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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385257

RESUMO

This study describes impairment in academic, interpersonal, recreational, and family financial or occupational domains across children in three mutually exclusive diagnostic groups: ever diagnosed with Tourette syndrome (TS), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and both disorders. In 2014, parents reported on impairment and diagnostic status of children aged 4-17 years (n = 3014). Weighted analysis and pairwise t-tests showed more children with ADHD (with or without TS) experienced impairment in overall school performance, writing, and mathematics, relative to children with TS but not ADHD. More children with TS and ADHD had problematic handwriting relative to children with ADHD but not TS. More children with TS and ADHD had problematic interpersonal relationships relative to those with ADHD but not TS. Children with TS and ADHD had higher mean impairment across domains than children with either TS or ADHD. Findings suggest assessing disorder-specific contributions to impairment could inform targeted interventions for TS and ADHD.

2.
J Psychiatr Res ; 133: 93-100, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338735

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Treatment guidelines for Tourette's Disorder (TD) are based on patients' degree of tic severity and impairment. However, clear benchmarks for determining tic severity and impairment have not been established. This study examined benchmarks of tic severity and tic impairment using the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) and the Clinical Global Impression of Severity (CGI-S). METHOD: Individuals with TD or another Tic Disorder (N = 519) recruited across nine sites were administered a diagnostic interview, the YGTSS, and the CGI-S. Correlations and trend analyses contrasted YGTSS scores across CGI-S ratings. A logistic regression model examined predictive benchmarks for tic severity, tic impairment, and global severity. Model classifications were compared against CGI-S ratings, and agreement was examined using kappa. RESULTS: Spearman correlations between the CGI-S and YGTSS scores ranged from 0.54 to 0.63 (p < 0.001). Greater CGI-S ratings were associated with a linear stepwise increase in YGTSS Total Tic scores, Impairment scores, and Global Severity scores. Despite moderate-to-strong associations (ρ = 0.45-0.56, p < 0.001) between the CGI-S and predictive logistical regression models, only fair agreement was achieved when applying classification benchmarks (κ = 0.21-0.32, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: CGI-S ratings are useful to characterize benchmarks for tic severity, tic impairment, and global severity on the YGTSS. Logistic regression model benchmarks had only fair agreement with the CGI-S and underscore the heterogeneity of TD symptoms. Collectively, findings offer guidance on the delineation of tic severity categorizations to apply evidence-based treatment recommendations.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33301814

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: (1) To describe rates of long-term service use among subjects previously enrolled in a landmark study of youth anxiety disorder treatment and followed into early adulthood; (2) to examine predictors of long-term service use and (3) to examine the relationship between anxiety diagnosis and service use over time. METHOD: The Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multi-modal Extended Long-term Study (CAMELS) prospectively assessed youth treated through the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS) at ages 7 to 17 years into early adulthood. 319 youth (mean age =17.7; 55.2% female) previously randomized to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), sertraline (SRT), combination (COMB) or placebo (PBO) for the treatment of anxiety participated; 318 had service use data. Four annual clinic assessments were conducted along with telephone check-ins every six months. RESULTS: Overall, 65.1% of participants endorsed receiving some form of anxiety treatment over the course of the follow-up period, with more subjects reporting medication use than psychotherapy. 35.2% reported consistent use of services over the course of the study. Overall, service use declined over time in subjects with less severe anxiety but remained more steady in those with recurrent/chronic symptoms. Levels of life stress and depressive symptoms were associated with amount of service use over time whereas treatment-related variables (type of initial intervention, acute response, remission) were not. A subset of youth remained chronically anxious despite consistent service use. CONCLUSION: Findings point to the need to develop models of care that approach anxiety disorders as chronic health conditions in need of active long-term management.

