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1.
Hum Mutat ; 2018 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30520571

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing has been instrumental in solving the genetic basis of rare inherited diseases, especially neurodevelopmental syndromes. However, functional workup is essential for precise phenotype definition and to understand the underlying disease mechanisms. Using whole exome and whole genome sequencing in 4 independent families with hypotonia, neurodevelopmental delay, facial dysmorphism, loss of white matter and thinning of the corpus callosum, we identified 4 previously unreported homozygous truncating PPP1R21 alleles: c.347delT p.(Ile116Lysfs*25), c.2170_2171insGGTA p.(Ile724Argfs*8), c.1607dupT p.(Leu536Phefs*7), c.2063delA p.(Lys688Serfs*26) and found that PPP1R21 was absent in fibroblasts of an affected individual, supporting the allele's loss of function effect. PPP1R21 function had not been studied except that a large scale affinity proteomics approach suggested an interaction with PIBF1 defective in Joubert syndrome. Our co-Immunoprecipitation studies did not confirm this but in contrast defined the localization of PPP1R21 to the early endosome. Consistent with the subcellular expression pattern and the clinical phenotype exhibiting features of storage diseases, we found patient fibroblasts exhibited a delay in clearance of transferrin-488 while uptake was normal. In summary, we delineate a novel neurodevelopmental syndrome caused by bi-allelic PPP1R21 loss of function variants, and suggest a role of PPP1R21 within the endosomal sorting process or endosome maturation pathway. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 5(10): 1277-1285, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30349862

RESUMO

De novo variants in DDX3X account for 1-3% of unexplained intellectual disability (ID) cases and are amongst the most common causes of ID especially in females. Forty-seven patients (44 females, 3 males) have been described. We identified 31 additional individuals carrying 29 unique DDX3X variants, including 30 postnatal individuals with complex clinical presentations of developmental delay or ID, and one fetus with abnormal ultrasound findings. Rare or novel phenotypes observed include respiratory problems, congenital heart disease, skeletal muscle mitochondrial DNA depletion, and late-onset neurologic decline. Our findings expand the spectrum of DNA variants and phenotypes associated with DDX3X disorders.

3.
Genome Med ; 10(1): 74, 2018 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30266093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exome sequencing is now being incorporated into clinical care for pediatric and adult populations, but its integration into prenatal diagnosis has been more limited. One reason for this is the paucity of information about the clinical utility of exome sequencing in the prenatal setting. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed indications, results, time to results (turnaround time, TAT), and impact of exome results for 146 consecutive "fetal exomes" performed in a clinical diagnostic laboratory between March 2012 and November 2017. We define a fetal exome as one performed on a sample obtained from a fetus or a product of conception with at least one structural anomaly detected by prenatal imaging or autopsy. Statistical comparisons were performed using Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: Prenatal exome yielded an overall molecular diagnostic rate of 32% (n = 46/146). Of the 46 molecular diagnoses, 50% were autosomal dominant disorders (n = 23/46), 41% were autosomal recessive disorders (n = 19/46), and 9% were X-linked disorders (n = 4/46). The molecular diagnostic rate was highest for fetuses with anomalies affecting multiple organ systems and for fetuses with craniofacial anomalies. Out of 146 cases, a prenatal trio exome option designed for ongoing pregnancies was performed on 62 fetal specimens, resulting in a diagnostic yield of 35% with an average TAT of 14 days for initial reporting (excluding tissue culture time). The molecular diagnoses led to refined recurrence risk estimates, altered medical management, and informed reproductive planning for families. CONCLUSION: Exome sequencing is a useful diagnostic tool when fetal structural anomalies suggest a genetic etiology, but other standard prenatal genetic tests did not provide a diagnosis.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(5): 985-994, 2018 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29656860

