Yet the intersectionality literature has paid very little attention to the nature of ageing or the life course, and gerontology has rarely incorporated insights from intersectionality. In this paper, we aim to illustrate how intersectionality might be synthesised with a life course perspective to deliver novel insights into unequal ageing, especially with respect to health. First we provide an overview of how intersectionality can be used in research on inequality, focusing on intersectional subgroups, discrimination, categorisation, and individual heterogeneity. We cover two key approaches-the use of interaction terms in conventional models and multilevel models which are particularly focussed on granular subgroup differences. In advancing a conceptual dialogue with the life course perspective, we discuss the concepts of roles, life stages, transitions, age/cohort, cumulative disadvantage/advantage, and trajectories. We conclude that the synergies between intersectionality and the life course hold exciting opportunities to bring new insights to unequal ageing and its attendant health inequalities.

13.
Health Soc Care Community ; 29(4): 1041-1050, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783285

RESUMO

This paper examines the relationship between community care services and ageing in place in urban China. Using data from the 2010 Sample Survey on Aged Population in Urban/Rural China, and within the framework of a revised version of Andersen's model, the paper applies multilevel models and analyses the effects of community care on the preference between ageing in place and institutional care, and reveals that ageing in place is preferred even in urban China. However, the existence of community care services had no significant effect on the preference for ageing in place. The paper concludes by arguing that China needs to develop its community care services and promote the idea of community care in both culture and policy. Realising ageing in place also requires a multidisciplinary approach. A model of shared care, between family and state, is particularly appropriate for China.


Assuntos
Vida Independente , População Rural , Idoso , Envelhecimento , China , Humanos , População Urbana
14.
FEMS Microbiol Rev ; 45(3)2021 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232448

RESUMO

Candida albicans is a major fungal pathogen of humans. It exists as a commensal in the oral cavity, gut or genital tract of most individuals, constrained by the local microbiota, epithelial barriers and immune defences. Their perturbation can lead to fungal outgrowth and the development of mucosal infections such as oropharyngeal or vulvovaginal candidiasis, and patients with compromised immunity are susceptible to life-threatening systemic infections. The importance of the interplay between fungus, host and microbiota in driving the transition from C. albicans commensalism to pathogenicity is widely appreciated. However, the complexity of these interactions, and the significant impact of fungal, host and microbiota variability upon disease severity and outcome, are less well understood. Therefore, we summarise the features of the fungus that promote infection, and how genetic variation between clinical isolates influences pathogenicity. We discuss antifungal immunity, how this differs between mucosae, and how individual variation influences a person's susceptibility to infection. Also, we describe factors that influence the composition of gut, oral and vaginal microbiotas, and how these affect fungal colonisation and antifungal immunity. We argue that a detailed understanding of these variables, which underlie fungal-host-microbiota interactions, will present opportunities for directed antifungal therapies that benefit vulnerable patients.


Assuntos
Candidíase/imunologia , Candidíase/microbiologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/fisiologia , Interações Microbianas/fisiologia , Candida albicans/imunologia , Candida albicans/patogenicidade , Humanos
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33345065

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a competitive soccer season on biomarkers and performance metrics in order to determine the correlation between changes in biomarkers, body composition, and performance outcomes. Twenty-one Division 1 female collegiate soccer players were monitored throughout the 16-week season. Player workload was measured using heart rate and Global Position Satellite systems at all practices and games. Performance testing, including vertical jump, VO2max, and 3-repetition maximum testing for bench press, squat and deadlift, occurred prior to pre-season and immediately post-season. Blood draws occurred prior to preseason and every 4-weeks thereafter, following a game. Body composition was assessed prior to the start of season (week 0) and weeks 6, 10, 14, and 17 (post-season). Delta area under the curve was calculated for biomarkers and body composition variables to account for seasonal changes adjusted for baseline. Pearson-product moment correlations were used to assess relationships with significance set at p < 0.05. Trends were considered p ≤ 0.10. No significant time main effects were seen for anabolic biomarkers (p > 0.05). Significant time effects were seen for catabolic biomarkers throughout the season (p = 0.001). No changes in body weight, VO2max, vertical jump, and deadlift occurred. Squat and bench press improved (p = 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively) with a decline in percent body fat (p = 0.03) and a trend for increased fat free mass (p = 0.09). Additionally, total cortisol (TCORT) negatively correlated with fat free mass (r = -0.48; p = 0.03) and positively correlated with VO2max (r = 0.47; p = 0.04). A trend was shown for a positive correlation between both TCORT and free cortisol (FCORT) and percent body fat (r = 0.39; r = 0.40; p = 0.08, respectively). IGF-1 and growth hormone positively correlated to deadlift (r = 0.57; P = 0.02 and r = 0.59; p = 0.03), whereas creatine kinase showed a trend for a positive correlation with deadlift (r = 0.49; p = 0.06). IL-6 negatively correlated with bench press (r = -0.53; p = 0.03). These findings support a relationship between biomarkers, performance outcomes, and body composition. Biomarker monitoring may be useful to detect individual player's physiological response to an athletic season and may help provide insights in efforts to optimize performance outcomes.