4.
Pediatr Ann ; 49(10): e413-e415, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034654
5.
Psychiatry Res ; 293: 113400, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841891

RESUMO

Treatment of Tourette syndrome (TS) can be complicated by changes over time in tic expression, severity, and co-occurring disorders. Using the 2014 National Survey of the Diagnosis and Treatment of ADHD and Tourette Syndrome, this study provides descriptive estimates of the use of behavioral interventions and medication among children living with TS. Parent-reported data on 115 children aged 5-17 years ever diagnosed with TS were analyzed to provide descriptive, unweighted results. Overall, 77.4% of children had current or past use of any TS treatment; 59.1% ever used behavioral interventions and 56.1% had ever taken TS medication. Children with "moderate" or "severe" versus "mild" TS, ≥1 co-occurring disorders, and tics that interfered with functioning were significantly more likely to have used one or more TS treatments. Side effects were reported for 84.4% of children who took TS medication. Most parents of children with current TS (87.2%) were satisfied with the management of their child's TS. However, parents of children with "moderate" or "severe" current TS were significantly more dissatisfied compared to parents of children with "mild" TS. Findings from this study could be used to inform efforts to support children living with TS and their families.

6.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 59(7): 785-787, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618273

RESUMO

We write with great concern in response to the recent systematic review and meta-analysis of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) by Uhre et al.1 Although the authors' results consistently support the clinical efficacy of CBT for pediatric OCD, we expect that, much like ourselves, readers will be confused by the discordant and inappropriate conclusions that they put forward. These conclusions stem from the authors' application and interpretation of their particular qualitative methods, which could lead important stakeholders (eg, parents, patients, clinicians, and payers) to wrongly discount clear evidence for what is known to be the best evidence-based therapy for pediatric OCD.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders first emerge during the critical developmental periods of childhood and adolescence. This review synthesizes recent findings on the prevalence, risk factors, and course of the anxiety disorders; and their neurobiology and treatment. METHODS: For this review, searches were conducted using PubMed, PsycINFO, and clinicaltrials.gov. Findings related to the epidemiology, neurobiology, risk factors, and treatment of pediatric anxiety disorders were then summarized. FINDINGS: Anxiety disorders are high prevalence, and early-onset conditions associated with multiple risk factors including early inhibited temperament, environment stress, and structural and functional abnormalities in the prefrontal-amygdala circuitry as well as the default mode and salience networks. The anxiety disorders are effectively treated with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). CONCLUSIONS: Anxiety disorders are high prevalence, early-onset conditions associated with a distinct neurobiological fingerprint, and are consistently responsive to treatment. Questions remain regarding who is at risk of developing anxiety disorders as well as the way in which neurobiology predicts treatment response.

9.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 59(7): 797-799, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439400

RESUMO

The article published in this issue of the Journal by Bear et al.1 is the first to use meta-analytic procedures to try to understand the value of psychotherapy for pediatric anxiety and depression as usually delivered in the community. The authors scoured the literature for psychotherapy clinical trials that used treatment as usual as a control group or observational studies of treatment in mental health settings, then applied meta-analytic approaches to get a better idea of what treatment as usual outcomes were and by extension what to expect from psychotherapy as usually delivered. The study findings suggest that psychotherapy as practiced in the community even in high-quality settings does not provide consistently good outcomes. In this editorial, we will review the results of this study and discuss trends in psychotherapy research and practice that could improve the outcomes for patients and families.

11.
Psychol Med ; 50(12): 2046-2056, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although behavior therapy reduces tic severity, it is unknown whether it improves co-occurring psychiatric symptoms and functional outcomes for adults with Tourette's disorder (TD). This information is essential for effective treatment planning. This study examined the effects of behavior therapy on psychiatric symptoms and functional outcomes in older adolescents and adults with TD. METHOD: A total of 122 individuals with TD or a chronic tic disorder participated in a clinical trial comparing behavior therapy to psychoeducation and supportive therapy. At baseline, posttreatment, and follow-up visits, participants completed assessments of tic severity, co-occurring symptoms (inattention, impulsiveness, hyperactivity, anger, anxiety, depression, obsessions, and compulsions), and psychosocial functioning. We compared changes in tic severity, psychiatric symptoms, and functional outcomes using repeated measure and one-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: At posttreatment, participants receiving behavior therapy reported greater reductions in obsessions compared to participants in supportive therapy ($\eta _p^2 $ = 0.04, p = 0.04). Across treatments, a positive treatment response on the Clinical Global Impression of Improvement scale was associated with a reduced disruption in family life ($\eta _p^2 $ = 0.05, p = 0.02) and improved functioning in a parental role ($\eta _p^2 $ = 0.37, p = 0.02). Participants who responded positively to eight sessions of behavior therapy had an improvement in tic severity ($\eta _p^2 $ = 0.75, p < 0.001), inattention ($\eta _p^2 $ = 0.48, p < 0.02), and functioning ($\eta _p^2 $ = 0.39-0.42, p < 0.03-0.04) at the 6-month follow-up. CONCLUSION: Behavior therapy has a therapeutic benefit for co-occurring obsessive symptoms in the short-term, and reduces tic severity and disability in adults with TD over time. Additional treatments may be necessary to address co-occurring symptoms and improve functional outcomes.

