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1.
Epilepsy Behav ; 125: 108387, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781063

RESUMO

The introduction and widespread adoption of the term 'NORSE' - new-onset refractory status epilepticus - raises both fundamental conceptual and pragmatic questions. We studied a cohort of patients with 'NORSE' at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery to investigate the clinical features, treatment responses, and outcomes with a focus on sub-group analysis. We identified 26 cases of 'NORSE'. There was no difference in prognosis between 'NORSE' and non-'NORSE' RSE, nor in any sub-analysis in the 'NORSE' cohort. We discuss the utility and validity of the term NORSE as a descriptor for a subgroup with RSE in whom the underlying etiologies are heterogeneous and pathophysiological mechanisms are unknown.

2.
Diabetologia ; 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34845532

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Sleep, diet and exercise are fundamental to metabolic homeostasis. In this secondary analysis of a repeated measures, nutritional intervention study, we tested whether an individual's sleep quality, duration and timing impact glycaemic response to a breakfast meal the following morning. METHODS: Healthy adults' data (N = 953 [41% twins]) were analysed from the PREDICT dietary intervention trial. Participants consumed isoenergetic standardised meals over 2 weeks in the clinic and at home. Actigraphy was used to assess sleep variables (duration, efficiency, timing) and continuous glucose monitors were used to measure glycaemic variation (>8000 meals). RESULTS: Sleep variables were significantly associated with postprandial glycaemic control (2 h incremental AUC), at both between- and within-person levels. Sleep period time interacted with meal type, with a smaller effect of poor sleep on postprandial blood glucose levels when high-carbohydrate (low fat/protein) (pinteraction = 0.02) and high-fat (pinteraction = 0.03) breakfasts were consumed compared with a reference 75 g OGTT. Within-person sleep period time had a similar interaction (high carbohydrate: pinteraction = 0.001, high fat: pinteraction = 0.02). Within- and between-person sleep efficiency were significantly associated with lower postprandial blood glucose levels irrespective of meal type (both p < 0.03). Later sleep midpoint (time deviation from midnight) was found to be significantly associated with higher postprandial glucose, in both between-person and within-person comparisons (p = 0.035 and p = 0.051, respectively). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Poor sleep efficiency and later bedtime routines are associated with more pronounced postprandial glycaemic responses to breakfast the following morning. A person's deviation from their usual sleep pattern was also associated with poorer postprandial glycaemic control. These findings underscore sleep as a modifiable, non-pharmacological therapeutic target for the optimal regulation of human metabolic health. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03479866.

3.
Semin Nucl Med ; 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823841

RESUMO

This article reviews the current evolution and future directions in PET-CT technology focusing on three areas: time of flight, image reconstruction, and data-driven gating. Image reconstruction is considered with advances in point spread function modelling, Bayesian penalised likelihood reconstruction, and artificial intelligence approaches. Data-driven gating is examined with reference to respiratory motion, cardiac motion, and head motion. For each of these technological advancements, theory will be briefly discussed, benefits of their use in routine practice will be detailed and potential future developments will be discussed. Representative clinical cases will be presented, demonstrating the huge opportunities given to the PET community by hardware and software advances in PET technology when it comes to lesion detection, disease characterization, accurate quantitation and quicker scans. Through this review, hospitals are encouraged to embrace, evaluate and appropriately implement the wide range of new PET technologies that are available now or in the near future, for the improvement of patient care.