16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18879, 2020 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144591

RESUMO

A nutritional intervention, exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) can induce remission in patients with pediatric Crohn's disease (CD). We characterized changes in the fecal microbiota and metabolome to identify the mechanism of EEN. Feces of 43 children were collected prior, during and after EEN. Microbiota and metabolites were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and NMR. Selected metabolites were evaluated in relevant model systems. Microbiota and metabolome of patients with CD and controls were different at all time points. Amino acids, primary bile salts, trimethylamine and cadaverine were elevated in patients with CD. Microbiota and metabolome differed between responders and non-responders prior to EEN. EEN decreased microbiota diversity and reduced amino acids, trimethylamine and cadaverine towards control levels. Patients with CD had reduced microbial metabolism of bile acids that partially normalized during EEN. Trimethylamine and cadaverine inhibited intestinal cell growth. TMA and cadaverine inhibited LPS-stimulated TNF-alpha and IL-6 secretion by primary human monocytes. A diet rich in free amino acids worsened inflammation in the DSS model of intestinal inflammation. Trimethylamine, cadaverine, bile salts and amino acids could play a role in the mechanism by which EEN induces remission. Prior to EEN, microbiota and metabolome are different between responders and non-responders.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Doença de Crohn/terapia , Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolômica/métodos , Adolescente , Aminoácidos/análise , Bactérias/genética , Biodiversidade , Cadaverina/análise , Cadaverina/farmacologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Doença de Crohn/imunologia , Nutrição Enteral/efeitos adversos , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Metilaminas/análise , Metilaminas/farmacologia , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/imunologia , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
J Strength Cond Res ; 34(12): 3364-3368, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021584

RESUMO

Bozzini, BN, McFadden, BA, Walker, AJ, and Arent, SM. Varying demands and quality of play between in-conference and out-of-conference games in Division I collegiate women's soccer. J Strength Cond Res 34(12): 3364-3368, 2020-The purpose of this study was to assess differences in physical workloads, physiological responses, and performance variables between in-conference (IC) and out-of-conference (OC) games during a collegiate women's soccer season. Female field players (N = 11), who played a minimum of 45 minutes for >50% of games, were evaluated using an integrative GPS and HR monitoring system to determine training load (TL), exercise energy expenditure (EEE), total distance covered (DIS), sprints, time spent in HR zones 4 and 5 (HRZ4 = 80-89% HRmax; HRZ5 = 90-100% HRmax), and distance covered in speed zones 4 and 5 (DISZ4 = 15.0-19.9 km·h; DISZ5 = ≥20 km·h). In addition, percent passing accuracy (PA%), dribbling success (DS%), tackling success (TS%), and challenges won (CW%) were generated for all games. Workload data were analyzed as a rate per minute playing time (PT) per game to account for differences in game duration and PT between OC (n = 7) and IC games (n = 11). Repeated-measures multivariate analyses of variance with univariate follow-ups and effect sizes (Hedges' g) were conducted to compare conditions (OC vs. CON) (p < 0.05). There were significantly greater TL, DIS, EEE, and HRZ5 per minute PT in OC versus IC games (Hedges' g: TL = 0.48; DIS = 0.20, EEE = 0.55; HRZ5 = 0.83; p < 0.05). Further analysis found significant differences in first half play favoring OC games (p < 0.05), but not second half play (p > 0.05). Based on these findings, OC games seem to be more demanding compared to IC, particularly during first half play. Emphasis should be placed on tailoring TL to the accumulating in-season demands through athlete-monitoring technology to prevent declines in performance in the latter half of the season.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Corrida , Futebol , Atletas , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos
18.
mSystems ; 5(5)2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900872

RESUMO

Lactate can be produced by many gut bacteria, but in adults its accumulation in the colon is often an indicator of microbiota perturbation. Using continuous culture anaerobic fermentor systems, we found that lactate concentrations remained low in communities of human colonic bacteria maintained at pH 6.5, even when dl-lactate was infused at 10 or 20 mM. In contrast, lower pH (5.5) led to periodic lactate accumulation following lactate infusion in three fecal microbial communities examined. Lactate accumulation was concomitant with greatly reduced butyrate and propionate production and major shifts in microbiota composition, with Bacteroidetes and anaerobic Firmicutes being replaced by Actinobacteria, lactobacilli, and Proteobacteria Pure-culture experiments confirmed that Bacteroides and Firmicutes isolates were susceptible to growth inhibition by relevant concentrations of lactate and acetate, whereas the lactate-producer Bifidobacterium adolescentis was resistant. To investigate system behavior further, we used a mathematical model (microPop) based on 10 microbial functional groups. By incorporating differential growth inhibition, our model reproduced the chaotic behavior of the system, including the potential for lactate infusion both to promote and to rescue the perturbed system. The modeling revealed that system behavior is critically dependent on the proportion of the community able to convert lactate into butyrate or propionate. Communities with low numbers of lactate-utilizing bacteria are inherently less stable and more prone to lactate-induced perturbations. These findings can help us to understand the consequences of interindividual microbiota variation for dietary responses and microbiota changes associated with disease states.IMPORTANCE Lactate is formed by many species of colonic bacteria, and can accumulate to high levels in the colons of inflammatory bowel disease subjects. Conversely, in healthy colons lactate is metabolized by lactate-utilizing species to the short-chain fatty acids butyrate and propionate, which are beneficial for the host. Here, we investigated the impact of continuous lactate infusions (up to 20 mM) at two pH values (6.5 and 5.5) on human colonic microbiota responsiveness and metabolic outputs. At pH 5.5 in particular, lactate tended to accumulate in tandem with decreases in butyrate and propionate and with corresponding changes in microbial composition. Moreover, microbial communities with low numbers of lactate-utilizing bacteria were inherently less stable and therefore more prone to lactate-induced perturbations. These investigations provide clear evidence of the important role these lactate utilizers may play in health maintenance. These should therefore be considered as potential new therapeutic probiotics to combat microbiota perturbations.

