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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(7)2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32260307

RESUMO

In preeclampsia, widespread maternal endothelial dysfunction is often secondary to excessive generation of placental-derived anti-angiogenic factors, including soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and soluble endoglin (sEng), along with proinflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and activin A, understanding of which offers potential opportunities for the development of novel therapies. The antimalarial hydroxychloroquine is an anti-inflammatory drug improving endothelial homeostasis in lupus. It has not been explored as to whether it can improve placental and endothelial function in preeclampsia. In this in vitro study, term placental explants were used to assess the effects of hydroxychloroquine on placental production of sFlt-1, sEng, TNF-α, activin A, and 8-isoprostane after exposure to hypoxic injury or oxidative stress. Similarly, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used to assess the effects of hydroxychloroquine on in vitro markers of endothelial dysfunction. Hydroxychloroquine had no effect on the release of sFlt-1, sEng, TNF-α, activin A, or 8-isoprostane from placental explants exposed to hypoxic injury or oxidative stress. However, hydroxychloroquine mitigated TNF-α-induced HUVEC production of 8-isoprostane and Nicotinanamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase expression. Hydroxychloroquine also mitigated TNF-α and preeclamptic serum-induced HUVEC monolayer permeability and rescued the loss of zona occludens protein zona occludens 1 (ZO-1). Although hydroxychloroquine had no apparent effects on trophoblast function, it may be a useful endothelial protectant in women presenting with preeclampsia.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253200

RESUMO

Recent decades have seen the rapid progress of neonatal intensive care, and the survival rates of the most preterm infants are improving. This improvement is associated with changing patterns of morbidity and new phenotypes of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and preterm brain injury are recognised. Inflammation and immaturity are known contributors to their pathogenesis. However, a new phenomenon, the exhaustion of progenitor cells is emerging as an important factor. Current therapeutic approaches do not adequately address these new mechanisms of injury. Cell therapy, that is the use of stem and stem-like cells, with its potential to both repair and prevent injury, offers a new approach to these challenging conditions. This review will examine the rationale for cell therapy in the extremely preterm infant, the preclinical and early clinical evidence to support its use in bronchopulmonary dysplasia and preterm brain injury. Finally, it will address the challenges in translating cell therapy from the laboratory to early clinical trials.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232848

RESUMO

Fifteen years ago a survey of Victorian public maternity services showed that the majority of services provided no fetal surveillance education to their staff and that only one in ten undertook any sort of assessment of staff knowledge. Today, all hospitals, public and private, provide training and all public hospitals require their midwifery and medical staff to undertake regular assessment of knowledge. The requirements of specialist obstetricians in private practice remain variable.

4.
Pediatr Res ; 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32120374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation of preterm neonates is associated with neuroinflammation and an increased risk of adverse neurological outcomes. Human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs) have anti-inflammatory and regenerative properties. We aimed to determine if intravenous administration of hAECs to preterm lambs would reduce neuroinflammation and injury at 2 days of age. METHODS: Preterm lambs were delivered by cesarean section at 128-130 days' gestation (term is ~147 days) and either ventilated for 48 h or humanely killed at birth. Lambs received 3 mL surfactant (Curosurf) via endotracheal tube prior to delivery (either with or without 90 × 106 hAECs) and 3 mL intravenous phosphate-buffered saline (with or without 90 × 106 hAECs, consistent with intratracheal treatment) after birth. RESULTS: Ventilation increased microglial activation, total oligodendrocyte cell number, cell proliferation and blood-brain barrier permeability (P < 0.05, PBS + ventilation and hAEC + ventilation vs. control), but did not affect numbers of immature and mature oligodendrocytes. Ventilation reduced astrocyte and neuron survival (P < 0.05, PBS + ventilation and hAEC + ventilation vs. control). hAEC administration did not alter markers of neuroinflammation or injury within the white or gray matter. CONCLUSIONS: Mechanical ventilation for 48 h upregulated markers of neuroinflammation and injury in preterm lambs. Administration of hAECs did not affect markers of neuroinflammation or injury. IMPACT: Mechanical ventilation of preterm lambs for 48 h, in a manner consistent with contemporary neonatal intensive care, causes neuroinflammation, neuronal loss and pathological changes in oligodendrocyte and astrocyte survival consistent with evolving neonatal brain injury.Intravenous administration of hAECs immediately after birth did not affect neonatal cardiorespiratory function and markers of neuroinflammation or injury.Reassuringly, our findings in a translational large animal model demonstrate that intravenous hAEC administration to the preterm neonate is safe.Considering that hAECs are being used in phase 1 trials for the treatment of BPD in preterm infants, with future trials planned for neonatal neuroprotection, we believe these observations are highly relevant.