4.
Brain Commun ; 3(4): fcab160, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729477

RESUMO

This prospective open-label feasibility study aimed to evaluate acceptability, tolerability and compliance with dietary intervention with K.Vita, a medical food containing a unique ratio of decanoic acid to octanoic acid, in individuals with drug-resistant epilepsy. Adults and children aged 3-18 years with drug-resistant epilepsy took K.Vita daily whilst limiting high-refined sugar food and beverages. K.Vita was introduced incrementally with the aim of achieving ≤35% energy requirements for children or 240 ml for adults. Primary outcome measures were assessed by study completion, participant diary, acceptability questionnaire and K.Vita intake. Reduction in seizures or paroxysmal events was a secondary outcome. 23/35 (66%) children and 18/26 (69%) adults completed the study; completion rates were higher when K.Vita was introduced more gradually. Gastrointestinal disturbances were the primary reason for discontinuation, but symptoms were similar to those reported from ketogenic diets and incidence decreased over time. At least three-quarters of participants/caregivers reported favourably on sensory attributes of K.Vita, such as taste, texture and appearance, and ease of use. Adults achieved a median intake of 240 ml K.Vita, and children 120 ml (19% daily energy). Three children and one adult had ß-hydroxybutyrate >1 mmol/l. There was 50% (95% CI 39-61%) reduction in mean frequency of seizures/events. Reduction in seizures or paroxysmal events correlated significantly with blood concentrations of medium chain fatty acids (C10 and C8) but not ß-hydroxybutyrate. K.Vita was well accepted and tolerated. Side effects were mild and resolved with dietetic support. Individuals who completed the study complied with K.Vita and additional dietary modifications. Dietary intervention had a beneficial effect on frequency of seizures or paroxysmal events, despite absent or very low levels of ketosis. We suggest that K.Vita may be valuable to those with drug-resistant epilepsy, particularly those who cannot tolerate or do not have access to ketogenic diets, and may allow for more liberal dietary intake compared to ketogenic diets, with mechanisms of action perhaps unrelated to ketosis. Further studies of effectiveness of K.Vita are warranted.

5.
Elife ; 102021 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648426

RESUMO

The clinical and societal measurement of human sleep has increased exponentially in recent years. However, unlike other fields of medical analysis that have become highly automated, basic and clinical sleep research still relies on human visual scoring. Such human-based evaluations are time-consuming, tedious, and can be prone to subjective bias. Here, we describe a novel algorithm trained and validated on +30,000 hr of polysomnographic sleep recordings across heterogeneous populations around the world. This tool offers high sleep-staging accuracy that matches human scoring accuracy and interscorer agreement no matter the population kind. The software is designed to be especially easy to use, computationally low-demanding, open source, and free. Our hope is that this software facilitates the broad adoption of an industry-standard automated sleep staging software package.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Polissonografia , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Fases do Sono , Design de Software , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Automação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Eletroencefalografia , Eletromiografia , Eletroculografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Front Neurol ; 12: 693504, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621233

RESUMO

Background: Potentially curative epilepsy surgery can be offered if a single, discrete epileptogenic zone (EZ) can be identified. For individuals in whom there is no clear concordance between clinical localization, scalp EEG, and imaging data, intracranial EEG (icEEG) may be needed to confirm a predefined hypothesis regarding irritative zone (IZ), seizure onset zone (SOZ), and EZ prior to surgery. However, icEEG has limited spatial sampling and may fail to reveal the full extent of epileptogenic network if predefined hypothesis is not correct. Simultaneous icEEG-fMRI has been safely acquired in humans and allows exploration of neuronal activity at the whole-brain level related to interictal epileptiform discharges (IED) captured intracranially. Methods: We report icEEG-fMRI in eight patients with refractory focal epilepsy who had resective surgery and good postsurgical outcome. Surgical resection volume in seizure-free patients post-surgically reflects confirmed identification of the EZ. IEDs on icEEG were classified according to their topographic distribution and localization (Focal, Regional, Widespread, and Non-contiguous). We also divided IEDs by their location within the surgical resection volume [primary IZ (IZ1) IED] or outside [secondary IZ (IZ2) IED]. The distribution of fMRI blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) changes associated with individual IED classes were assessed over the whole brain using a general linear model. The concordance of resulting BOLD map was evaluated by comparing localization of BOLD clusters with surgical resection volume. Additionally, we compared the concordance of BOLD maps and presence of BOLD clusters in remote brain areas: precuneus, cuneus, cingulate, medial frontal, and thalamus for different IED classes. Results: A total of 38 different topographic IED classes were identified across the 8 patients: Focal (22) and non-focal (16, Regional = 9, Widespread = 2, Non-contiguous = 5). Twenty-nine IEDs originated from IZ1 and 9 from IZ2. All IED classes were associated with BOLD changes. BOLD maps were concordant with the surgical resection volume for 27/38 (71%) IED classes, showing statistical global maximum BOLD cluster or another cluster in the surgical resection volume. The concordance of BOLD maps with surgical resection volume was greater (p < 0.05) for non-focal (87.5%, 14/16) as compared to Focal (59%, 13/22) IED classes. Additionally, BOLD clusters in remote cortical and deep brain areas were present in 84% (32/38) of BOLD maps, more commonly (15/16; 93%) for non-focal IED-related BOLD maps. Conclusions: Simultaneous icEEG-fMRI can reveal BOLD changes at the whole-brain level for a wide range of IEDs on icEEG. BOLD clusters within surgical resection volume and remote brain areas were more commonly seen for non-focal IED classes, suggesting that a wider hemodynamic network is at play.

