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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(3): 90-94, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971931

RESUMO

Since August 2019, CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), state and local health departments, and public health and clinical stakeholders have been investigating a nationwide outbreak of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) (1). This report updates patient demographic characteristics, self-reported substance use, and hospitalization dates for EVALI patients reported to CDC by states, as well as the distribution of emergency department (ED) visits related to e-cigarette, or vaping, products analyzed through the National Syndromic Surveillance Program (NSSP). As of January 14, 2020, a total of 2,668 hospitalized EVALI cases had been reported to CDC. Median patient age was 24 years, and 66% were male. Overall, 82% of EVALI patients reported using any tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-containing e-cigarette, or vaping, product (including 33% with exclusive THC-containing product use), and 57% of EVALI patients reported using any nicotine-containing product (including 14% with exclusive nicotine-containing product use). Syndromic surveillance indicates that ED visits related to e-cigarette, or vaping, products continue to decline after sharply increasing in August 2019 and peaking in September 2019. Clinicians and public health practitioners should remain vigilant for new EVALI cases. CDC recommends that persons not use THC-containing e-cigarette, or vaping, products, especially those acquired from informal sources such as friends, family members, or from in-person or online dealers. Vitamin E acetate is strongly linked to the EVALI outbreak and should not be added to any e-cigarette, or vaping, products (2). However, evidence is not sufficient to rule out the contribution of other chemicals of concern, including chemicals in either THC- or non-THC-containing products, in some reported EVALI cases.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Lesão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Dronabinol/toxicidade , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lesão Pulmonar/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vitamina E/toxicidade , Adulto Jovem
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(2): 44-49, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945038

RESUMO

CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), state and local health departments, and public health and clinical stakeholders continue to investigate a nationwide outbreak of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) (1). EVALI patients in Illinois, Utah, and Wisconsin acquired tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-containing products primarily from informal sources (2,3). This report updates demographic characteristics and self-reported sources of THC- and nicotine-containing e-cigarette, or vaping, products derived from EVALI patient data reported to CDC by state health departments. As of January 7, 2020, among 1,979 (76%) patients with available data on substance use, a total of 1,620 (82%) reported using any THC-containing products, including 665 (34%) who reported exclusive THC-containing product use. Use of any nicotine-containing products was reported by 1,128 (57%) patients, including 264 (13%) who reported exclusive nicotine-containing product use. Among 809 (50%) patients reporting data on the source of THC-containing products, 131 (16%) reported acquiring their products from only commercial sources (i.e., recreational dispensaries, medical dispensaries, or both; vape or smoke shops; stores; and pop-up shops), 627 (78%) from only informal sources (i.e., friends, family, in-person or online dealers, or other sources), and 51 (6%) from both types of sources. Among 613 (54%) EVALI patients reporting nicotine-containing product use with available data on product source, 421 (69%) reported acquiring their products from only commercial sources, 103 (17%) from only informal sources, and 89 (15%) from both types of sources. Adolescents aged 13-17 years were more likely to acquire both THC- and nicotine-containing products from informal sources than were persons in older age groups. The high prevalence of acquisition of THC-containing products from informal sources by EVALI patients reinforces CDC's recommendation to not use e-cigarette, or vaping, products that contain THC, especially those acquired from informal sources. Although acquisition of nicotine-containing products through informal sources was not common overall, it was common among persons aged <18 years. While the investigation continues, CDC recommends that the best way for persons to ensure that they are not at risk is to consider refraining from the use of all e-cigarette, or vaping, products.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Lesão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dronabinol/efeitos adversos , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Feminino , Humanos , Lesão Pulmonar/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Mol Endocrinol ; 64(3): 155-164, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958317

