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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediatric anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and associated with significant functional disabilities and lifelong morbidity. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), sertraline, and their combination are effective treatments, but little is known about how these treatments exert their effects. METHODS: Using network intervention analysis (NIA), we analyzed data from the largest randomized controlled treatment trial of pediatric anxiety disorders (Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study, NCT00052078, clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00052078) and outlined the causal symptom domain-specific effects of CBT, sertraline, and their combination over the course of the 12-week treatment while taking into account both specificity and overlap between symptom domains. RESULTS: All active treatments produced positive effects with the most pronounced and consistent effects emerging in relation to psychological distress, family interference, and avoidance. Psychological distress was consistently the most and physical symptoms the least central symptom domain in the disorder network. CONCLUSIONS: All active treatments showed beneficial effects when compared to placebo, and NIA identified that these effects were exerted similarly across treatments and primarily through a reduction of psychological distress, family interference, and avoidance. CBT and sertraline may have differential mechanisms of action in relation to psychological distress. Given the lack of causal effects on interference outside family and physical symptoms, interventions tailored to target these domains may aid in the building of more effective treatments. Psychological distress and avoidance should remain key treatment focuses because of their central roles in the disorder network. The findings inform and promote developing more effective interventions.

2.
Psychol Med ; : 1-11, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although behavior therapy reduces tic severity, it is unknown whether it improves co-occurring psychiatric symptoms and functional outcomes for adults with Tourette's disorder (TD). This information is essential for effective treatment planning. This study examined the effects of behavior therapy on psychiatric symptoms and functional outcomes in older adolescents and adults with TD. METHOD: A total of 122 individuals with TD or a chronic tic disorder participated in a clinical trial comparing behavior therapy to psychoeducation and supportive therapy. At baseline, posttreatment, and follow-up visits, participants completed assessments of tic severity, co-occurring symptoms (inattention, impulsiveness, hyperactivity, anger, anxiety, depression, obsessions, and compulsions), and psychosocial functioning. We compared changes in tic severity, psychiatric symptoms, and functional outcomes using repeated measure and one-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: At posttreatment, participants receiving behavior therapy reported greater reductions in obsessions compared to participants in supportive therapy ($\eta _p^2 $ = 0.04, p = 0.04). Across treatments, a positive treatment response on the Clinical Global Impression of Improvement scale was associated with a reduced disruption in family life ($\eta _p^2 $ = 0.05, p = 0.02) and improved functioning in a parental role ($\eta _p^2 $ = 0.37, p = 0.02). Participants who responded positively to eight sessions of behavior therapy had an improvement in tic severity ($\eta _p^2 $ = 0.75, p < 0.001), inattention ($\eta _p^2 $ = 0.48, p < 0.02), and functioning ($\eta _p^2 $ = 0.39-0.42, p < 0.03-0.04) at the 6-month follow-up. CONCLUSION: Behavior therapy has a therapeutic benefit for co-occurring obsessive symptoms in the short-term, and reduces tic severity and disability in adults with TD over time. Additional treatments may be necessary to address co-occurring symptoms and improve functional outcomes.

3.
Dev Psychopathol ; 31(5): 1887-1899, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370913

RESUMO

Building on prior work using Tom Dishion's Family Check-Up, the current article examined intervention effects on dysregulated irritability in early childhood. Dysregulated irritability, defined as reactive and intense response to frustration, and prolonged angry mood, is an ideal marker of neurodevelopmental vulnerability to later psychopathology because it is a transdiagnostic indicator of decrements in self-regulation that are measurable in the first years of life that have lifelong implications for health and disease. This study is perhaps the first randomized trial to examine the direct effects of an evidence- and family-based intervention, the Family Check-Up (FCU), on irritability in early childhood and the effects of reductions in irritability on later risk of child internalizing and externalizing symptomatology. Data from the geographically and sociodemographically diverse multisite Early Steps randomized prevention trial were used. Path modeling revealed intervention effects on irritability at age 4, which predicted lower externalizing and internalizing symptoms at age 10.5. Results indicate that family-based programs initiated in early childhood can reduce early childhood irritability and later risk for psychopathology. This holds promise for earlier identification and prevention approaches that target transdiagnostic pathways. Implications for future basic and prevention research are discussed.

