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1.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 290, 2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research suggests that women's experience of antenatal care is an important component of high-quality antenatal care. Person-centered antenatal care (PCANC) reflects care that is both respectful of, and responsive to, the preferences, needs, and values of pregnant women. Little is known in Rwanda about either the extent to which PCANC is practiced or the factors that might determine its use. This is the first study to quantitatively examine the extent of and the factors associated with PCANC in Rwanda. METHODS: We used quantitative data from a randomized control trial in Rwanda. A total of 2150 surveys were collected and analyzed from 36 health centers across five districts. We excluded women who were less than 16 years old, were referred to higher levels of antenatal care or had incomplete survey responses. Both bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to test the hypothesis that certain participant characteristics would predict high PCANC. RESULTS: PCANC level was found to be sub-optimal with one third of women leaving antenatal care (ANC) with questions or confused and one fourth feeling disrespected. In bivariate analysis, social support, greater parity, being in the traditional care (control group), and being from Burera district significantly predict high PCANC. Additionally, in the multivariate analysis, being in the traditional care group and the district in which women received care were significantly associated with PCANC. CONCLUSIONS: This quantitative analysis indicates sub-optimal levels of PCANC amongst our study population in Rwanda. We find lower levels of PCANC to be regional and defined by the patient characteristics parity and social support. Given the benefits of PCANC, improvements in PCANC through provider training in Rwanda might promote an institutional culture shift towards a more person-centered model of care.

2.
BMC Womens Health ; 21(1): 112, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Strengthened efforts in postpartum family planning (PPFP) is a key priority to accelerate progress in reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health outcomes. This secondary data analysis explores factors associated with PPFP uptake in Rwanda. The purpose of this study was to explore variables that may influence PPFP use for postpartum women in Rwanda including health facility type, respectful maternity care, locus of control, and mental health status. METHODS: This secondary analysis of data from a cluster randomized control trial used information abstracted from questionnaires administered to women (≥ 15 years of age) at two time points-one during pregnancy (baseline) and one after delivery of the baby (follow-up). The dependent variable, PPFP uptake, was evaluated against the independent variables: respectful care, locus of control, and mental health status. These data were abstracted from linked questionnaires completed from January 2017 to February 2019. The sample size provided 97% power to detect a change at a 95% significance level with a sample size of 640 at a 15% effect size. Chi-square testing was applied for the bivariate analyses. A logistic regression model using the generalized linear model function was performed; odds ratio and adjusted (by age group and education group) odds ratio with 95% confidence interval were reported. RESULTS: Of the 646 respondents, although 92% reported not wanting another pregnancy within the next year, 72% used PPFP. Antenatal care wait time (p = < 0.01; Adj OR (Adj 95% CI) 21-40 min: 2.35 (1.46,3.79); 41-60 min: 1.50 (0.84,2.69); 61-450 min: 5.42 (2.86,10.75) and reporting joint healthcare decision-making between the woman and her partner (male) (p = 0.04; Adj OR (Adj 95% CI) husband/partner: 0.59 (0.35,0.97); mother and partner jointly: 1.06 (0.66,1.72) were associated with PPFP uptake. CONCLUSIONS: These results illustrate that partner (male) involvement and improved quality of maternal health services may improve PPFP utilization in Rwanda.

3.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247260, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735280