12.
J Abnorm Child Psychol ; 48(1): 79-89, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313062

RESUMO

This study examined the relationship between caregivers' and youths' treatment expectations and characteristics of exposure tasks (quantity, mastery, compliance) in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for childhood anxiety. Additionally, compliance with exposure tasks was tested as a mediator of the relationship between treatment expectations and symptom improvement. Data were from youth (N = 279; 7-17 years old) enrolled in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS) and randomized to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or the combination of CBT and sertraline for the treatment of separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and social phobia. Caregivers and youth independently reported treatment expectations prior to randomization, anxiety was assessed pre- and post-treatment by independent evaluators blind to treatment condition, and exposure characteristics were recorded by the cognitive-behavioral therapists following each session. For both caregivers and youths, more positive expectations that anxiety would improve with treatment were associated with greater compliance with exposure tasks, and compliance mediated the relationship between treatment expectations and change in anxiety symptoms following treatment. Additionally, more positive parent treatment expectations were related to a greater number and percentage of sessions with exposure. More positive youth treatment expectations were associated with greater mastery during sessions focused on exposure. Findings underscore the importance of addressing parents' and youths' treatment expectations at the outset of therapy to facilitate engagement in exposure and maximize therapeutic gains.

13.
J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol ; 49(5): 626-638, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039048

RESUMO

Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to derive homogeneous subgroups within the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study sample (N = 488; 7-17 years, M = 10.69, SD = 2.80) and examine whether class membership predicted or moderated treatment response. Subgroups were identified on baseline multi-informant measures of variables most consistently associated with outcome (youth anxiety/diagnosis, impairment, family psychopathology/functioning). Subgroup membership was examined as a predictor/moderator of outcome across the four treatment conditions (CBT, Sertraline, CBT+Sertraline, pill placebo) at posttreatment (12 weeks) and open-extension follow-up (24 weeks). Four subgroups emerged: mild symptoms/impairment, moderate symptoms/impairment, moderate symptoms/impairment with family dysfunction/parental psychopathology, and severe symptoms/impairment. There were significant between-class differences on socioeconomic status (SES; lower reported SES in the moderate with family dysfunction/parental psychopathology class compared to the mild and moderate class) and age (older age in the severe symptoms class compared to the other three classes). Youth in the mild symptoms/impairment class showed lower posttreatment anxiety across conditions but reported significantly lower symptom severity at baseline. Controlling for demographic differences, response to treatment type did not differ across classes. Analyses indicate that elevated family dysfunction/parental psychopathology clusters primarily within one subgroup of anxious youth rather than mapping onto symptom severity, highlighting the utility of LPA for clarifying within-person combinations of predictor/moderator variables. Implications for development of interventions targeting class-relevant variables are discussed.

14.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 61(4): 492-502, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediatric anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and associated with significant functional disabilities and lifelong morbidity. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), sertraline, and their combination are effective treatments, but little is known about how these treatments exert their effects. METHODS: Using network intervention analysis (NIA), we analyzed data from the largest randomized controlled treatment trial of pediatric anxiety disorders (Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study, NCT00052078, clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00052078) and outlined the causal symptom domain-specific effects of CBT, sertraline, and their combination over the course of the 12-week treatment while taking into account both specificity and overlap between symptom domains. RESULTS: All active treatments produced positive effects with the most pronounced and consistent effects emerging in relation to psychological distress, family interference, and avoidance. Psychological distress was consistently the most and physical symptoms the least central symptom domain in the disorder network. CONCLUSIONS: All active treatments showed beneficial effects when compared to placebo, and NIA identified that these effects were exerted similarly across treatments and primarily through a reduction of psychological distress, family interference, and avoidance. CBT and sertraline may have differential mechanisms of action in relation to psychological distress. Given the lack of causal effects on interference outside family and physical symptoms, interventions tailored to target these domains may aid in the building of more effective treatments. Psychological distress and avoidance should remain key treatment focuses because of their central roles in the disorder network. The findings inform and promote developing more effective interventions.