4.
Pediatrics ; 144(3)2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is an urgent need to advance mental health (MH) education and/or training in pediatric residency programs, yet no consensus on how to achieve this. We created an operational framework from ideas provided by a diverse group of stakeholders on how to advance MH education. METHODS: Concept-mapping methodology was used, which involves brainstorming ideas by completing a focus prompt, sorting ideas into groups, and rating them for importance and feasibility. Multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis grouped ideas into clusters. Average importance and feasibility were calculated for each statement and cluster and compared statistically in each cluster and between subgroups. RESULTS: Ninety-nine ideas were generated. Sorted ideas yielded a 7-cluster concept map: (1) modalities for MH training, (2) prioritization of MH, (3) systems-based practice, (4) self-awareness and/or relationship building, (5) training in clinical assessment of patients, (6) training in treatment, and (7) diagnosis-specific skills. Two hundred and sixteen participants rated ideas for importance and 209 for feasibility. Four clusters had a statistically significant difference between their importance and feasibility ratings (P < .001). Suburban and rural area respondents (versus urban) rated clusters higher in importance and feasibility (P < .004), trainees rated all clusters higher in feasibility than practicing clinicians, and MH professionals rated prioritization of MH higher in feasibility (3.42 vs 2.98; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: This comprehensive set of ideas, especially those rated highly in both importance and feasibility, should inform curricular and policy initiatives. Differences between importance and feasibility may explain why there has been little progress in this field.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313062

RESUMO

This study examined the relationship between caregivers' and youths' treatment expectations and characteristics of exposure tasks (quantity, mastery, compliance) in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for childhood anxiety. Additionally, compliance with exposure tasks was tested as a mediator of the relationship between treatment expectations and symptom improvement. Data were from youth (N = 279; 7-17 years old) enrolled in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS) and randomized to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or the combination of CBT and sertraline for the treatment of separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and social phobia. Caregivers and youth independently reported treatment expectations prior to randomization, anxiety was assessed pre- and post-treatment by independent evaluators blind to treatment condition, and exposure characteristics were recorded by the cognitive-behavioral therapists following each session. For both caregivers and youths, more positive expectations that anxiety would improve with treatment were associated with greater compliance with exposure tasks, and compliance mediated the relationship between treatment expectations and change in anxiety symptoms following treatment. Additionally, more positive parent treatment expectations were related to a greater number and percentage of sessions with exposure. More positive youth treatment expectations were associated with greater mastery during sessions focused on exposure. Findings underscore the importance of addressing parents' and youths' treatment expectations at the outset of therapy to facilitate engagement in exposure and maximize therapeutic gains.

6.
Matern Child Health J ; 23(9): 1220-1231, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292839

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe differences in health care needs between Children with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN) with and without anxiety and examine the association between anxiety and unmet health care needs. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 2009/2010 national survey of CSHCN. The independent variable was anxiety. The main outcomes were health care needs and unmet needs. Covariates included demographics, other co-morbid conditions, and the presence and quality of a medical home. We used bivariate analyses and multivariable logistic regression to assess the relationships among anxiety, covariates, and the outcomes. We stratified our analysis by age (6-11 years, 12-17 years). Propensity score matched paired analysis was used as a sensitivity analysis. RESULTS: Our final sample included 14,713 6-11 year-olds and 15,842 12-17-year-olds. Anxiety was present in 16% of 6-11 year-olds and 23% or 12-17 year-olds. In bivariate analyses, CSHCN with anxiety had increased health care needs and unmet needs, compared to CSHCN without anxiety. In multivariable analyses, only children 12-17 years old with anxiety had increased odds of having an unmet health care need compared to those children without anxiety (OR 1.44 [95% CI 1.17-1.78]). This was confirmed in the propensity score matching analysis (OR 1.12, [95% CI 1.02-1.22]). The specific unmet needs for older CSHCN with anxiety were mental health care (OR 1.54 [95% CI 1.09-2.17]) and well child checkups (OR 2.01 [95% CI 1.18-3.44]). CONCLUSION: Better integration of the care for mental and physical health is needed to ensure CSHCN with anxiety have all of their health care needs met.