7.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(9): 100399, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622236

RESUMO

Immune suppression by CD4+FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and tumor infiltration by CD8+ effector T cells represent two major factors impacting response to cancer immunotherapy. Using deconvolution-based transcriptional profiling of human papilloma virus (HPV)-negative oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) and other solid cancers, we demonstrate that the density of Treg cells does not correlate with that of CD8+ T cells in many tumors, revealing polarized clusters enriched for either CD8+ T cells or CD4+ Treg and conventional T cells. In a mouse model of carcinogen-induced OSCC characterized by CD4+ T cell enrichment, late-stage Treg cell ablation triggers increased densities of both CD4+ and CD8+ effector T cells within oral lesions. Notably, this intervention does not induce tumor regression but instead induces rapid emergence of invasive OSCCs via an effector T cell-dependent process. Thus, induction of a T cell-inflamed phenotype via therapeutic manipulation of Treg cells may trigger unexpected tumor-promoting effects in OSCC.

9.
Br J Anaesth ; 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654520

RESUMO

The use of motor vehicles to initiate mass casualty incidents is increasing in frequency and such events are called intentional vehicular assaults. Perpetrators are inspired by a range of terrorist ideologies or have extremist views, criminal intent, or mental health issues. Assaults using a motor vehicle as the principal weapon of attack are easy to launch and require little to no forward planning. This makes them difficult for police and security agencies to predict, prevent, or interdict. With the increasing frequency of intentional vehicular assaults, anaesthesiologists in various settings may be involved in caring for victims and should be engaged in preparing for them. This narrative review examines the literature on vehicle assaults committed around the world and provides an overview of the unique injury patterns and considerations for the pre-hospital, perioperative, and critical care management of victims of these mass casualty events. The article discusses planning, education, and training in an attempt to reduce the mortality and morbidity of intentional vehicular assaults.

10.
J Econ Behav Organ ; 190: 480-494, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642514

RESUMO

We present experimental evidence on how pro-sociality, trust and attitudes towards risk and ambiguity evolved over the six weeks following the imposition of stringent Covid-19 related lockdown measures in the Hubei province of China. We compare incentivized economic decision-making in a baseline sample, collected pre-epidemic, with a series of repeated cross-sectional samples drawn from the same population between January and March, 2020. We find high rates of altruism, cooperation and aversion to risk taking under ambiguity in the immediate aftermath of the lockdown, while trust is significantly below its baseline level. Risk attitudes also differ in the post-lockdown sample, with decreased risk tolerance in the loss domain and lesser risk aversion in the gain domain. We further uncover significant transitory effects for trust and risk aversion around the date of a high-profile whistleblower's death from Covid-19. Our findings suggest that the onset of a public health crisis may have unintended consequences for economic preferences that determine population compliance with interventions designed to reduce the spread of a novel coronavirus.

11.
Plant J ; 108(4): 1020-1036, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510583

RESUMO

Underdeveloped (small) embryos embedded in abundant endosperm tissue, and thus having morphological dormancy (MD) or morphophysiological dormancy (MPD), are considered to be the ancestral state in seed dormancy evolution. This trait is retained in the Apiaceae family, which provides excellent model systems for investigating the underpinning mechanisms. We investigated Apium graveolens (celery) MD by combined innovative imaging and embryo growth assays with the quantification of hormone metabolism, as well as the analysis of hormone and cell-wall related gene expression. The integrated experimental results demonstrated that embryo growth occurred inside imbibed celery fruits in association with endosperm degradation, and that a critical embryo size was required for radicle emergence. The regulation of these processes depends on gene expression leading to gibberellin and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production by the embryo and on crosstalk between the fruit compartments. ABA degradation associated with distinct spatiotemporal patterns in ABA sensitivity control embryo growth, endosperm breakdown and radicle emergence. This complex interaction between gibberellins, IAA and ABA metabolism, and changes in the tissue-specific sensitivities to these hormones is distinct from non-MD seeds. We conclude that the embryo growth to reach the critical size and the associated endosperm breakdown inside MD fruits constitute a unique germination programme.