15.
Dev Psychopathol ; 31(5): 1887-1899, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370913

RESUMO

Building on prior work using Tom Dishion's Family Check-Up, the current article examined intervention effects on dysregulated irritability in early childhood. Dysregulated irritability, defined as reactive and intense response to frustration, and prolonged angry mood, is an ideal marker of neurodevelopmental vulnerability to later psychopathology because it is a transdiagnostic indicator of decrements in self-regulation that are measurable in the first years of life that have lifelong implications for health and disease. This study is perhaps the first randomized trial to examine the direct effects of an evidence- and family-based intervention, the Family Check-Up (FCU), on irritability in early childhood and the effects of reductions in irritability on later risk of child internalizing and externalizing symptomatology. Data from the geographically and sociodemographically diverse multisite Early Steps randomized prevention trial were used. Path modeling revealed intervention effects on irritability at age 4, which predicted lower externalizing and internalizing symptoms at age 10.5. Results indicate that family-based programs initiated in early childhood can reduce early childhood irritability and later risk for psychopathology. This holds promise for earlier identification and prevention approaches that target transdiagnostic pathways. Implications for future basic and prevention research are discussed.


Assuntos
Família , Frustração , Humor Irritável/fisiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
16.
Pediatrics ; 144(3)2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is an urgent need to advance mental health (MH) education and/or training in pediatric residency programs, yet no consensus on how to achieve this. We created an operational framework from ideas provided by a diverse group of stakeholders on how to advance MH education. METHODS: Concept-mapping methodology was used, which involves brainstorming ideas by completing a focus prompt, sorting ideas into groups, and rating them for importance and feasibility. Multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis grouped ideas into clusters. Average importance and feasibility were calculated for each statement and cluster and compared statistically in each cluster and between subgroups. RESULTS: Ninety-nine ideas were generated. Sorted ideas yielded a 7-cluster concept map: (1) modalities for MH training, (2) prioritization of MH, (3) systems-based practice, (4) self-awareness and/or relationship building, (5) training in clinical assessment of patients, (6) training in treatment, and (7) diagnosis-specific skills. Two hundred and sixteen participants rated ideas for importance and 209 for feasibility. Four clusters had a statistically significant difference between their importance and feasibility ratings (P < .001). Suburban and rural area respondents (versus urban) rated clusters higher in importance and feasibility (P < .004), trainees rated all clusters higher in feasibility than practicing clinicians, and MH professionals rated prioritization of MH higher in feasibility (3.42 vs 2.98; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: This comprehensive set of ideas, especially those rated highly in both importance and feasibility, should inform curricular and policy initiatives. Differences between importance and feasibility may explain why there has been little progress in this field.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Saúde Mental , Pediatria/educação , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Análise por Conglomerados , Consenso , Currículo , Humanos , Participação dos Interessados , Estados Unidos
17.
J Dev Behav Pediatr ; 40(6): 407-414, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318778

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Describe the diagnostic process for Tourette syndrome (TS) based on parent report, as well as TS severity and associated impairment; the influence of common daily activities on tics; and the presence of co-occurring mental, behavioral, and developmental disorders among children in the United States. METHODS: Parent-report data from the 2014 National Survey of the Diagnosis and Treatment of ADHD and Tourette Syndrome on 115 children ever diagnosed with TS were analyzed. Descriptive, unweighted analyses included frequencies and percentages, and means and standard deviations. Fisher's exact test and t-tests were calculated to determine statistically significant differences. RESULTS: The mean age that tics were first noticed was 6.3 years, and, on average, TS was diagnosed at 7.7 years. The time from initially noticing tics to TS diagnosis averaged 1.7 years. The mean age when TS symptoms were most severe was 9.3 years. Tic severity was associated with impaired child functioning but not tic noticeability. Almost 70% of parents reported that fatigue and major transitions made their child's tics worse. Children with ever-diagnosed TS had a mean of 3.2 ever-diagnosed co-occurring mental, behavioral, or developmental disorders; a quarter (26.9%) had 5 or more co-occurring disorders. DISCUSSION: In this sample of children with TS, the time to diagnosis averaged less than 2 years from when tics were initially noticed. More severe TS was associated with greater functional impairment, and co-occurring disorders were common among children with TS. This study provides insight into the current experiences of children with TS in the United States and their families.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Síndrome de Tourette/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Tourette/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Tourette/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pais , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Matern Child Health J ; 23(9): 1220-1231, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292839