7.
J Dev Behav Pediatr ; 40(6): 407-414, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318778

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Describe the diagnostic process for Tourette syndrome (TS) based on parent report, as well as TS severity and associated impairment; the influence of common daily activities on tics; and the presence of co-occurring mental, behavioral, and developmental disorders among children in the United States. METHODS: Parent-report data from the 2014 National Survey of the Diagnosis and Treatment of ADHD and Tourette Syndrome on 115 children ever diagnosed with TS were analyzed. Descriptive, unweighted analyses included frequencies and percentages, and means and standard deviations. Fisher's exact test and t-tests were calculated to determine statistically significant differences. RESULTS: The mean age that tics were first noticed was 6.3 years, and, on average, TS was diagnosed at 7.7 years. The time from initially noticing tics to TS diagnosis averaged 1.7 years. The mean age when TS symptoms were most severe was 9.3 years. Tic severity was associated with impaired child functioning but not tic noticeability. Almost 70% of parents reported that fatigue and major transitions made their child's tics worse. Children with ever-diagnosed TS had a mean of 3.2 ever-diagnosed co-occurring mental, behavioral, or developmental disorders; a quarter (26.9%) had 5 or more co-occurring disorders. DISCUSSION: In this sample of children with TS, the time to diagnosis averaged less than 2 years from when tics were initially noticed. More severe TS was associated with greater functional impairment, and co-occurring disorders were common among children with TS. This study provides insight into the current experiences of children with TS in the United States and their families.

8.
Depress Anxiety ; 36(8): 744-752, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although evidence-based assessments are the cornerstone of evidence-based treatments, it remains unknown whether incorporating evidence-based assessments into clinical practice enhances therapists' judgment of therapeutic improvement. This study examined whether the inclusion of youth- and parent-reported anxiety rating scales improved therapists' judgment of treatment response and remission compared to the judgment of treatment-masked independent evaluators (IEs) after (a) weekly/biweekly acute treatment and (b) monthly follow-up care. METHODS: Four hundred thirty six youth received cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), medication, CBT with medication, or pill placebo through the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study. Participants and parents completed the following anxiety scales at pretreatment, posttreatment, and follow-up: Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Disorders (SCARED) and Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC). IEs rated anxiety on the Clinical Global Impression of Severity (CGI-S) and Improvement (CGI-I) at posttreatment and follow-up. Therapists rated anxiety severity and improvement using scales that paralleled IE measures. RESULTS: Fair-to-moderate agreement was found between therapists and IEs after acute treatment (κ = 0.38-0.48), with only slight-to-fair agreement found after follow-up care (κ = 0.07-0.33). Optimal algorithms for determining treatment response and remission included the combination of therapists' ratings and the parent-reported SCARED after acute (κ = 0.52-0.54) and follow-up care (κ = 0.43-0.48), with significant improvement in the precision of judgments after follow-up care (p < .02-.001). CONCLUSION: Therapists are good at detecting treatment response and remission, but the inclusion of the parent-report SCARED optimized agreement with IE rating-especially when contact was less frequent. Findings suggest that utilizing parent-report measures of anxiety in clinical practice improves the precision of therapists' judgment.

9.
Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am ; 28(3): 497-507, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076123

RESUMO

This article summarizes current knowledge and consensus about depression and suicide among the indigenous young people of the United States. American Indians represent more than 500 tribes and also vary among settings-reservations, urban, suburban, and rural-but as a group, remain at high risk for suicide and possibly for depressive syndromes. Particular risk factors and correlates, as well as approaches to treatment, are discussed.

10.
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev ; 50(6): 940-949, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087216

RESUMO

Youth anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and are associated with considerable school impairment. Despite the identification of well-supported strategies for treating youth anxiety, research has yet to evaluate the differential effects of these treatments on anxiety-related school impairment. The present study leveraged data from the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study to examine differential treatment effects of CBT, sertraline, and their combination (COMB), relative to placebo (PBO), on anxiety-related school impairment among youth (N = 488). Latent growth modeling revealed that all three active treatments demonstrated superiority over PBO in reducing anxiety-related school impairment over time, with COMB showing the most robust effects. According to parent report, medication strategies may have stronger effects on anxiety-related school impairment among males than among females. Results were discrepant across parents and youth. Findings are discussed in terms of clinical implications for anxious youth and the need for continued research to examine treatment effects on anxiety-related school impairment.