RESUMO

Maternal and neonatal mortality in Bihar, India was far higher than the aspirational levels set out by the Sustainable Development Goals. Provider training programs have been implemented in many low-resource settings to improve obstetric and neonatal outcomes. This longitudinal investigation assessed diagnoses and management of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, birth asphyxia (BA), and low birth weight (LBW), as part of the CARE's AMANAT program in 22 District Hospitals in Bihar, between 2015 and 2017. Physicians and nurse mentors conducted clinical instruction, simulations and teamwork and communication activities, infrastructure and management support, and data collection for 6 consecutive months. Analysis of diagnosis included 11,259 non-referred and management included 11,800 total (non-referred and referred) admissions that were observed. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test for trend. PPH was diagnosed in 3.7% with no significant trend but diagnosis of hypertensive disorders increased from 1.0% to 1.7%, (ptrend = 0.04), over the 6 months. BA was diagnosed in 5.8% with no significant trend but LBW diagnoses increased from 11% to 16% (ptrend<0.01). Among PPH patients, 96% received fluids, 85% received uterotonics and 11% received Tranexamic Acid (TXA). There was a significant positive trend in the number of patients receiving TXA for PPH (6% to 13.8%, ptrend = 0.03). Of all neonates with BA, there were statistically significant increases in the proportion who were initially warmed, dried, and stimulated (78% to 94%, ptrend = 0.02), received airway suction (80% to 93%, ptrend = 0.03), and supplemental oxygen without positive pressure ventilation (73% to 86%, ptrend = 0.05). Diagnoses of hypertensive disorders and LBW as well as initial management of BA increased during the AMANAT program. However, underdiagnoses of PPH and hypertensive disorders relative to population levels remain critical barriers to improving maternal morbidity and mortality.

4.
Midwifery ; 96: 102949, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631411

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a midwife-performed checklist and limited obstetric ultrasound on sensitivity and positive predictive value for a composite outcome comprising multiple gestation, placenta praevia, oligohydramnios, preterm birth, malpresentation, abnormal foetal heart rate. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental pre-post intervention study. SETTING: Maternity unit at a district hospital in Eastern Uganda. INTERVENTIONS: Interventions were implemented in a phased approach: standardised labour triage documentation (Phase 1), a triage checklist (Phase 2), and checklist plus limited obstetric ultrasound (Phase 3). PARTICIPANTS: Consenting women presenting to labour triage for admission after 28 weeks of gestation between February 2018 and June 2019 were eligible. Women not in labour or those requiring immediate care were excluded. 3,865 women and 3,937 newborns with similar sample sizes per phase were included in the analysis. MEASUREMENT AND FINDINGS: Outcome data after birth were used to determine true presence of a complication, while intake and checklist data were used to inform diagnosis before birth. Compared to Phase 1, Phase 2 and 3 interventions improved sensitivity (Phase 1: 47%, Phase 2: 68.8%, Phase 3: 73.5%; p ≤ 0.001) and reduced positive predictive value (65.9%, 55%, 48.7%, p ≤ 0.001) for the composite outcome. No phase differences in adverse maternal or foetal outcomes were observed. CONCLUSION: Both a triage checklist and a checklist plus limited obstetric ultrasound improved accurate identification of cases with some increase in false positive diagnosis. These interventions may be beneficial in a resource-limited maternity triage setting to improve midwives' diagnoses and clinical decision-making.

5.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246442, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research on group antenatal care in low- and middle-income contexts suggests high acceptability and preliminary implementation success. METHODS: We studied the effect of group antenatal care on gestational age at birth among women in Rwanda, hypothesizing that participation would increase mean gestational length. For this unblinded cluster randomized trial, 36 health centers were pair-matched and randomized; half continued individual antenatal care (control), half implemented group antenatal care (intervention). Women who initiated antenatal care between May 2017 and December 2018 were invited to participate, and included in analyses if they presented before 24 weeks gestation, attended at least two visits, and their birth outcome was obtained. We used a generalized estimating equations model for analysis. FINDINGS: In total, 4091 women in 18 control clusters and 4752 women in 18 intervention clusters were included in the analysis. On average, women attended three total antenatal care visits. Gestational length was equivalent in the intervention and control groups (39.3 weeks (SD 1.6) and 39.3 weeks (SD 1.5)). There were no significant differences between groups in secondary outcomes except that more women in control sites attended postnatal care visits (40.1% versus 29.7%, p = 0.003) and more women in intervention sites attended at least three total antenatal care visits (80.7% versus 71.7%, p = 0.003). No harms were observed. INTERPRETATION: Group antenatal care did not result in a difference in gestational length between groups. This may be due to the low intervention dose. We suggest studies of both the effectiveness and costs of higher doses of group antenatal care among women at higher risk of preterm birth. We observed threats to group care due to facility staff shortages; we recommend studies in which antenatal care providers are exclusively allocated to group antenatal care during visits. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03154177.