RESUMO

N-alpha-acetylation is a common co-translational protein modification that is essential for normal cell function in humans. We previously identified the genetic basis of an X-linked infantile lethal Mendelian disorder involving a c.109T>C (p.Ser37Pro) missense variant in NAA10, which encodes the catalytic subunit of the N-terminal acetyltransferase A (NatA) complex. The auxiliary subunit of the NatA complex, NAA15, is the dimeric binding partner for NAA10. Through a genotype-first approach with whole-exome or genome sequencing (WES/WGS) and targeted sequencing analysis, we identified and phenotypically characterized 38 individuals from 33 unrelated families with 25 different de novo or inherited, dominantly acting likely gene disrupting (LGD) variants in NAA15. Clinical features of affected individuals with LGD variants in NAA15 include variable levels of intellectual disability, delayed speech and motor milestones, and autism spectrum disorder. Additionally, mild craniofacial dysmorphology, congenital cardiac anomalies, and seizures are present in some subjects. RNA analysis in cell lines from two individuals showed degradation of the transcripts with LGD variants, probably as a result of nonsense-mediated decay. Functional assays in yeast confirmed a deleterious effect for two of the LGD variants in NAA15. Further supporting a mechanism of haploinsufficiency, individuals with copy-number variant (CNV) deletions involving NAA15 and surrounding genes can present with mild intellectual disability, mild dysmorphic features, motor delays, and decreased growth. We propose that defects in NatA-mediated N-terminal acetylation (NTA) lead to variable levels of neurodevelopmental disorders in humans, supporting the importance of the NatA complex in normal human development.

5.
Genet Med ; 20(10): 1175-1185, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29469822

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To characterize the molecular genetics of autosomal recessive Noonan syndrome. METHODS: Families underwent phenotyping for features of Noonan syndrome in children and their parents. Two multiplex families underwent linkage analysis. Exome, genome, or multigene panel sequencing was used to identify variants. The molecular consequences of observed splice variants were evaluated by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Twelve families with a total of 23 affected children with features of Noonan syndrome were evaluated. The phenotypic range included mildly affected patients, but it was lethal in some, with cardiac disease and leukemia. All of the parents were unaffected. Linkage analysis using a recessive model supported a candidate region in chromosome 22q11, which includes LZTR1, previously shown to harbor mutations in patients with Noonan syndrome inherited in a dominant pattern. Sequencing analyses of 21 live-born patients and a stillbirth identified biallelic pathogenic variants in LZTR1, including putative loss-of-function, missense, and canonical and noncanonical splicing variants in the affected children, with heterozygous, clinically unaffected parents and heterozygous or normal genotypes in unaffected siblings. CONCLUSION: These clinical and genetic data confirm the existence of a form of Noonan syndrome that is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern and identify biallelic mutations in LZTR1.

7.
JAMA Pediatr ; 171(12): e173438, 2017 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28973083

RESUMO

Importance: While congenital malformations and genetic diseases are a leading cause of early infant death, to our knowledge, the contribution of single-gene disorders in this group is undetermined. Objective: To determine the diagnostic yield and use of clinical exome sequencing in critically ill infants. Design, Setting, and Participants: Clinical exome sequencing was performed for 278 unrelated infants within the first 100 days of life who were admitted to Texas Children's Hospital in Houston, Texas, during a 5-year period between December 2011 and January 2017. Exome sequencing types included proband exome, trio exome, and critical trio exome, a rapid genomic assay for seriously ill infants. Main Outcomes and Measures: Indications for testing, diagnostic yield of clinical exome sequencing, turnaround time, molecular findings, patient age at diagnosis, and effect on medical management among a group of critically ill infants who were suspected to have genetic disorders. Results: The mean (SEM) age for infants participating in the study was 28.5 (1.7) days; of these, the mean (SEM) age was 29.0 (2.2) days for infants undergoing proband exome sequencing, 31.5 (3.9) days for trio exome, and 22.7 (3.9) days for critical trio exome. Clinical indications for exome sequencing included a range of medical concerns. Overall, a molecular diagnosis was achieved in 102 infants (36.7%) by clinical exome sequencing, with relatively low yield for cardiovascular abnormalities. The diagnosis affected medical management for 53 infants (52.0%) and had a substantial effect on informed redirection of care, initiation of new subspecialist care, medication/dietary modifications, and furthering life-saving procedures in select patients. Critical trio exome sequencing revealed a molecular diagnosis in 32 of 63 infants (50.8%) at a mean (SEM) of 33.1 (5.6) days of life with a mean (SEM) turnaround time of 13.0 (0.4) days. Clinical care was altered by the diagnosis in 23 of 32 patients (71.9%). The diagnostic yield, patient age at diagnosis, and medical effect in the group that underwent critical trio exome sequencing were significantly different compared with the group who underwent regular exome testing. For deceased infants (n = 81), genetic disorders were molecularly diagnosed in 39 (48.1%) by exome sequencing, with implications for recurrence risk counseling. Conclusions and Relevance: Exome sequencing is a powerful tool for the diagnostic evaluation of critically ill infants with suspected monogenic disorders in the neonatal and pediatric intensive care units and its use has a notable effect on clinical decision making.