12.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520552

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Visual attention is a crucial mechanism in health messaging and campaign persuasiveness. Little is known about how visual attention may translate into cessation-related outcomes in tobacco public education campaigns. METHODS: Using eye tracking technology, this study investigated the relationships among visual attention, cognitive and affective message responses, and cessation-related outcomes (readiness to quit, intentions to quit, and intentions to seek cessation information). Four different posters from the Every Try Counts (ETC) campaign were used as message stimuli. A total of 80 adult current smokers participated. The associations between their behavioral eye gaze patterns and self-reported message responses and cessation-related outcomes were examined. RESULTS: Half of the sample (49.4%) were male, and 46.8% were White-with ages ranging from 18 to 36 years old (M = 21.22, SD = 2.86). Roughly 41% were daily smokers, and 78% had attempted quitting in the previous year. When exposed to campaign ads, only fixation on the FDA logo showed consistent positive relationships with cognitive and affective message responses. Mediation analyses revealed significant indirect effects of fixation on the FDA logo on quitting and information seeking intentions mainly through positive affective message responses. CONCLUSIONS: Visual attention to the FDA logo played an important role in the effects of ETC campaign messages. IMPLICATIONS: This study contributes new evidence on the relationship of visual attention, message responses, and ETC campaign outcomes. The current findings suggest that highlighting FDA as a campaign sponsor in visual display may enhance the effectiveness of FDA tobacco education messages.

13.
Neurology ; 97(17): 817-831, 2021 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493617

RESUMO

A monogenic etiology can be identified in up to 40% of people with severe epilepsy. To address earlier and more appropriate treatment strategies, clinicians are required to know the implications that specific genetic causes might have on pathophysiology, natural history, comorbidities, and treatment choices. In this narrative review, we summarize concepts on the genetic epilepsies based on the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms and present the current knowledge on treatment options based on evidence provided by controlled trials or studies with lower classification of evidence. Overall, evidence robust enough to guide antiseizure medication (ASM) choices in genetic epilepsies remains limited to the more frequent conditions for which controlled trials and observational studies have been possible. Most monogenic disorders are very rare and ASM choices for them are still based on inferences drawn from observational studies and early, often anecdotal, experiences with precision therapies. Precision medicine remains applicable to only a narrow number of patients with monogenic epilepsies and may target only part of the actual functional defects. Phenotypic heterogeneity is remarkable, and some genetic mutations activate epileptogenesis through their developmental effects, which may not be reversed postnatally. Other genes seem to have pure functional consequences on excitability, acting through either loss- or gain-of-function effects, and these may have opposite treatment implications. In addition, the functional consequences of missense mutations may be difficult to predict, making precision treatment approaches considerably more complex than estimated by deterministic interpretations. Knowledge of genetic etiologies can influence the approach to surgical treatment of focal epilepsies. Identification of germline mutations in specific genes contraindicates surgery while mutations in other genes do not. Identification, quantification, and functional characterization of specific somatic mutations before surgery using CSF liquid biopsy or after surgery in brain specimens will likely be integrated in planning surgical strategies and reintervention after a first unsuccessful surgery as initial evidence suggests that mutational load may correlate with the epileptogenic zone. Promising future directions include gene manipulation by DNA or mRNA targeting; although most are still far from clinical use, some are in early phase clinical development.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/genética , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos
14.
Front. Allergy ; 22021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368802