7.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 1130, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33287800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anganwadi Workers (AWWs) are a group of 1.4 million community health workers that operate throughout rural India as a part of the Integrated Child Development Services program. AWWs are responsible for disseminating key health information regarding nutrition, family planning, and immunizations to the women and children in their catchment area, while maintaining detailed registers that track key beneficiary data, updates on health status, and supply inventory beneficiaries. There is a need to understand how AWWs spend their time on all of these activities given all of their responsibilities, and the factors that are associated with their time use. METHODS: This cross-sectional study conducted in Madhya Pradesh, collected time use data from AWWs using a standard approach in which we asked participants how much time they spent on various activities. Additionally, we estimated a logistic regression model to elucidate what AWW characteristics are associated with time use. RESULTS: We found that AWWs spend substantial amounts of time on administrative tasks, such as filling out their paper registers. Additionally, we explored the associations between various AWW characteristics and their likelihood of spending the expected amount of time on preschool work, filling out their registers, feeding children, and conducting home visits. We found a positive significant association between AWW education and their likelihood of filling out their registers. CONCLUSIONS: AWWs spend substantial amounts of time on administrative tasks, which could take away from their ability to spend time on providing direct care. Additionally, future research should explore why AWW characteristics matter and how such factors can be addressed to improve AWWs' performance and should explore the associations between Anganwadi Center characteristics and AWW time use.

8.
Health Sci Rep ; 3(4): e196, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145442

RESUMO

Background: An estimated 2.8 million neonatal deaths occur each year globally, which accounts for at least 45% of deaths in children aged less than 5 years. Birthweight and gestational age-specific mortality estimates are limited in low-resource countries like Uganda. A deeper analysis of mortality by birthweight and gestational age is critical in identifying the cause and potential solutions to decrease neonatal mortality. Objectives: We studied mortality before discharge in relation to birthweight and gestational age using a large sample size from selected tertiary care facilities in Uganda. Methods: We used secondary data from the East Africa Preterm Birth Initiative study conducted in six tertiary care facilities. Birth records of infants born between October 2016 and March 2019 with a gestational age greater than or equal to 24 weeks and/or birthweight greater than or equal to 500 g were reviewed for inclusion in the analysis. Newborn death before discharge was the outcome variable of interest. Multivariable Poisson regression modeling was used to explore birthweight and gestational age-specific mortality rate. Results: We analysed 50 278 birth records. Among these 95.3% (47 913) were live births and 4.8% (2365) were stillbirths. Of the 47 913 live births, 50% (24 147) were males. Overall, pre-discharge mortality was 13.0 per 1000 live births. For each 1 kg increase in birthweight, mortality before discharge decreased by -0.016. As birthweight increases, the mortality before discharge decreased from 336 per 1000 live births among infants born between 500 and 999 g, to 4.7 per 1000 live births among infants born weighing 3500 to 3999 g, and increased again to 11.2 per 1000 live births among infants weighing more than 4500 g. Conclusions: Our study highlights the need for further research to understand newborn survival across different birthweight and gestational categories.