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe differences in health care needs between Children with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN) with and without anxiety and examine the association between anxiety and unmet health care needs. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 2009/2010 national survey of CSHCN. The independent variable was anxiety. The main outcomes were health care needs and unmet needs. Covariates included demographics, other co-morbid conditions, and the presence and quality of a medical home. We used bivariate analyses and multivariable logistic regression to assess the relationships among anxiety, covariates, and the outcomes. We stratified our analysis by age (6-11 years, 12-17 years). Propensity score matched paired analysis was used as a sensitivity analysis. RESULTS: Our final sample included 14,713 6-11 year-olds and 15,842 12-17-year-olds. Anxiety was present in 16% of 6-11 year-olds and 23% or 12-17 year-olds. In bivariate analyses, CSHCN with anxiety had increased health care needs and unmet needs, compared to CSHCN without anxiety. In multivariable analyses, only children 12-17 years old with anxiety had increased odds of having an unmet health care need compared to those children without anxiety (OR 1.44 [95% CI 1.17-1.78]). This was confirmed in the propensity score matching analysis (OR 1.12, [95% CI 1.02-1.22]). The specific unmet needs for older CSHCN with anxiety were mental health care (OR 1.54 [95% CI 1.09-2.17]) and well child checkups (OR 2.01 [95% CI 1.18-3.44]). CONCLUSION: Better integration of the care for mental and physical health is needed to ensure CSHCN with anxiety have all of their health care needs met.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/complicações , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Adolescente , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pontuação de Propensão , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Depress Anxiety ; 36(8): 744-752, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although evidence-based assessments are the cornerstone of evidence-based treatments, it remains unknown whether incorporating evidence-based assessments into clinical practice enhances therapists' judgment of therapeutic improvement. This study examined whether the inclusion of youth- and parent-reported anxiety rating scales improved therapists' judgment of treatment response and remission compared to the judgment of treatment-masked independent evaluators (IEs) after (a) weekly/biweekly acute treatment and (b) monthly follow-up care. METHODS: Four hundred thirty six youth received cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), medication, CBT with medication, or pill placebo through the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study. Participants and parents completed the following anxiety scales at pretreatment, posttreatment, and follow-up: Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Disorders (SCARED) and Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC). IEs rated anxiety on the Clinical Global Impression of Severity (CGI-S) and Improvement (CGI-I) at posttreatment and follow-up. Therapists rated anxiety severity and improvement using scales that paralleled IE measures. RESULTS: Fair-to-moderate agreement was found between therapists and IEs after acute treatment (κ = 0.38-0.48), with only slight-to-fair agreement found after follow-up care (κ = 0.07-0.33). Optimal algorithms for determining treatment response and remission included the combination of therapists' ratings and the parent-reported SCARED after acute (κ = 0.52-0.54) and follow-up care (κ = 0.43-0.48), with significant improvement in the precision of judgments after follow-up care (p < .02-.001). CONCLUSION: Therapists are good at detecting treatment response and remission, but the inclusion of the parent-report SCARED optimized agreement with IE rating-especially when contact was less frequent. Findings suggest that utilizing parent-report measures of anxiety in clinical practice improves the precision of therapists' judgment.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Meditação/métodos , Adolescente , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Criança , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Meditação/psicologia , Pais , Autorrelato , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am ; 28(3): 497-507, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076123

RESUMO

This article summarizes current knowledge and consensus about depression and suicide among the indigenous young people of the United States. American Indians represent more than 500 tribes and also vary among settings-reservations, urban, suburban, and rural-but as a group, remain at high risk for suicide and possibly for depressive syndromes. Particular risk factors and correlates, as well as approaches to treatment, are discussed.


Assuntos
Cultura , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Índios Norte-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Depressão/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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