Assuntos
Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Adulto , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Gerenciamento Clínico , Exoma , Aconselhamento Genético/métodos , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Cuidado do Lactente/métodos , Recém-Nascido , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Texas
8.
Hum Mutat ; 38(12): 1774-1785, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28940898

RESUMO

Deformed epidermal autoregulatory factor-1 (DEAF1), a transcription factor essential for central nervous system and early embryonic development, has recently been implicated in a series of intellectual disability-related neurodevelopmental anomalies termed, in this study, as DEAF1-associated neurodevelopmental disorder (DAND). We identified six potentially deleterious DEAF1 variants in a cohort of individuals with DAND via clinical exome sequencing (CES) and in silico analysis, including two novel de novo variants: missense variant c.634G > A p.Gly212Ser in the SAND domain and deletion variant c.913_915del p.Lys305del in the NLS domain, as well as c.676C > T p.Arg226Trp, c.700T > A p.Trp234Arg, c.737G > C p.Arg246Thr, and c.791A > C p.Gln264Pro. Luciferase reporter, immunofluorescence staining, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that these variants had decreased transcriptional repression activity at the DEAF1 promoter and reduced affinity to consensus DEAF1 DNA binding sequences. In addition, c.913_915del p.K305del localized primarily to the cytoplasm and interacted with wild-type DEAF1. Our results demonstrate that variants located within the SAND or NLS domains significantly reduce DEAF1 transcriptional regulatory activities and are thus, likely to contribute to the underlying clinical concerns in DAND patients. These findings illustrate the importance of experimental characterization of variants with uncertain significance identified by CES to assess their potential clinical significance and possible use in diagnosis.


Assuntos
Exoma/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
9.
Genome Med ; 9(1): 83, 2017 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28934986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exon-targeted microarrays can detect small (<1000 bp) intragenic copy number variants (CNVs), including those that affect only a single exon. This genome-wide high-sensitivity approach increases the molecular diagnosis for conditions with known disease-associated genes, enables better genotype-phenotype correlations, and facilitates variant allele detection allowing novel disease gene discovery. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data from 63,127 patients referred for clinical chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) at Baylor Genetics laboratories, including 46,755 individuals tested using exon-targeted arrays, from 2007 to 2017. Small CNVs harboring a single gene or two to five non-disease-associated genes were identified; the genes involved were evaluated for a potential disease association. RESULTS: In this clinical population, among rare CNVs involving any single gene reported in 7200 patients (11%), we identified 145 de novo autosomal CNVs (117 losses and 28 intragenic gains), 257 X-linked deletion CNVs in males, and 1049 inherited autosomal CNVs (878 losses and 171 intragenic gains); 111 known disease genes were potentially disrupted by de novo autosomal or X-linked (in males) single-gene CNVs. Ninety-one genes, either recently proposed as candidate disease genes or not yet associated with diseases, were disrupted by 147 single-gene CNVs, including 37 de novo deletions and ten de novo intragenic duplications on autosomes and 100 X-linked CNVs in males. Clinical features in individuals with de novo or X-linked CNVs encompassing at most five genes (224 bp to 1.6 Mb in size) were compared to those in individuals with larger-sized deletions (up to 5 Mb in size) in the internal CMA database or loss-of-function single nucleotide variants (SNVs) detected by clinical or research whole-exome sequencing (WES). This enabled the identification of recently published genes (BPTF, NONO, PSMD12, TANGO2, and TRIP12), novel candidate disease genes (ARGLU1 and STK3), and further confirmation of disease association for two recently proposed disease genes (MEIS2 and PTCHD1). Notably, exon-targeted CMA detected several pathogenic single-exon CNVs missed by clinical WES analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these data document the efficacy of exon-targeted CMA for detection of genic and exonic CNVs, complementing and extending WES in clinical diagnostics, and the potential for discovery of novel disease genes by genome-wide assay.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Éxons , Doenças Genéticas Inatas , Estudos de Coortes , Genoma Humano , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
10.
Genome Med ; 9(1): 73, 2017 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28807008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: De novo missense variants in CDK13 have been described as the cause of syndromic congenital heart defects in seven individuals ascertained from a large congenital cardiovascular malformations cohort. We aimed to further define the phenotypic and molecular spectrum of this newly described disorder. METHODS: To minimise ascertainment bias, we recruited nine additional individuals with CDK13 pathogenic variants from clinical and research exome laboratory sequencing cohorts. Each individual underwent dysmorphology exam and comprehensive medical history review. RESULTS: We demonstrate greater than expected phenotypic heterogeneity, including 33% (3/9) of individuals without structural heart disease on echocardiogram. There was a high penetrance for a unique constellation of facial dysmorphism and global developmental delay, as well as less frequently seen renal and sacral anomalies. Two individuals had novel CDK13 variants (p.Asn842Asp, p.Lys734Glu), while the remaining seven unrelated individuals had a recurrent, previously published p.Asn842Ser variant. Summary of all variants published to date demonstrates apparent restriction of pathogenic variants to the protein kinase domain with clustering in the ATP and magnesium binding sites. CONCLUSIONS: Here we provide detailed phenotypic and molecular characterisation of individuals with pathogenic variants in CDK13 and propose management guidelines based upon the estimated prevalence of anomalies identified.