RESUMO

Glucocorticoid (GC) signaling via the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is essential for lung maturation in mammals. Previous studies using global or conditional mouse model knockouts of the GR gene have established that GR-mediated signaling in the interstitial mesenchyme of the fetal lung is critical for normal lung development. Screens for downstream GC-targets in conditional mesenchymal GR deficient mouse lung (GRmesKO) identified Versican (Vcan), an important extracellular matrix component and cell proliferation regulator, as a potential GR-regulated target. We show that, of the five major VCAN isoforms, the VCAN-V1 isoform containing the GAGß domain is the predominant VCAN isoform in the fetal mouse lung distal mesenchyme at both E16.5 and E18.5, whereas the GAGα-specific VCAN-V2 isoform was only localized to the smooth muscle surrounding proximal airways. Both Vcan-V1 mRNA and protein levels were strongly overexpressed in the GRmesKO lung at E18.5. Finally, we investigated the GC regulation of the ECM protease ADAMTS 12 and showed that Adamts 12 mRNA levels were markedly reduced at E18.5 in GRmesKO fetal mouse lung and were strongly induced by both cortisol and betamethasone in cultures of primary rat fetal lung fibroblasts. ADAMTS12 protein immunoreactivity was also strongly increased in the distal lung at E18.5, after dexamethasone treatment in utero. In summary, glucocorticoid signaling via GR represses GAGß domain-containing VCAN isoforms in distal lung mesenchyme in vivo by repressing Vcan gene expression and, in part, by inducing the ECM protease ADAMTS12, thereby contributing to the control of ECM remodelling and lung cell proliferation prior to birth.

4.
Public Health Rep ; 135(1): 97-106, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Despite a push for increased local public health capacity, no clear baseline for performance of local health departments (LHDs) exists. The objectives of this study were to quantify the self-reported performance of LHDs on the 10 Essential Public Health Services (EPHSs) and describe the relationships between performance and characteristics of LHDs. METHODS: We used data on 2000 LHDs from the 2013 National Profile of Local Health Departments survey to develop principal components analysis-based scores to evaluate each LHD on the performance of EPHSs. Scores ranged from 0 to 100. LHDs that performed no activities within an EPHS had a score of 0, and LHDs that performed all activities within an EPHS had a score of 100. We explored the relationships between EPHS scores and LHD characteristics by using multivariate linear regression and cluster analysis. RESULTS: Performance scores varied greatly by LHDs and EPHSs; however, LHDs typically scored <50, indicating that they performed fewer than half of the activities evaluated. LHDs that served larger populations (vs smaller populations) and LHDs that had higher per-capita funding (vs lower per-capita funding) had higher EPHS scores. We identified 6 EPHS performance score-based LHD clusters, which suggests similarities in which EPHSs LHDs focused on. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest weaknesses in many LHDs' fulfillment of the EPHSs, particularly in low-population and low-funding settings. LHDs should be given the resources to increase capacity and ensure the EPHSs are met in communities.

5.
Front Pediatr ; 7: 427, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696099

RESUMO

Background: Spontaneous breathing is essential for successful non-invasive respiratory support delivered by a facemask at birth. As hypoxia is a potent inhibitor of spontaneous breathing, initiating respiratory support with a high fraction of inspired O2 may reduce the risk of hypoxia and increase respiratory effort at birth. Methods: Preterm rabbit kittens (29 days gestation, term ~32 days) were delivered and randomized to receive continuous positive airway pressure with either 21% (n = 12) or 100% O2 (n = 8) via a facemask. If apnea occurred, intermittent positive pressure ventilation (iPPV) was applied with either 21% or 100% O2 in kittens who started in 21% O2, and remained at 100% O2 for kittens who started the experiment in 100% O2. Respiratory rate (breaths per minute, bpm) and variability in inter-breath interval (%) were measured from esophageal pressure recordings and functional residual capacity (FRC) was measured from synchrotron phase-contrast X-ray images. Results: Initially, kittens receiving 21% O2 had a significantly lower respiratory rate and higher variability in inter-breath interval, indicating a less stable breathing pattern than kittens starting in 100% O2 [median (IQR) respiratory rate: 16 (4-28) vs. 38 (29-46) bpm, p = 0.001; variability in inter-breath interval: 33.3% (17.2-50.1%) vs. 27.5% (18.6-36.3%), p = 0.009]. Apnea that required iPPV, was more frequently observed in kittens in whom resuscitation was started with 21% compared to 100% O2 (11/12 vs. 1/8, p = 0.001). After recovering from apnea, respiratory rate was significantly lower and variability in inter-breath interval was significantly higher in kittens who received iPPV with 21% compared to 100% O2. FRC was not different between study groups at both timepoints. Conclusion: Initiating resuscitation with 100% O2 resulted in increased respiratory activity and stability, thereby reducing the risk of apnea and need for iPPV after birth. Further studies in human preterm infants are mandatory to confirm the benefit of this approach in terms of oxygenation. In addition, the ability to avoid hyperoxia after initiation of resuscitation with 100% oxygen, using a titration protocol based on oxygen saturation, needs to be clarified.