5.
BMJ Open ; 10(3): e034974, 2020 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152173

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common physical disability of childhood but has no cure. Stem cells have the potential to improve brain injury and are proposed as a therapy for CP. However, many questions remain unanswered about the most appropriate cell type, timing of infusions, dose required and associated risks. Therefore, human safety and efficacy trials are necessary to progress knowledge in the field. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a single group study with sample size n=12 to investigate safety of single-dose intravenous 12/12 human leucocyte antigen-matched sibling cord blood cell infusion to children with CP aged 1-16 years without immune suppression. The study is similar to a 3+3 design, where the first two groups of participants have severe CP, and the final six participants include children with all motor severities. Children will be monitored for adverse events and the duration that donor cells are detected. Assessments at baseline, 3 and 12 months will investigate safety and preliminary evidence of change in gross motor, fine motor, cognitive and quality of life outcomes. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Full approval was obtained from The Royal Children's Hospital Human Research Ethics Committee, and a clinical trial notification was accepted by Australia's Therapeutic Goods Administration. Participant guardian informed consent will be obtained before any study procedures. The main results of this study will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12616000403437, NCT03087110.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207159

RESUMO

Serial third trimester ultrasound examinations for fetal biometry are recommended for women with risk factors of fetal growth restriction (FGR). We conducted a retrospective cohort study on all singleton births in Victoria from 2009 to 2017 to assess how many women with major risk factors for FGR had serial third trimester biometry. Only 19.5% of women with at least one major risk factor for FGR had evidence of serial third trimester ultrasound assessments. The development and implementation of a state-wide or nationwide guideline for early pregnancy risk factor assessment in FGR may be beneficial.

7.
Molecules ; 25(4)2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070059

RESUMO

(1) Background: There is increasing understanding of the potential health benefits of cruciferous vegetables. In particular sulforaphane (SFN), found in broccoli, and its metabolites sulforaphane-glutathione (SFN-GSH), sulforaphane-cysteine (SFN-Cys), sulforaphane cysteine-glycine (SFN-CG) and sulforaphane-N-acetyl-cysteine (SFN-NAC) have potent antioxidant effects that may offer therapeutic value. Clinical investigation of sulforaphane as a therapeutic antioxidant requires a sensitive and high throughput process for quantification of sulforaphane and metabolites; (2) Methods: We collected plasma samples from healthy human volunteers before and for eight hours after consumption of a commercial broccoli extract supplement rich in sulforaphane. A rapid and sensitive method for quantification of sulforaphane and its metabolites in human plasma using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) has been developed; (3) Results: The LC-MS analytical method was validated at concentrations ranging between 3.9 nM and 1000 nM for SFN-GSH, SFN-CG, SFN-Cys and SFN-NAC and between 7.8 nM and 1000 nM in human plasma for SFN. The method displayed good accuracy (1.85%-14.8% bias) and reproducibility (below 9.53 %RSD) including low concentrations 3.9 nM and 7.8 nM. Four SFN metabolites quantitation was achieved using external standard calibration and in SFN quantitation, SFN-d8 internal standardization was used. The reported method can accurately quantify sulforaphane and its metabolites at low concentrations in plasma; (4) Conclusions: We have established a time- and cost-efficient method of measuring sulforaphane and its metabolites in human plasma suitable for high throughput application to clinical trials.

8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3141, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081989

RESUMO

External cephalic version (ECV) is associated with a moderate degree of pain. Virtual reality (VR) is a technology that has shown promise in offering procedural analgesia. We undertook a clinical pilot to assess the viability of VR to reduce pain during ECV. In an open randomised controlled trial (RCT), we randomised 50 women to either VR or standard care each (25 per group). Women receiving VR were administered VR content (Skylights) via a headset. Pre- and post-procedural measures of pain, anxiety, device experience and vital signs were measured. There were no significant differences between groups (VR/no VR) in pain scores (60.68 vs 49.76; p = 0.2), ECV success rates (80% vs 76%; p = 0.7) or anxiety levels. The women receiving VR had a significantly higher anticipation of pain pre-procedurally (70.0 vs 50.0; p = 0.03). 20 (80%) of the VR women indicated that they would use VR again and 22 (88%) indicated they would recommend it to a friend having ECV. There were no significant differences between groups for side effects encountered or changes in vital signs. We have shown that using VR during ECV is feasible and appears safe. Our results inform the design of future RCTs.