11.
J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol ; : 1-13, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039048

RESUMO

Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to derive homogeneous subgroups within the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study sample (N = 488; 7-17 years, M = 10.69, SD = 2.80) and examine whether class membership predicted or moderated treatment response. Subgroups were identified on baseline multi-informant measures of variables most consistently associated with outcome (youth anxiety/diagnosis, impairment, family psychopathology/functioning). Subgroup membership was examined as a predictor/moderator of outcome across the four treatment conditions (CBT, Sertraline, CBT+Sertraline, pill placebo) at posttreatment (12 weeks) and open-extension follow-up (24 weeks). Four subgroups emerged: mild symptoms/impairment, moderate symptoms/impairment, moderate symptoms/impairment with family dysfunction/parental psychopathology, and severe symptoms/impairment. There were significant between-class differences on socioeconomic status (SES; lower reported SES in the moderate with family dysfunction/parental psychopathology class compared to the mild and moderate class) and age (older age in the severe symptoms class compared to the other three classes). Youth in the mild symptoms/impairment class showed lower posttreatment anxiety across conditions but reported significantly lower symptom severity at baseline. Controlling for demographic differences, response to treatment type did not differ across classes. Analyses indicate that elevated family dysfunction/parental psychopathology clusters primarily within one subgroup of anxious youth rather than mapping onto symptom severity, highlighting the utility of LPA for clarifying within-person combinations of predictor/moderator variables. Implications for development of interventions targeting class-relevant variables are discussed.

12.
Bipolar Disord ; 21(4): 342-349, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025487

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to explore associations between specific types of hallucinations and delusions and suicidal ideation in a sample of children and adolescents with bipolar I disorder. METHODS: Participants (N = 379) were children and adolescents aged 6-15 years (M = 10.2, SD = 2.7) with DSM-IV diagnoses of bipolar I disorder, mixed or manic phase. The study sample was 53.8% female and primarily White (73.6% White, 17.9% Black, and 8.5% Other). Presence and nature of psychotic symptoms, suicidal ideation, and functioning level were assessed through clinician-administered measures. A series of logistic regressions was performed to assess the contribution of each subtype of psychotic symptom to the presence of suicidal ideation above and beyond age, sex, socio-economic status, age at bipolar disorder onset, and global level of functioning. RESULTS: Hallucinations overall, delusions of guilt, and number of different psychotic symptom types were uniquely associated with increased odds of suicidal ideation after accounting for covariates. Other forms of delusions (eg, grandiose) and specific types of hallucinations (eg, auditory) were not significantly uniquely associated with the presence of suicidal ideation. CONCLUSIONS: Findings of this study suggest the presence of hallucinations as a whole, delusions of guilt specifically, and having multiple concurrent types of psychotic symptoms are associated with the presence of suicidal ideation in children and adolescents with bipolar I disorder. Psychotic symptom subtypes, as opposed to psychosis as a whole, are an under-examined, potentially important, area for consideration regarding suicidal ideation in pediatric bipolar I disorder.

13.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 57(10): 795-796, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30274656

RESUMO

Thank you to the authors for taking the time to read our editorial "Antipsychotic Induced Weight Gain and Metformin"1 in JAACAP and send in a letter to the editor with comments.

14.
J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol ; : 1-13, 2018 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29877727

RESUMO

Bioecological models of developmental psychopathology underscore the role of familial experiences of adversity and children's individual-level characteristics in heightening risk for pediatric anxiety through direct, combined, and interactive effects. To date, much of the existing research dedicated to pediatric anxiety disorders has largely been examined in bioecological models of diathesis-stress using community samples. This study extends our understanding of children's differential responsiveness to familial adversity by examining the diathesis-stress interaction of cumulative risk and children's individual-level vulnerabilities (negative affectivity and coping efficacy) within a clinic-referred treatment study for pediatric anxiety disorders. A cumulative risk index assessing exposure to familial adversity (e.g., socioeconomic status [SES], parent psychiatric illness) and self-reported measures of children's negative affectivity and coping efficacy were each measured at the intake of a randomized controlled clinical trial for the treatment of pediatric anxiety disorders (N = 488; 7-17 years of age). Trajectories of interviewer-rated anxiety symptoms were assessed across 12 weeks of treatment at baseline, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 12 weeks. Consistent with models of temperamental risk for mental health problems, negative affectivity predicted higher anxiety symptoms at intake. A significant diathesis-stress interaction between cumulative risk and coping efficacy emerged, as high risk and perceptions of lower coping efficacy attenuated declines in anxiety across 12 weeks. These patterns did not differ across treatment conditions. The results indicate that for youth experiencing high levels of stress, additional treatment efforts targeting familial stressors and coping efficacy may be important in maximizing treatment outcomes.