9.
J Midwifery Womens Health ; 65(5): 694-699, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010115

RESUMO

Evidence from high-income countries suggests that group antenatal care, an alternative service delivery model, may be an effective strategy for improving both the provision and experience of care. Until recently, published research about group antenatal care did not represent findings from low- and middle-income countries, which have health priorities, system challenges, and opportunities that are different than those in high-income countries. Because high-quality evidence is limited, the World Health Organization recommends group antenatal care be implemented only in the context of rigorous research. In 2016 the Global Group Antenatal Care Collaborative was formed as a platform for group antenatal care researchers working in low- and middle-income countries to share experiences and shape future research to accelerate development of a robust global evidence base reflecting implementation and outcomes specific to low- and middle-income countries. This article presents a brief history of the Collaborative's work to date, proposes a common definition and key principles for group antenatal care, and recommends an evaluation and reporting framework for group antenatal care research.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047332

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test whether introduction of a midwife-performed triage checklist and focused ultrasound improves diagnosis and referral for obstetric conditions, including multiple gestation, placenta previa, oligohydramnios, preterm birth, malpresentation, and abnormal fetal heart rate. METHODS: We implemented an intake log (Phase 1), a checklist (Phase 2), and a checklist plus ultrasound scan (Phase 3) at three primary health centers in Eastern Uganda for women presenting in labor. Intake diagnoses, referral status, and delivery outcomes were assessed, as well as sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV). RESULTS: Between February 2018 and July 2019, 1155, 961, and 603 women were enrolled across the three phases (n=2719); 2339 had outcome data. Incidence of any outcome-confirmed condition was 8.8%, 7.9%, and 7.1% (P=0.526) for each phase, respectively. The proportion of referred women with a condition did not change between Phases 1 and 2 (7.8% versus 8.6%, P=0.855), but increased in Phase 3 (48.4%, P<0.001). Sensitivity improved with each intervention; PPV decreased with ultrasound. CONCLUSION: Use of ultrasound plus checklist increased referrals and sensitivity for high-risk conditions, with decreased PPV. The checklist alone improved correct diagnosis, but not referral. Further evaluation of these triage interventions to maximize diagnostic accuracy, referral decisions, and outcomes are warranted.

11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237656, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866167

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Preterm birth is the primary driver of neonatal mortality worldwide, but it is defined by gestational age (GA) which is challenging to accurately assess in low-resource settings. In a commitment to reducing preterm birth while reinforcing and strengthening facility data sources, the East Africa Preterm Birth Initiative (PTBi-EA) chose eligibility criteria that combined GA and birth weight. This analysis evaluated the quality of the GA data as recorded in maternity registers in PTBi-EA study facilities and the strength of the PTBi-EA eligibility criteria. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of maternity register data from March-September 2016. GA data from 23 study facilities in Migori, Kenya and the Busoga Region of Uganda were evaluated for completeness (variable present), consistency (recorded versus calculated GA), and plausibility (falling within the 3rd and 97th birth weight percentiles for GA of the INTERGROWTH-21st Newborn Birth Weight Standards). Preterm birth rates were calculated using: 1) recorded GA <37 weeks, 2) recorded GA <37 weeks, excluding implausible GAs, 3) birth weight <2500g, and 4) PTBi-EA eligibility criteria of <2500g and between 2500g and 3000g if the recorded GA is <37 weeks. RESULTS: In both countries, GA was the least recorded variable in the maternity register (77.6%). Recorded and calculated GA (Kenya only) were consistent in 29.5% of births. Implausible GAs accounted for 11.7% of births. The four preterm birth rates were 1) 14.5%, 2) 10.6%, 3) 9.6%, 4) 13.4%. CONCLUSIONS: Maternity register GA data presented quality concerns in PTBi-EA study sites. The PTBi-EA eligibility criteria of <2500g and between 2500g and 3000g if the recorded GA is <37 weeks accommodated these concerns by using both birth weight and GA, balancing issues of accuracy and completeness with practical applicability.