9.
BMJ Open ; 10(2): e032480, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051303

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Induction of labour (IOL) is a common practice. In Australia, up to 40% of women undergoing labour induction will ultimately have a caesarean section. As a biological role for melatonin in the onset and progress of labour has been demonstrated, we aim to test the hypothesis that addition of melatonin will reduce the need for caesarean section. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial in women undergoing IOL at term. We plan to randomise 722 women (1:1 ratio) to receive either melatonin (four doses of 10 mg melatonin: first dose-in the evening at the time of cervical balloon or Dinoprostone PGE2 vaginal pessary insertion, second dose-at time of oxytocin infusion commencement, third dose-6 hours after the second dose, fourth dose-6 hours after the third dose) or placebo (same dosing regime). Participants who are having artificial rupture of the membranes only as the primary means of labour induction will receive up to three doses of the trial intervention. The primary outcome measure will be the requirement for a caesarean section. Secondary outcomes will include duration of each stage of labour and time from induction to birth, total dose of oxytocin administration, epidural rate, indication for caesarean section, rate of instrumental deliveries, birth within 24 hours of induction commencement, estimated blood loss, Apgar score at 5 min, neonatal intensive care unit admissions and participant satisfaction. Maternal melatonin levels will be measured immediately before commencement of the oxytocin intravenous infusion and 3 hours after and at the time of birth in order to determine any differences between the two trial arms. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study is conducted in accordance with the conditions of Monash Health HREC (RES-17-0000-168A). Findings from the trial will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. PROTOCOL VERSION: V.7.0, 30 July 2019. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12616000311459, Universal trial number: (UTN) U1111-1195-3515.

10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(3)2020 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991880

RESUMO

Creatine is a metabolite important for cellular energy homeostasis as it provides spatio-temporal adenosine triphosphate (ATP) buffering for cells with fluctuating energy demands. Here, we examined whether placental creatine metabolism was altered in cases of early-onset pre-eclampsia (PE), a condition known to cause placental metabolic dysfunction. We studied third trimester human placentae collected between 27-40 weeks' gestation from women with early-onset PE (n = 20) and gestation-matched normotensive control pregnancies (n = 20). Placental total creatine and creatine precursor guanidinoacetate (GAA) content were measured. mRNA expression of the creatine synthesizing enzymes arginine:glycine aminotransferase (GATM) and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT), the creatine transporter (SLC6A8), and the creatine kinases (mitochondrial CKMT1A & cytosolic BBCK) was assessed. Placental protein levels of arginine:glycine aminotransferase (AGAT), GAMT, CKMT1A and BBCK were also determined. Key findings; total creatine content of PE placentae was 38% higher than controls (p < 0.01). mRNA expression of GATM (p < 0.001), GAMT (p < 0.001), SLC6A8 (p = 0.021) and BBCK (p < 0.001) was also elevated in PE placentae. No differences in GAA content, nor protein levels of AGAT, GAMT, BBCK or CKMT1A were observed between cohorts. Advancing gestation and birth weight were associated with a down-regulation in placental GATM mRNA expression, and a reduction in GAA content, in control placentae. These relationships were absent in PE cases. Our results suggest PE placentae may have an ongoing reliance on the creatine kinase circuit for maintenance of cellular energetics with increased total creatine content and transcriptional changes to creatine synthesizing enzymes and the creatine transporter. Understanding the functional consequences of these changes warrants further investigation.