RESUMO

In animals and humans, offspring of allergic mothers have increased responsiveness to allergen and the allergen-specificity of the offspring can be different than that of the mother. In our preclinical models, the mother's allergic responses influence development of the fetus and offspring by elevating numbers of cells in dendritic cell subsets. A major question is the identity of maternal factors of allergic mothers that alter offspring development of responsiveness to allergen. Lipids are altered during allergic responses and lipids are transported to the fetus for growth and formation of fetal membranes. We hypothesized that pro-inflammatory lipids, that are elevated in allergic mothers, are transported to the fetus and regulate fetal immune development. We demonstrate in this report that there was a significant 2-fold increase in ß-glucosylceramides (ßGlcCer) in allergic mothers, the fetal liver and her offspring. The ßGlcCer were transported from mother's plasma, across the placenta, to the fetus and in breastmilk to the offspring. Administration of ßGlcCer to non-allergic mothers was sufficient for offspring responses to allergen. Importantly, maternal administration of a clinically relevant pharmacological inhibitor of ßGlcCer synthase returned ßGlcCer to normal levels in the allergic mothers and her offspring and blocked the offspring increase in dendritic cell subsets and offspring allergen responsiveness. In summary, allergic mothers had increased ßGlcCer that was transported to offspring and mediated increases in offspring DCs and responsiveness to allergen. These data have a significant impact on our understanding of mechanisms for development of allergies in offspring of allergic mothers and have the potential to lead to novel interventions that significantly impact risk for allergic disease early in life.

15.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(70): 8782-8785, 2021 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378594

RESUMO

We show how to control the formation and alignment of gel 'noodles'. Nanostructure alignment can be achieved reproducibly by extensional deformation as the filaments form. Using a spinning technique, very long and highly aligned filaments can be made. The Young's moduli of the gel noodles are similar to that of a bulk gel. By using two syringe pumps in a concentric flow setup, we show that a filament-in-filament morphology can be created.

16.
Pract Neurol ; 21(6): 481-491, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404748

RESUMO

The semiology of epileptic seizures reflects activation, or dysfunction, of areas of brain (often termed the symptomatogenic zone) as a seizure begins and evolves. Specific semiologies in focal epilepsies provide an insight into the location of the seizure onset zone, which is particularly important for presurgical epilepsy assessment. The correct diagnosis of paroxysmal events also depends on the clinician being familiar with the spectrum of semiologies. Here, we summarise the current literature on localisation in focal epilepsies using illustrative cases and discussing possible pitfalls in localisation.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Parciais , Epilepsia , Encéfalo , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsias Parciais/diagnóstico , Humanos , Exame Neurológico , Convulsões
17.
J Neurosci ; 41(36): 7687-7696, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34290080

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease is associated with poor sleep, but the impact of tau and ß-amyloid (Aß) pathology on sleep remains largely unknown. Here, we test the hypothesis that tau and Aß predict unique impairments in objective and self-perceived human sleep under real-life, free-living conditions. Eighty-nine male and female cognitively healthy older adults received 18F-FTP-tau and 11C-PIB-Aß PET imaging, 7 nights of sleep actigraphy and questionnaire measures, and neurocognitive assessment. Tau burden, but not Aß, was associated with markedly worse objective sleep. In contrast, Aß and tau were associated with worse self-reported sleep quality. Of clinical relevance, Aß burden predicted a unique perceptual mismatch between objective and subject sleep evaluation, with individuals underestimating their sleep. The magnitude of this mismatch was further predicted by worse executive function. Thus, early-stage tau and Aß deposition are linked with distinct phenotypes of real-world sleep impairment, one that includes a cognitive misperception of their own sleep health.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Alzheimer's disease is associated with sleep disruption, often before significant memory decline. Thus, real-life patterns of sleep behavior have the potential to serve as a window into early disease progression. In 89 cognitive healthy older adults, we found that tau burden was associated with worse wristwatch actigraphy-measured sleep quality, and that both tau and ß-amyloid were independently predictive of self-reported sleep quality. Furthermore, individuals with greater ß-amyloid deposition were more likely to underestimate their sleep quality, and sleep quality underestimation was associated with worse executive function. These data support the role of sleep impairment as a key marker of early Alzheimer's disease, and offer the possibility that actigraphy may be an affordable and scalable tool in quantifying Alzheimer's disease-related behavioral changes.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Sono/fisiologia , Proteínas tau/metabolismo , Actigrafia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 34(5): 597-602, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325462