Assuntos
Coleta de Dados/normas , Idade Gestacional , Serviços de Saúde Materna/organização & administração , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Peso ao Nascer , Coleta de Dados/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido de Peso Extremamente Baixo ao Nascer , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Quênia/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Melhoria de Qualidade , Sistema de Registros/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Uganda/epidemiologia
12.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(8): e1061-e1070, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although gains in newborn survival have been achieved in many low-income and middle-income countries, reductions in stillbirth and neonatal mortality have been slow. Prematurity complications are a major driver of stillbirth and neonatal mortality. We aimed to assess the effect of a quality improvement package for intrapartum and immediate newborn care on stillbirth and preterm neonatal survival in Kenya and Uganda, where evidence-based practices are often underutilised. METHODS: This unblinded cluster-randomised controlled trial was done in western Kenya and eastern Uganda at facilities that provide 24-h maternity care with at least 200 births per year. The study assessed outcomes of low-birthweight and preterm babies. Eligible facilities were pair-matched and randomly assigned (1:1) into either the intervention group or the control group. All facilities received maternity register data strengthening and a modified WHO Safe Childbirth Checklist; facilities in the intervention group additionally received provider mentoring using PRONTO simulation and team training as well as quality improvement collaboratives. Liveborn or fresh stillborn babies who weighed between 1000 g and 2500 g, or less than 3000 g with a recorded gestational age of less than 37 weeks, were included in the analysis. We abstracted data from maternity registers for maternal and birth outcomes. Follow-up was done by phone or in person to identify the status of the infant at 28 days. The primary outcome was fresh stillbirth and 28-day neonatal mortality. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03112018. FINDINGS: Between Oct 1, 2016, and April 30, 2019, 20 facilities were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (n=10) or the control group (n=10). Among 5343 eligible babies in these facilities, we assessed outcomes of 2938 newborn and fresh stillborn babies (1447 in the intervention and 1491 in the control group). 347 (23%) of 1491 infants in the control group were stillborn or died in the neonatal period compared with 221 (15%) of 1447 infants in the intervention group at 28 days (odds ratio 0·66, 95% CI 0·54-0·81). No harm or adverse effects were found. INTERPRETATION: Fresh stillbirth and neonatal mortality among low-birthweight and preterm babies can be decreased using a package of interventions that reinforces evidence-based practices and invests in health system strengthening. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil/organização & administração , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Gravidez , Uganda/epidemiologia
13.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235269, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603339

RESUMO

Many high-risk conditions of pregnancy are undetected until the time of delivery in low-income countries. We developed a point-of-care ultrasound training protocol for providers in rural Uganda to detect fetal distress or demise, malpresentation, multiple gestation, placenta previa, oligohydramnios and preterm delivery. This was a mixed-methods study to evaluate the 2-week training curriculum and trainees' ability to perform a standard scanning protocol and interpret ultrasound images. Surveys to assess provider confidence were administered pre-training, immediately after, and at 3-month follow up. Following lecture and practical demonstrations, each trainee conducted 25 proctored scans and were required to pass an observed structured clinical exam (OSCE). All images produced 8 weeks post course underwent blinded review by two ultrasound experts to assess image quality and to identify common errors. Key informant interviews further assessed perceptions of the training program and utility of point-of-care ultrasound. All interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and reviewed by multiple readers using a content analysis approach. Twenty-three nurse/nurse midwives and two physicians from one district hospital and three health centers participated in the training curriculum. Confidence levels increased from an average of 1 point pre-course to over 6 points post-course for all measures (maximum of 7 points). Of 25 participants, 22 passed the OSCE on the first attempt (average score 89.4%). Image quality improved over time; the final error rate at week 8 was less than 5%, with an overall kappa of 0.8-1 for all measures between the two reviewers. Among the 12 key informant interviews conducted, key themes included a desire for more hands-on training and longer duration of training and challenges in balancing clinical duties with ability to attend training sessions. This study demonstrates that providers without previous ultrasound experience can detect high-risk conditions during labor with a high rate of quality and accuracy after training.