15.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 57(6): 418-427, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29859557

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the percent reduction cutoffs on the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) that optimally predict treatment response and remission in youth with anxiety disorders. METHOD: Youths and their parents completed the MASC-C/P before and after treatment, and the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV-Child and Parent Versions (ADIS-IV-C/P) and the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale (CGI-I) were administered by independent evaluators. Treatment response and remission were defined by post-treatment ratings on the CGI-I and the ADIS-IV-C/P, respectively. Quality receiver operating characteristic methods determined the optimal cutoff on the MASC-P for predicting overall remission (loss of all study entry diagnoses) and optimal percent reductions on the MASC-P for predicting treatment response and remission of separation anxiety, social anxiety, and generalized anxiety. RESULTS: A post-treatment raw score of 42 optimally predicted remission. A reduction of 35% on the total MASC-P predicted treatment response. A reduction of 30% on the Separation Anxiety/Panic subscale of the MASC-P predicted separation anxiety remission. A reduction of 35% on the Social Anxiety subscale of the MASC-P predicted social anxiety remission. The MASC did not evidence a cutoff for remission of generalized anxiety disorder. CONCLUSION: MASC cutoffs can facilitate comparison across studies and guide practice, aiding clinicians in assessing progress and informing treatment plans.

16.
Compr Psychiatry ; 84: 95-100, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29729555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tourette syndrome (TS) and chronic tic disorders (CTD) are stigmatizing disorders that may significantly impact self-esteem. Alternatively, comorbid psychiatric illnesses may affect self-esteem more than tics themselves. Extant research on self-esteem in TS/CTD is limited, has inconsistently examined the effect of comorbidities on self-esteem, and yields mixed findings. METHOD: This study aimed to clarify the roles of tics versus comorbid diagnoses on self-esteem in a large, carefully diagnosed sample of adults with TS/CTD (N = 122) receiving 10 weeks of Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics (CBIT) or Psychoeducation and Supportive Therapy (PST). RESULTS: Baseline self-esteem did not differ between adults with TS/CTD only and normative means, whereas self-esteem was significantly lower among adults with TS/CTD with a comorbid psychiatric illness. In a multiple regression testing the baseline association between tic severity, presence of comorbid psychiatric illness, and depression severity with self-esteem, comorbidity and depression severity were significantly associated with self-esteem, whereas tic severity was not. Finally, using a generalized linear model, we tested the effects of treatment assignment, comorbidity, and their interaction on changes in self-esteem across treatment, controlling for baseline depression severity. Results showed that for those with a comorbid illness, self-esteem improved significantly more with CBIT than with PST. CONCLUSIONS: Comorbid illnesses appear to affect self-esteem more so than tics among adults with TS/CTD. Therapeutic attention should be paid to treating comorbid diagnoses alongside tics when treating TS/CTD.

17.
J Dev Behav Pediatr ; 39(5): 395-403, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29688990

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study documents the prevalence and impact of anxiety and depression in US children based on the parent report of health care provider diagnosis. METHODS: National Survey of Children's Health data from 2003, 2007, and 2011-2012 were analyzed to estimate the prevalence of anxiety or depression among children aged 6 to 17 years. Estimates were based on the parent report of being told by a health care provider that their child had the specified condition. Sociodemographic characteristics, co-occurrence of other conditions, health care use, school measures, and parenting aggravation were estimated using 2011-2012 data. RESULTS: Based on the parent report, lifetime diagnosis of anxiety or depression among children aged 6 to 17 years increased from 5.4% in 2003 to 8.4% in 2011-2012. Current anxiety or depression increased from 4.7% in 2007 to 5.3% in 2011-2012; current anxiety increased significantly, whereas current depression did not change. Anxiety and depression were associated with increased risk of co-occurring conditions, health care use, school problems, and having parents with high parenting aggravation. Children with anxiety or depression with effective care coordination or a medical home were less likely to have unmet health care needs or parents with high parenting aggravation. CONCLUSION: By parent report, more than 1 in 20 US children had current anxiety or depression in 2011-2012. Both were associated with significant comorbidity and impact on children and families. These findings may inform efforts to improve the health and well-being of children with internalizing disorders. Future research is needed to determine why child anxiety diagnoses seem to have increased from 2007 to 2012.