Assuntos
Proteína Quinase CDC2/genética , Face/anormalidades , Cardiopatias Congênitas/metabolismo , Deficiência Intelectual/metabolismo , Mutação , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Síndrome
11.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(10): 2680-2689, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28815871

RESUMO

DNA alterations in the 1q43-q44 region are associated with syndromic neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by global developmental delay, intellectual disability, dysmorphic features, microcephaly, seizures, and agenesis of the corpus callosum. HNRNPU is located within the 1q43-q44 region and mutations in the gene have been reported in patients with early infantile epileptic encephalopathy. Here, we report on the clinical presentation of four patients with de novo heterozygous HNRNPU loss-of-function mutations detected by clinical whole exome sequencing: c.651_660del (p.Gly218Alafs*118), c.1089G>A (p.Trp363*), c.1714C>T (p.Arg572*), and c.2270_2271del (p.Pro757Argfs*7). All patients shared similar clinical features as previously reported including seizures, global developmental delay, intellectual disability, variable neurologic regression, behavior issues, and dysmorphic facial features. Features including heart defects and kidney abnormalities were not reported in our patients. These findings expands the clinical spectrum of HNRNPU-related disorder and shows that HNRNPU contributes to a subset of the clinical phenotypes associated with the contiguous 1q43-q44 deletion syndrome.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas Grupo U/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Criança , Feminino , Haploinsuficiência , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Linhagem , Fenótipo
13.
Neuromuscul Disord ; 27(8): 742-746, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28606400

RESUMO

Mutations in skeletal muscle α-actin 1-encoding gene (ACTA1) cause autosomal dominant or recessive myopathies with marked clinical and pathological heterogeneity. Patients typically develop generalized or limb-girdle pattern of weakness, but recently a family with scapuloperoneal myopathy was reported. We describe a father and 2 children with childhood-to-juvenile onset distal myopathy, carrying a novel dominant ACTA1 variant, c.757G>C (p.Gly253Arg). Father had delayed motor development and developed significant proximal weakness later in life; he was initially misdiagnosed as having spinal muscular atrophy based on electromyographic findings. His children had predominant anterior distal leg and finger extensor involvement. Nemaline rods were abundant on the daughter's biopsy, absent on the father's initial biopsy, and extremely rare on the father's subsequent biopsy a decade later. The father's second biopsy also showed myofibrillar pathology and rare fibers with actin filament aggregates. The present family expands the spectrum of actinopathy to include a distal myopathy.