19.
Sci Total Environ ; 743: 140675, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927526

RESUMO

The European eel is critically endangered. Although the quality of silver eels is essential for their reproduction, little is known about the effects of multiple contaminants on the spawning migration and the European eel management plan does not take this into account. To address this knowledge gap, we sampled 482 silver eels from 12 catchments across Europe and developed methods to assess three aspects of eel quality: muscular lipid content (N = 169 eels), infection with Anguillicola crassus (N = 482), and contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs, N = 169) and trace elements (TEs, N = 75). We developed a standardized eel quality risks index (EQR) using these aspects for the subsample of 75 female eels. Among 169 eels, 33% seem to have enough muscular lipids content to reach the Sargasso Sea to reproduce. Among 482 silver eels, 93% were infected by A. crassus at least once during their lifetime. All contaminants were above the limit of quantification, except the 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), Ag and V. The contamination by POPs was heterogeneous between catchments while TEs were relatively homogeneous, suggesting a multi-scale adaptation of management plans. The EQR revealed that eels from Warwickshire were most impacted by brominated flame-retardants and agricultural contaminants, those from Scheldt were most impacted by agricultural and construction activities, PCBs, coal burning, and land use, while Frémur eels were best characterized by lower lipid contents and high parasitic and BTBPE levels. There was a positive correlation between EQR and a human footprint index highlighting the capacity of silver eels for biomonitoring human activities and the potential impact on the suitability of the aquatic environment for eel population health. EQR therefore represents a step forward in the standardization and mapping of eel quality risks, which will help identify priorities and strategies for restocking freshwater ecosystems.


Assuntos
Anguilla , Retardadores de Chama , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Animais , Ecossistema , Enguias , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos
20.
BMC Microbiol ; 20(1): 283, 2020 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The human colon is colonised by a dense microbial community whose species composition and metabolism are linked to health and disease. The main energy sources for colonic bacteria are dietary polysaccharides and oligosaccharides. These play a major role in modulating gut microbial composition and metabolism, which in turn can impact on health outcomes. RESULTS: We investigated the influence of wheat bran arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (AXOS) and maltodextrin supplements in modulating the composition of the colonic microbiota and metabolites in healthy adults over the age of 60. Male and female volunteers, (n = 21, mean BMI 25.2 ± 0.7 kg/m2) participated in the double-blind, cross over supplement study. Faecal samples were collected for analysis of microbiota, short chain fatty acids levels and calprotectin. Blood samples were collected to measure glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides levels. There was no change in these markers nor in calprotectin levels in response to the supplements. Both supplements were well-tolerated by the volunteers. Microbiota analysis across the whole volunteer cohort revealed a significant increase in the proportional abundance of faecal Bifidobacterium species (P ≤ 0.01) in response to AXOS, but not maltodextrin, supplementation. There was considerable inter-individual variation in the other bacterial taxa that responded, with a clear stratification of volunteers as either Prevotella-plus (n = 8; > 0.1% proportional abundance) or Prevotella-minus (n = 13; ≤0.1% proportional abundance) subjects founded on baseline sample profiles. There was a significant increase in the proportional abundance of both faecal Bifidobacterium (P ≤ 0.01) and Prevotella species (P ≤ 0.01) in Prevotella-plus volunteers during AXOS supplementation, while Prevotella and Bacteroides relative abundances showed an inverse relationship. Proportional abundance of 26 OTUs, including bifidobacteria and Anaerostipes hadrus, differed significantly between baseline samples of Prevotella-plus compared to Prevotella-minus individuals. CONCLUSIONS: The wheat bran AXOS supplementation was bifidogenic and resulted in changes in human gut microbiota composition that depended on the initial microbiota profile, specifically the presence or absence of Prevotella spp. as a major component of the microbiota. Our data therefore suggest that initial profiling of individuals through gut microbiota analysis should be considered important when contemplating nutritional interventions that rely on prebiotics. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical trial registration number: NCT02693782 . Registered 29 February 2016 - Retrospectively registered, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02693782?term=NCT02693782&rank=1.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Prevotella/fisiologia , Idoso , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/análise , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oligossacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Prebióticos , Prevotella/efeitos dos fármacos , Xilanos
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