11.
BMJ Qual Saf ; 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915180

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether sharing of routinely collected health service performance data could have predicted a critical safety failure at an Australian maternity service. DESIGN: Observational quantitative descriptive study. SETTING: A public hospital maternity service in Victoria, Australia. DATA SOURCES: A public health service; the Victorian state health quality and safety office-Safer Care Victoria; the Health Complaints Commission; Victorian Managed Insurance Authority; Consultative Council on Obstetric and Paediatric Mortality and Morbidity; Paediatric Infant Perinatal Emergency Retrieval; Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Numbers and rates for events (activity, deaths, complaints, litigation, practitioner notifications). Correlation coefficients. RESULTS: Between 2000 and 2014 annual birth numbers at the index hospital more than doubled with no change in bed capacity, to be significantly busier than similar services as determined using an independent samples t-test (p<0.001). There were 36 newborn deaths, 11 of which were considered avoidable. Pearson correlations revealed a weak but significant relationship between number of births per birth suite room birth and perinatal mortality (r2 =0.18, p=0.003). Independent samples t-tests demonstrated that the rates of emergency neonatal and perinatal transfer were both significantly lower than similar services (both p<0.001). Direct-to-service patient complaints increased ahead of recognised excess perinatal mortality. CONCLUSION: While clinical activity data and direct-to-service patient complaints appear to offer promise as potential predictors of health service stress, complaints to regulators and medicolegal activity are less promising as predictors of system failure. Significant changes to how all data are handled would be required to progress such an approach to predicting health service failure.

12.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In routine antenatal care, blood pressure is used as a screening tool for preeclampsia and its associated adverse outcomes. As such women with a blood pressure greater than 140/90 mm Hg undergo further investigation and closer follow-up, whereas those with lower blood pressures receive no additional care. In the nonpregnant setting, the American College of Cardiology now endorses lower hypertensive thresholds and it remains unclear whether these lower thresholds should also be considered in pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: (1) To examine the association between lower blood pressure thresholds (as per the American College of Cardiology guidelines) and pregnancy outcomes and (2) to determine whether there is a continuous relationship between blood pressure and pregnancy outcomes and identify the point of a change at which blood pressure is associated with an increased risk of such outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective study of singleton pregnancies at Monash Health, Australia. Data were obtained with regards to maternal characteristics and blood pressure measurements at varying gestational ages. Blood pressures were then categorized as (1) mean arterial pressure and (2) normal, elevated, stage 1 and stage 2 hypertension, as per the American College of Cardiology guidelines. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to identify associations between blood pressure categories and pregnancy outcomes. RESULTS: This study included 18,243 singleton pregnancies. We demonstrated a positive dose-response relationship between mean arterial pressure and the development of preeclampsia in later pregnancy. Across all gestational ages, the risk of preeclampsia was greater in those with "elevated blood pressure" and "stage 1 hypertension" in comparison with the normotensive group (adjusted risk ratio; 2.45, 95% confidence interval, 1.74-3.44 and adjusted risk ratio, 6.60; 95% confidence interval, 4.98-8.73 respectively, at 34-36 weeks' gestation). There was also an association between stage 1 hypertension, preterm birth, and adverse perinatal outcomes. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that preeclampsia and the associated adverse outcomes are not exclusive to those with blood pressures greater than 140/90 mm Hg. As such, those with prehypertensive blood pressures may also benefit from closer monitoring. Further research is essential to determine whether lowering the blood pressure threshold in pregnancy would improve detection and outcomes.

13.
Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol ; 60(1): 141-148, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Melatonin is a potent oxygen scavenger and is capable of altering blood flow in various vascular beds. AIMS: We aimed to determine the effect of melatonin on ovarian vascular indices during ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilisation (IVF). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a pilot double-blind placebo-controlled randomised trial. Sixty-nine women (mean age 35.8 ± 4.3 years) undergoing their first cycle of IVF were randomised to receive either placebo, 2, 4 or 8 mg of melatonin, twice a day. Each participant underwent a transvaginal ultrasound at days 6-10 assessing follicular number and size. The vascularisation index (VI), flow index (FI) and vascularisation-flow index (VFI) were measured. These indices were then correlated with embryological outcomes. Informed consent was obtained from participants. This trial was registered with the Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12613001317785). RESULTS: The number of follicles did not differ between groups (P = 0.4). There were no differences in the VI (P = 0.4), FI (P = 0.1) or VFI (P = 0.3) in the right ovary or the FI (P = 0.3) or VFI (P = 0.3) in the left ovary between groups. When comparing placebo to any dose of melatonin, there were no differences in any measured parameter. While there was correlation between the number of follicles on ultrasound and all measured embryological outcomes, there was no correlation between ovarian vascular indices and these important clinical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Melatonin does not appear to change ovarian vascular indices during ovarian stimulation. In addition, such vascular indices cannot predict the number or quality of oocytes or embryos obtained in an IVF cycle. These findings require confirmation in future larger studies.