Assuntos
Actinas/genética , Miopatias Distais/genética , Mutação/genética , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Miopatias Distais/diagnóstico , Miopatias Distais/patologia , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/patologia
14.
J Pediatr ; 186: 118-123.e6, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28457522

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe a series of patients with pathogenic variants in FLNA and progressive lung disease necessitating lung transplantation. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 6 female infants with heterozygous presumed loss-of-function pathogenic variants in FLNA whose initial presentation was early and progressive respiratory failure. RESULTS: Each patient received lung transplantation at an average age of 11 months (range, 5-15 months). All patients had pulmonary arterial hypertension and chronic respiratory failure requiring tracheostomy and escalating levels of ventilator support before transplantation. All 6 patients survived initial lung transplantation; however, 1 patient died after a subsequent heart-lung transplant. The remaining 5 patients are living unrestricted lives on chronic immunosuppression at most recent follow-up (range, 19 months to 11.3 years post-transplantation). However, in all patients, severe ascending aortic dilation has been observed with aortic regurgitation. CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory failure secondary to progressive obstructive lung disease during infancy may be the presenting phenotype of FLNA-associated periventricular nodular heterotopia. We describe a cohort of patients with progressive respiratory failure related to a pathogenic variant in FLNA and present lung transplantation as a viable therapeutic option for this group of patients.


Assuntos
Filaminas/genética , Hipertensão Pulmonar/cirurgia , Pneumopatias/genética , Pneumopatias/cirurgia , Transplante de Pulmão , Insuficiência Respiratória/cirurgia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Lactente , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 100(4): 676-688, 2017 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28343629

RESUMO

Ubiquitination is a posttranslational modification that regulates many cellular processes including protein degradation, intracellular trafficking, cell signaling, and protein-protein interactions. Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs), which reverse the process of ubiquitination, are important regulators of the ubiquitin system. OTUD6B encodes a member of the ovarian tumor domain (OTU)-containing subfamily of deubiquitinating enzymes. Herein, we report biallelic pathogenic variants in OTUD6B in 12 individuals from 6 independent families with an intellectual disability syndrome associated with seizures and dysmorphic features. In subjects with predicted loss-of-function alleles, additional features include global developmental delay, microcephaly, absent speech, hypotonia, growth retardation with prenatal onset, feeding difficulties, structural brain abnormalities, congenital malformations including congenital heart disease, and musculoskeletal features. Homozygous Otud6b knockout mice were subviable, smaller in size, and had congenital heart defects, consistent with the severity of loss-of-function variants in humans. Analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from an affected subject showed reduced incorporation of 19S subunits into 26S proteasomes, decreased chymotrypsin-like activity, and accumulation of ubiquitin-protein conjugates. Our findings suggest a role for OTUD6B in proteasome function, establish that defective OTUD6B function underlies a multisystemic human disorder, and provide additional evidence for the emerging relationship between the ubiquitin system and human disease.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Endopeptidases/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Linhagem , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/genética , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Convulsões/genética
16.
Nat Genet ; 49(4): 613-617, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28288113

RESUMO

ABL1 is a proto-oncogene well known as part of the fusion gene BCR-ABL1 in the Philadelphia chromosome of leukemia cancer cells. Inherited germline ABL1 changes have not been associated with genetic disorders. Here we report ABL1 germline variants cosegregating with an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by congenital heart disease, skeletal abnormalities, and failure to thrive. The variant c.734A>G (p.Tyr245Cys) was found to occur de novo or cosegregate with disease in five individuals (families 1-3). Additionally, a de novo c.1066G>A (p.Ala356Thr) variant was identified in a sixth individual (family 4). We overexpressed the mutant constructs in HEK 293T cells and observed increased tyrosine phosphorylation, suggesting increased ABL1 kinase activities associated with both the p.Tyr245Cys and p.Ala356Thr substitutions. Our clinical and experimental findings, together with previously reported teratogenic effects of selective BCR-ABL inhibitors in humans and developmental defects in Abl1 knockout mice, suggest that ABL1 has an important role during organismal development.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/genética , Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/genética , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/genética , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Cromossomo Filadélfia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilação/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética
17.
Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud ; 3(1): a001388, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28050602

RESUMO

Here we describe a patient who presented with a history of congenital diaphragmatic hernia, inguinal hernia, and recurrent umbilical hernia. She also has joint laxity, hypotonia, and dysmorphic features. A unifying diagnosis was not identified based on her clinical phenotype. As part of her evaluation through the Undiagnosed Diseases Network, trio whole-exome sequencing was performed. Pathogenic variants in FBN1 and TRPS1 were identified as causing two distinct autosomal dominant conditions, each with de novo inheritance. Fibrillin 1 (FBN1) mutations are associated with Marfan syndrome and a spectrum of similar phenotypes. TRPS1 mutations are associated with trichorhinophalangeal syndrome types I and III. Features of both conditions are evident in the patient reported here. Discrepant features of the conditions (e.g., stature) and the young age of the patient may have made a clinical diagnosis more difficult in the absence of exome-wide genetic testing.