Assuntos
Enfermeiras Obstétricas/educação , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Trabalho de Parto , Tocologia/educação , Obstetrícia/educação , Gravidez , População Rural , Triagem , Uganda , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/métodos , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/enfermagem
14.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 151(1): 109-116, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524605

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of an intervention package on maternal and newborn health indicators. METHODS: A randomized stepped-wedge non-blind trial was conducted across six subdistricts within two districts in Guatemala from January 2014 to January 2017. Data on outcomes were collected on all deliveries in all 33 health centers. The intervention package included distribution of promotional materials encouraging health center delivery; education for traditional birth attendants about the importance of health center delivery; and provider capacity building using simulation training. Main outcomes were number of health center deliveries, maternal morbidity, and perinatal morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: Overall, there were 24 412 deliveries. Health center deliveries per 1000 live births showed an overall increase, although after adjustment for secular trends and clustering, the relative risk for the treatment effect was not statistically significant (aRR, 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97-1.11, P=0.242). Although not statistically significant, maternal morbidity (aRR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.60-1.02; P=0.068) and perinatal morbidity (aRR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.68-1.05; P=0.133) showed a tendency toward a decrease. CONCLUSION: The present study represents one of the few randomized evaluations of an integrated approach to improve birth outcomes in a low-income setting. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT0315107.

15.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233845, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479522

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: As facility-based deliveries increase globally, maternity registers offer a promising way of documenting pregnancy outcomes and understanding opportunities for perinatal mortality prevention. This study aims to contribute to global quality improvement efforts by characterizing facility-based pregnancy outcomes in Kenya and Uganda including maternal, neonatal, and fetal outcomes at the time of delivery and neonatal discharge outcomes using strengthened maternity registers. METHODS: Cross sectional data were collected from strengthened maternity registers at 23 facilities over 18 months. Data strengthening efforts included provision of supplies, training on standard indicator definitions, and monthly feedback on completeness. Pregnancy outcomes were classified as live births, early stillbirths, late stillbirths, or spontaneous abortions according to birth weight or gestational age. Discharge outcomes were assessed for all live births. Outcomes were assessed by country and by infant, maternal, and facility characteristics. Maternal mortality was also examined. RESULTS: Among 50,981 deliveries, 91.3% were live born and, of those, 1.6% died before discharge. An additional 0.5% of deliveries were early stillbirths, 3.6% late stillbirths, and 4.7% spontaneous abortions. There were 64 documented maternal deaths (0.1%). Preterm and low birthweight infants represented a disproportionate number of stillbirths and pre-discharge deaths, yet very few were born at ≤1500g or <28w. More pre-discharge deaths and stillbirths occurred after maternal referral and with cesarean section. Half of maternal deaths occurred in women who had undergone cesarean section. CONCLUSION: Maternity registers are a valuable data source for understanding pregnancy outcomes including those mothers and infants at highest risk of perinatal mortality. Strengthened register data in Kenya and Uganda highlight the need for renewed focus on improving care of preterm and low birthweight infants and expanding access to emergency obstetric care. Registers also permit enumeration of pregnancy loss <28 weeks. Documenting these earlier losses is an important step towards further mortality reduction for the most vulnerable infants.


Assuntos
Maternidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Maternidades/normas , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Quênia , Masculino , Mortalidade Materna , Gravidez , Melhoria de Qualidade , Uganda
16.
Gates Open Res ; 4: 7, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32363328

RESUMO

Background: For a large trial of the effect of group antenatal care on perinatal outcomes in Rwanda, a Technical Working Group customized the group care model for implementation in this context. This process analysis aimed to understand the degree of fidelity with which the group antenatal care model was implemented during the trial period. Methods: We used two discreet questionnaires to collect data from two groups about the fidelity with which the group antenatal care model was implemented during this trial period. Group care facilitators recorded descriptive data about each visit and self-assessed process fidelity with a series of yes/no checkboxes. Master Trainers assessed process fidelity with an 11-item tool using a 5-point scale of 0 (worst) to 4 (best). Results: We analyzed 2763 questionnaires completed by group care facilitators that documented discreet group visits among pregnant and postnatal women and 140 questionnaires completed by Master Trainers during supervision visits. Data recorded by both groups was available for 84 group care visits, and we compared these assessments by visit. Approximately 80% of all group visits were provided as intended, with respect to both objective measures (e.g. group size) and process fidelity. We did not find reliable correlations between conceptually-related items scored by Master Trainers and self-assessment data reported by group visit facilitators. Conclusions: We recommend both the continued participation of expert observers at new and existing group care sites and ongoing self-assessment by group care facilitators. Finally, we present two abbreviated assessment tools developed by a Rwanda-specific Technical Working Group that reviewed these research results.