14.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 105(1): 50-55, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123055

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Higher rates of neonatal morbidity and mortality at term combined with earlier spontaneous delivery have led to the hypothesis that babies born to South Asian born (SA-born) women may mature earlier and/or their placental function decreases earlier than babies born to Australian and New Zealand born (Aus/NZ-born) women. Whether babies born to SA-born women do better in the preterm period, however, has yet to be evaluated. In this study we investigated respiratory outcomes, indicative of functional maturity, of preterm babies born to SA-born women compared with those of Aus/NZ-born women to explore this hypothesis further. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: This retrospective cohort study was conducted at Monash Health. PATIENTS: Data were collected from neonatal and birth records of moderate-late preterm (32-36 weeks) infants born between 2012 and 2015 to SA-born and Aus/NZ-born women. OUTCOME MEASURES: Rates of nursery admissions and neonatal respiratory outcomes were compared. RESULTS: Babies born to Aus/NZ-born women were more likely to be admitted to a nursery (80%) compared with SA-born babies (72%, p=0.004). Babies born to SA-born mothers experienced significantly less hyaline membrane disease (7.8%), required less resuscitation at birth (28.6%) and were less likely to require ventilation (20%) than babies born to Aus/NZ-born mothers (18%, 42.2%, 34.6%; p<0.001). There was no difference in the duration of ventilation or length of stay in hospital. CONCLUSIONS: Moderate-late preterm babies born to SA-born women appear to have earlier functional maturity, as indicated by respiratory outcomes, than Aus/NZ-born babies. Our findings support the hypothesis of earlier fetal maturation in SA-born women.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Doença da Membrana Hialina/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro , Ressuscitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Ásia Sudeste/etnologia , Austrália , Peso ao Nascer , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Mães , Nova Zelândia , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Stem Cells Transl Med ; 9(3): 289-294, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774236

RESUMO

We previously reported on the immediate safety and neonatal outcomes of six premature infants with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) who were administered human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs). One infant died in the neonatal period due to unrelated causes. In this study, we aimed to assess the long-term safety and follow-up outcomes of the five surviving infants until 2 years corrected age (CA). hAECs were administered intravenously at a dose of 1 × 106 cells per kilogram after 36 weeks postconceptional age in infants with established BPD. Study follow-up consisted of assessment of any adverse events, growth, and respiratory, cardiac, and neurodevelopmental outcomes over four time points (6, 12, 18, and 24 months CA). Investigations included chest x-rays, cranial and abdominal ultrasounds, and echocardiograms at regular intervals as well as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain at 2 years CA. All five infants were alive at 2 years CA. Median time to wean off oxygen was 24 (10-36) months. Two infants had pulmonary hypertension, which resolved by 2 years of age. Four infants were rehospitalized briefly for viral or bacterial infections during the 2 years. MRI brain findings included normal (n = 1), and mild to moderate white matter loss (n = 2). Neurodisabilities diagnosed included hemiplegic cerebral palsy (n = 1), global developmental delay (n = 3), and severe hearing loss (n = 3). No evidence of tumor formation was noted on physical examinations or on any imaging. There were no long-term adverse events observed that could be attributed to hAEC administration. We observed long-term effects of extreme prematurity and severe BPD in the cohort.

16.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 33(5): 768-773, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30614331

RESUMO

Objectives: The purpose of this article was to further elucidate the pathophysiology of Mirror (Ballantyne) syndrome within the context of known biomarkers for preeclampsia.Methods: This novel insight from clinical practice involved a case of post-twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome-laser hydrops in an ex-donor twin, corroborated by histopathologic placental territory edema and maternal sequelae of Mirror syndrome. We serially measured the levels of activin A, follistatin, endothelin-1 (ET-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt), and von Willebrand factor (vWF) in the maternal serum from disease evolution through to recovery.Results: The paired finding of hydropic ex-donor twin and placenta, supports the theory of placental injury as the source of potential molecular mediators, leading to local placental edema, associated fetal hydrops and the maternal preeclamptic picture. Notably, we elucidated a temporal spectrum of maternal serum mediators (soluble Flt-1, endothelin-1, 8-isoprostane, activin-A, ICAM-1, and vWF) involved in the pathogenesis of Mirror syndrome.Conclusion: Better understanding of the pathogenesis of Mirror syndrome has important implications for clinical management.