18.
Behav Ther ; 49(1): 46-56, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29405921

RESUMO

This study assessed the psychometric properties of a parent-reported tic severity measure, the Parent Tic Questionnaire (PTQ), and used the scale to establish guidelines for delineating clinically significant tic treatment response. Participants were 126 children ages 9 to 17 who participated in a randomized controlled trial of Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics (CBIT). Tic severity was assessed using the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS), Hopkins Motor/Vocal Tic Scale (HMVTS) and PTQ; positive treatment response was defined by a score of 1 (very much improved) or 2 (much improved) on the Clinical Global Impressions - Improvement (CGI-I) scale. Cronbach's alpha and intraclass correlations (ICC) assessed internal consistency and test-retest reliability, with correlations evaluating validity. Receiver- and Quality-Receiver Operating Characteristic analyses assessed the efficiency of percent and raw-reduction cutoffs associated with positive treatment response. The PTQ demonstrated good internal consistency (α = 0.80 to 0.86), excellent test-retest reliability (ICC = .84 to .89), good convergent validity with the YGTSS and HM/VTS, and good discriminant validity from hyperactive, obsessive-compulsive, and externalizing (i.e., aggression and rule-breaking) symptoms. A 55% reduction and 10-point decrease in PTQ Total score were optimal for defining positive treatment response. Findings help standardize tic assessment and provide clinicians with greater clarity in determining clinically meaningful tic symptom change during treatment.


Assuntos
Benchmarking , Pais , Psicometria/instrumentação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Detecção de Sinal Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Síndrome de Tourette/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Psychiatry Res ; 261: 464-472, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29407718

RESUMO

This paper examined neurocognitive functioning and its relationship to behavior treatment response among youth with Tourette's Disorder (TD) in a large randomized controlled trial. Participants diagnosed with TD completed a brief neurocognitive battery assessing inhibitory functions, working memory, and habit learning pre- and post-treatment with behavior therapy (CBIT, Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics) or psychoeducation plus supportive therapy (PST). At baseline, youth with tics and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) exhibited some evidence of impaired working memory and simple motor inhibition relative to youth with tics without ADHD. Additionally, a small negative association was found between antipsychotic medications and youth's performance speed. Across treatment groups, greater baseline working memory and aspects of inhibitory functioning were associated with a positive treatment response; no between-group differences in neurocognitive functioning at post-treatment were identified. Within the behavior therapy group, pre-treatment neurocognitive status did not predict outcome, nor was behavior therapy associated significant change in neurocognitive functioning post-treatment. Findings suggest that co-occurring ADHD is associated with some impairments in neurocognitive functioning in youth with Tourette's Disorder. While neurocognitive predictors of behavior therapy were not found, participants who received behavior therapy exhibited significantly reduced tic severity without diminished cognitive functioning.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome de Tourette/psicologia , Síndrome de Tourette/terapia , Adolescente , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Inibição (Psicologia) , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol ; 28(3): 158-165, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29376743

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe national annual prescribing patterns of stimulant, antidepressant, and antipsychotic medications to young people. METHODS: Prescriptions for three commonly prescribed psychotropic classes (stimulants, antidepressants, and antipsychotics) to young people aged 3-24 years were analyzed from the IMS LifeLink LRx National Longitudinal Prescription database (n = 6,351,482). Denominators were adjusted to generalize estimates to the U.S. POPULATION: Comparisons are presented of percentages filling ≥1 prescription of each medication class during the study year stratified by patient sex, age, and prescriber specialty. RESULTS: The total annual percentage of prescriptions filled by youth for any of the three medication classes was by age 3-5 years (0.8%), 6-12 years (5.4%), 13-18 years (7.7%), and 19-24 years (6.0%). Stimulant use was highest for older children (age 11 = 5.7%). Antidepressant use tended to increase with age and was highest for young adults (age 24 = 4.8%). Annual antipsychotic prescription percentages were lower than antidepressant or stimulant percentages for all age groups, with a peak in adolescence (age 16 = 1.3%). Annual stimulant and antipsychotic percentages for males were higher than corresponding percentages for females, but converged for young adults. Psychiatrists and child psychiatrists accounted for most of the prescriptions of antidepressants (22.2%-53.2%) and antipsychotics (51.7%-70%), but fewer of the stimulant prescriptions (30.4%-36.2%). CONCLUSIONS: The age and sex distribution of stimulants and antidepressants among young people is broadly consistent with known epidemiologic patterns of their established indications for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, and depression. The pattern of antipsychotics may reflect the heterogeneity of disorders and conditions treated with this medication class.

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