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The ideal airway management of patients with unstable spinal injury presents a perennial challenge for anaesthesiologists. With competing interests, potentially catastrophic complications, and a scarcity of evidence to support common practices, it is an area rich with dogma and devoid of data. This review seeks to highlight recent evidence that improves our assurance that what we do to manage the airway in the unstable cervical spine is supported by data. RECENT FINDINGS: The increasing range of available technology for intubation provides important opportunities to investigate the superiority (or otherwise) of various techniques - and a chance to challenge accepted practice. Long-held assumptions regarding spinal immobilisation in the context of airway management may require refinement as a true base of evidence develops. SUMMARY: Video laryngoscopy may replace direct laryngoscopy as the default technique for endotracheal intubation in patients with suspected or confirmed spinal instability. Immobilisation of the unstable cervical spine, manually or with rigid cervical collars, is increasingly controversial. It may be that hard collars are used in specific circumstances, rather than as universal precaution in the future.There are no recent data of significantly high quality to warrant wholesale changes to recommended airway management practice and in the absence of new information, limiting movement (in the suspected or confirmed unstable cervical spine) remains the mainstay of clinical practice advice.


Assuntos
Vértebras Cervicais , Traumatismos da Coluna Vertebral , Adulto , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Laringoscopia
19.
Front Neurol ; 12: 673060, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34305786

RESUMO

Objectives: Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) is a non-invasive targeted tissue ablation technique that can be applied to the nervous system. Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) can visualize and evaluate nervous system microstructure. Tractography algorithms can reconstruct fiber bundles which can be used for treatment navigation and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics permit the quantitative assessment of nerve microstructure in vivo. There is a need for imaging tools to aid in the visualization and quantitative assessment of treatment-related nerve changes in MRgFUS. We present a method of peripheral nerve tract reconstruction and use DTI metrics to evaluate the MRgFUS treatment effect. Materials and Methods: MRgFUS was applied bilaterally to the sciatic nerves in 6 piglets (12 nerves total). T1-weighted and diffusion images were acquired before and after treatment. Tensor-based and constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD) tractography algorithms were used to reconstruct the nerves. DTI metrics of fractional anisotropy (FA), and mean (MD), axial (AD), and radial diffusivities (RD) were measured to assess acute (<1-2 h) treatment effects. Temperature was measured in vivo via MR thermometry. Histological data was collected for lesion assessment. Results: The sciatic nerves were successfully reconstructed in all subjects. Tract disruption was observed after treatment using both CSD and tensor models. DTI metrics in the targeted nerve segments showed significantly decreased FA and increased MD, AD, and RD. Transducer output power was positively correlated with lesion volume and temperature and negatively correlated with MD, AD, and RD. No correlations were observed between FA and other measured parameters. Conclusions: DWI and tractography are effective tools for visualizing peripheral nerve segments for targeting in non-invasive surgical methods and for assessing the microstructural changes that occur following MRgFUS treatment.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34318350

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To enhance the image quality of oncology [18F]-FDG PET scans acquired in shorter times and reconstructed by faster algorithms using deep neural networks. METHODS: List-mode data from 277 [18F]-FDG PET/CT scans, from six centres using GE Discovery PET/CT scanners, were split into ¾-, ½- and »-duration scans. Full-duration datasets were reconstructed using the convergent block sequential regularised expectation maximisation (BSREM) algorithm. Short-duration datasets were reconstructed with the faster OSEM algorithm. The 277 examinations were divided into training (n = 237), validation (n = 15) and testing (n = 25) sets. Three deep learning enhancement (DLE) models were trained to map full and partial-duration OSEM images into their target full-duration BSREM images. In addition to standardised uptake value (SUV) evaluations in lesions, liver and lungs, two experienced radiologists scored the quality of testing set images and BSREM in a blinded clinical reading (175 series). RESULTS: OSEM reconstructions demonstrated up to 22% difference in lesion SUVmax, for different scan durations, compared to full-duration BSREM. Application of the DLE models reduced this difference significantly for full-, ¾- and ½-duration scans, while simultaneously reducing the noise in the liver. The clinical reading showed that the standard DLE model with full- or ¾-duration scans provided an image quality substantially comparable to full-duration scans with BSREM reconstruction, yet in a shorter reconstruction time. CONCLUSION: Deep learning-based image enhancement models may allow a reduction in scan time (or injected activity) by up to 50%, and can decrease reconstruction time to a third, while maintaining image quality.

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