17.
Med J Aust ; 212(2): 82-88, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713879

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine changes in the modes of delivery of twins in Victoria over 33 years. DESIGN: Retrospective population-based study. SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: All twin births in Victoria, 1 January 1983 - 31 December 2015. MAJOR OUTCOMES: Mode of birth (vaginal, planned or unplanned caesarean delivery); indications for caesarean delivery. RESULTS: During 1983-2015, 32 187 twin pregnancies ended in live or stillbirths in Victoria. The proportion of twins born by caesarean delivery increased from 24% (156 twin deliveries) in 1983 to 71% (782 deliveries) in 2015. The proportion of twin births by planned caesarean delivery with twin pregnancy as the sole indication for caesarean delivery increased across this period from 1.8% (12 twin deliveries) to 21% (231 deliveries). The proportion of twin births by caesarean delivery and the proportion of caesarean twin deliveries with twin pregnancy as the principal indication each differed between Victorian regions. CONCLUSION: During 1983-2015, the proportion of twins born in Victoria by caesarean delivery increased almost threefold, mostly because caesarean delivery has become the preferred mode of birth for twin pregnancies. Regional differences in the delivery of twins suggest that the number of caesarean deliveries can be reduced with appropriate system and training support.

19.
Women Birth ; 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Home births provide women a birth choice where they may feel more comfortable and confident in their ability to give birth. PROBLEM: Most women in Victoria do not have publicly funded access to appropriately trained health professionals if they choose to give birth at home. METHODS: This paper describes the process of setting up a publicly funded home birth service and provide details of description of the set up and governance. We also report outcomes over 9 years with respect to parity, transfer to hospital, adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. RESULTS: Of the 191 women who were still booked into the home birth program at 36 weeks gestation, 148 (77.5%) women gave birth at home and 43 (22.5%) women were transferred into the hospital. The overall rate of vaginal birth was also high among the women in the home birth program, 185 (96.9%) with no added complications ascribed to home births. Such as severe perineal trauma [n=1] 0.6% PPH [n=4] 2.7%, Apgar score less than 7 at 5min [n=0] admissions post home birth to special care nursery [n=2] 1.35%. DISCUSSION: This unique study provides a detailed road map of setting up a home birth practice to facilitate other institutions keen to build a publicly funded home birth service. The birth outcome data was found to be consistent with other Australian studies on low risk home births. CONCLUSION: Well-designed home birth programs following best clinical practices and procedures can provide a safe birthing option for low risk women.

20.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(22): e013545, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698969

RESUMO

Background Women with a history of preeclampsia are at increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the underlying mechanisms of disease association, and the ideal method of monitoring this high-risk group, remains unclear. This review aims to determine whether women with a history of preeclampsia show clinical or subclinical cardiac changes when evaluated with an echocardiogram. Methods and Results A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL databases was performed to identify studies that examined cardiac function in women with a history of preeclampsia, in comparison with those with normotensive pregnancies. In the 27 included studies, we found no significant differences between preeclampsia and nonpreeclampsia women with regard to left ventricular ejection fraction, isovolumetric relaxation time, or deceleration time. Women with a history of preeclampsia demonstrated a higher left ventricular mass index and relative wall thickness with a mean difference of 4.25 g/m2 (95% CI, 2.08, 6.42) and 0.03 (95% CI, 0.01, 0.05), respectively. In comparison with the nonpreeclampsia population, they also demonstrated a lower E/A and a higher E/e' ratio with a mean difference of -0.08 (95% CI, -0.15, -0.01) and 0.84 (95% CI, 0.41, 1.27), respectively. Conclusions In comparison with women who had a normotensive pregnancy, women with a history of preeclampsia demonstrated a trend toward altered cardiac structure and function. Further studies with larger sample sizes and consistent echocardiogram reporting with the use of sensitive preclinical markers are required to assess the role of echocardiography in monitoring this high-risk population group.

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