19.
Genet Med ; 19(1): 45-52, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27195816

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Truncating mutations in the maternally imprinted, paternally expressed gene MAGEL2, which is located in the Prader-Willi critical region 15q11-13, have recently been reported to cause Schaaf-Yang syndrome, a Prader-Willi-like disease that manifests as developmental delay/intellectual disability, hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and autism spectrum disorder. The causality of the reported variants in the context of the patients' phenotypes was questioned, as MAGEL2 whole-gene deletions seem to cause little or no clinical phenotype. METHODS: Here we report a total of 18 newly identified individuals with Schaaf-Yang syndrome from 14 families, including 1 family with 3 individuals found to be affected with a truncating variant of MAGEL2, 11 individuals who are clinically affected but were not tested molecularly, and a presymptomatic fetal sibling carrying the pathogenic MAGEL2 variant. RESULTS: All cases harbor truncating mutations of MAGEL2, and nucleotides c.1990-1996 arise as a mutational hotspot, with 10 individuals and 1 fetus harboring a c.1996dupC (p.Q666fs) mutation and 2 fetuses harboring a c.1996delC (p.Q666fs) mutation. The phenotypic spectrum of Schaaf-Yang syndrome ranges from fetal akinesia to neurobehavioral disease and contractures of the small finger joints. CONCLUSION: This study provides strong evidence for the pathogenicity of truncating mutations of the paternal allele of MAGEL2, refines the associated clinical phenotypes, and highlights implications for genetic counseling for affected families.Genet Med 19 1, 45-52.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/genética , Proteínas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos Humanos Par 15 , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Impressão Genômica , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Mutação , Fenótipo , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/fisiopatologia
20.
N Engl J Med ; 376(1): 21-31, 2017 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27959697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whole-exome sequencing can provide insight into the relationship between observed clinical phenotypes and underlying genotypes. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of data from a series of 7374 consecutive unrelated patients who had been referred to a clinical diagnostic laboratory for whole-exome sequencing; our goal was to determine the frequency and clinical characteristics of patients for whom more than one molecular diagnosis was reported. The phenotypic similarity between molecularly diagnosed pairs of diseases was calculated with the use of terms from the Human Phenotype Ontology. RESULTS: A molecular diagnosis was rendered for 2076 of 7374 patients (28.2%); among these patients, 101 (4.9%) had diagnoses that involved two or more disease loci. We also analyzed parental samples, when available, and found that de novo variants accounted for 67.8% (61 of 90) of pathogenic variants in autosomal dominant disease genes and 51.7% (15 of 29) of pathogenic variants in X-linked disease genes; both variants were de novo in 44.7% (17 of 38) of patients with two monoallelic variants. Causal copy-number variants were found in 12 patients (11.9%) with multiple diagnoses. Phenotypic similarity scores were significantly lower among patients in whom the phenotype resulted from two distinct mendelian disorders that affected different organ systems (50 patients) than among patients with disorders that had overlapping phenotypic features (30 patients) (median score, 0.21 vs. 0.36; P=1.77×10-7). CONCLUSIONS: In our study, we found multiple molecular diagnoses in 4.9% of cases in which whole-exome sequencing was informative. Our results show that structured clinical ontologies can be used to determine the degree of overlap between two mendelian diseases in the same patient; the diseases can be distinct or overlapping. Distinct disease phenotypes affect different organ systems, whereas overlapping disease phenotypes are more likely to be caused by two genes encoding proteins that interact within the same pathway. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Ting Tsung and Wei Fong Chao Foundation.).


Assuntos
Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Variação Genética , Fenótipo , Exoma , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
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