17.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 4(1): e000628, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399505

RESUMO

Background: Use of simulation in neonatal resuscitation (NR) training programmes has increased throughout low-income and middle-income countries. Many of such programmes have demonstrated a positive impact on NR knowledge and skill acquisition along with reduction of early neonatal mortality and fresh stillbirth rates. However, NR skill retention after simulation programmes remains a challenge. Methods: This study assessed facility level NR skill retention after PRONTO International's simulation training in Bihar, India. Training was conducted within CARE India's statewide in-job, on-site Apatkaleen Matritva evam Navjat Tatparta mentoring programme as part of a larger quality improvement and health systems strengthening initiative. Public sector facilities were initially offered training, facilitated by trained nursing graduates, during 8-month phases between September 2015 and January 2017. Repeat training began in February 2018 and was facilitated by peers. NR skills in simulated resuscitations were assessed at the facility level at the midpoint and endpoint of initial training and prior to and at the midpoint of repeat training. Results: Facilities administering effective positive pressure ventilation and assessing infant heart rate increased (31.1% and 13.1%, respectively, both p=0.03) from midinitial to postinitial training (n=64 primary health centres (PHCs) and 192 simulations). This was followed by a 26.2% and 20.9% decline in these skills respectively over the training gap (p≤0.01). A significant increase (16.1%, p=0.04) in heart rate assessment was observed by the midpoint of repeat training with peer facilitators (n=45 PHCs and 90 simulations). No significant change was observed in other skills assessed. Conclusions: Despite initial improvement in select NR skills, deterioration was observed at a facility-level post-training. Given the technical nature of NR skills and the departure these skills represent from traditional practices in Bihar, refresher trainings at shorter intervals are likely necessary. Very limited evidence suggests peer simulation facilitators may enable such increased training frequency, but further study is required.

18.
BMC Med Educ ; 20(1): 97, 2020 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Continuing education is essential for healthcare workers. Education interventions can help to maintain and improve competency and confidence in the technical skills necessary to address adverse events. However, characteristics of the health provider such as age (related to more critical and reflexive attitude); sex (relationship with gender socialization), profession and work conditions might have an influence on the effect of continuing education efforts. METHODS: A training in the management of obstetric and neonatal emergencies (PRONTO, Spanish acronym for Neonatal and Obstetric Rescue Program: Optimal and Timely treatment) was implemented in 14 hospitals in six Mexican states between 2013 and 2014, with a before-after evaluation design. A total of 351 health providers including physicians, interns, nurses and midwives completed the training and were included in the analytic sample. Mixed-effects regression models were fitted to model changes in knowledge and self-efficacy scores after the training for each training topic. Interaction terms of training with age, gender, profession, and shift were included to evaluate possible heterogeneities of effect. All models considered the within-hospital clustering of participants. RESULTS: After training, all participants showed a significant knowledge gain by an average of 19 percentage points for hemorrhage, 23 for neonatal resuscitation, 19 for shoulder dystocia, and 15 for preeclampsia/eclampsia (p < 0.001). Participants who worked night shifts showed lower scores for overall knowledge, compared with morning shift workers. Interns perceived the lowest self-efficacy while they scored very high in knowledge. Self-efficacy in managing obstetric and neonatal emergencies increased significantly by 16 percentage points in average. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that PRONTO is generally successful in increasing knowledge and self-efficacy on all topics but knowledge and self efficacy levels vary greatly by factors such as work shift. Training should be particularly aimed at personnel working during weekends and night shifts, as well as interns and nurses.

19.
Women Birth ; 33(6): 574-582, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111555

RESUMO

PROBLEM: In Mexico, women are often disrespected and abused during birth, evidence-based practices are seldom used, while outdated and dangerous procedures linger. BACKGROUND: Disrespectful and abusive practices in Mexico have been reported but are not necessarily well-documented; none of the reports so far have relied on direct observation of births. AIM: To describe birth practices and factors associated with respectful and evidence-based care at 15 referral hospitals in Mexico. METHODS: We observed 401 births from 2010-2016. We analysed woman, provider, and hospital characteristics and their association with the performance of 14 evidence-based and 15 respectful birth practices via descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression models. FINDINGS: Only in four births were all the analysed evidence-based and respectful-birth practices performed. Essential interventions like uterine massage was only given to 46.1% of women and the administration of a uterotonic soon after birth only occurred in 58.3% of births. Professionals who were trained in respectful birth care were more likely to address women by their name (Odds Ratio=3.34, p<0.05), allow consumption of liquids during labour (Odds Ratio=31.6, p<0.05), encourage skin-to-skin contact (Odds Ratio=31.82, p<0.05), and examine the placenta after birth (Odds Ratio=16.55, p<0.01); they were less likely to perform episiotomies (Odds Ratio=0.27, p<0.05). DISCUSSION: This study reveals low rates of evidence-based practices and respectful maternity care but shows training in the topic can have a considerable positive impact. Our results call for further efforts to improve the quality of maternal healthcare, a universal right.

20.
BMC Med Educ ; 20(1): 9, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To develop effective and sustainable simulation training programs in low-resource settings, it is critical that facilitators are thoroughly trained in debriefing, a critical component of simulation learning. However, large knowledge gaps exist regarding the best way to train and evaluate debrief facilitators in low-resource settings. METHODS: Using a mixed methods approach, this study explored the feasibility of evaluating the debriefing skills of nurse mentors in Bihar, India. Videos of obstetric and neonatal post-simulation debriefs were assessed using two known tools: the Center for Advanced Pediatric and Perinatal Education (CAPE) tool and Debriefing Assessment for Simulation in Healthcare (DASH). Video data was used to evaluate interrater reliability and changes in debriefing performance over time. Additionally, twenty semi-structured interviews with nurse mentors explored perceived barriers and enablers of debriefing in Bihar. RESULTS: A total of 73 debriefing videos, averaging 18 min each, were analyzed by two raters. The CAPE tool demonstrated higher interrater reliability than the DASH; 13 of 16 CAPE indicators and two of six DASH indicators were judged reliable (ICC > 0.6 or kappa > 0.40). All indicators remained stable or improved over time. The number of 'instructors questions,' the amount of 'trainee responses,' and the ability to 'organize the debrief' improved significantly over time (p < 0.01, p < 0.01, p = 0.04). Barriers included fear of making mistakes, time constraints, and technical challenges. Enablers included creating a safe learning environment, using contextually appropriate debriefing strategies, and team building. Overall, nurse mentors believed that debriefing was a vital aspect of simulation-based training. CONCLUSION: Simulation debriefing and evaluation was feasible among nurse mentors in Bihar. Results demonstrated that the CAPE demonstrated higher interrater reliability than the DASH and that nurse mentors were able to maintain or improve their debriefing skills overtime. Further, debriefing was considered to be critical to the success of the simulation training. However, fear of making mistakes and logistical challenges must be addressed to maximize learning. Teamwork, adaptability, and building a safe learning environment enhanced the quality enhanced the quality of simulation-based training, which could ultimately help to improve maternal and neonatal health outcomes in Bihar.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Mentores/educação , Enfermagem Neonatal/educação , Enfermagem Obstétrica/educação , Treinamento por Simulação , Comunicação , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Índia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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