6.
Placenta ; 83: 33-36, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477204

RESUMO

Maternal asthma increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and may affect fetal growth and placental function by differential effects on the expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) isoforms, leading to altered glucocorticoid signalling. Our aim was to examine the effect of maternal asthma on placental GR profiles using a pregnant sheep model of asthma. Nine known GR isoforms were detected. There was a significant increase in the expression of placental GR isoforms that are known to have low trans-activational activity in other species including GR A, GR P and GRγ which may result in a pro-inflammatory environment in the presence of allergic asthma.

7.
J Physiol ; 597(16): 4251-4262, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192454

RESUMO

KEY POINTS: Experimental maternal allergic asthma in sheep provides an experimental model in which to test impacts on progeny. Fetuses from allergic asthmatic ewes had fewer surfactant-producing cells in lungs. A greater proportion of lymphocytes from thymus were CD44 positive in fetuses from allergic asthmatic ewes than in controls. These changes to fetal development might contribute to poor neonatal lung function and increased risk of allergy seen in offspring of pregnancies complicated by asthma. ABSTRACT: Asthma is prevalent in pregnancy and increases the risk of disease in offspring, including neonatal respiratory distress and childhood asthma and allergy, but the mechanisms are not understood. We hypothesized that fetal lung structure and immune phenotype in late gestation fetal sheep would be impaired in our sheep model of maternal allergic asthma during pregnancy. Singleton-bearing ewes were either sensitized before pregnancy to house dust mite (HDM, allergic, n = 7) or were non-allergic (control, n = 5). The ewes were subsequently subjected to repeated airway challenges with HDM (allergic group) or saline (control group) throughout gestation. Tissues were collected at 140 ± 1 days gestational age (term, ∼147 days). The density of type II alveolar epithelial cells (surfactant protein C-immunostained) in the lungs was 30% lower in fetuses from allergic ewes than in controls (P < 0.001), but tissue-to-air space ratio and numbers of leucocytes and macrophages were not different between groups. The proportion of CD44+ lymphocytes in the fetal thymus was 3.5-fold higher in fetuses from allergic ewes than in control ewes (P = 0.043). Fewer surfactant-producing type II alveolar epithelial cells may contribute to the increased risk of neonatal respiratory distress in infants of asthmatic mothers, suggesting that interventions to promote lung maturation could improve their neonatal outcomes. If the elevated lymphocyte expression of CD44 persists postnatally, this would confer greater susceptibility to allergic diseases in progeny of asthmatic mothers, consistent with observations in humans. Further experiments are needed to evaluate postnatal phenotypes of progeny and investigate potential interventions.

8.
Endocrinology ; 160(8): 1868-1884, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107524

RESUMO

Preterm birth is characterized by severe lung immaturity that is frequently treated antenatally or postnatally with the synthetic steroid betamethasone. The underlying cellular targets and pathways stimulated by betamethasone in the fetal lung are poorly defined. In this study, betamethasone was compared with corticosterone in steroid-treated primary cultures of fetal rat lung fibroblasts stimulated for 6 hours and analyzed by whole-cell transcriptome sequencing and glucocorticoid (GC) receptor (GR) chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) analysis. Strikingly, betamethasone stimulated a much stronger transcriptional response compared with corticosterone for both induced and repressed genes. A total of 483 genes were significantly stimulated by betamethasone or corticosterone, with 476 stimulated by both steroids, indicating a strong overlap in regulation. Changes in mRNA levels were confirmed by quantitative PCR for eight induced and repressed target genes. Pathway analysis identified cell proliferation and cytoskeletal/cell matrix remodeling pathways as key processes regulated by both steroids. One target, transglutaminase 2 (Tgm2), was localized to fetal lung mesenchymal cells. Tgm2 mRNA and protein levels were strongly increased in fibroblasts by both steroids. Whole-genome GR ChIP-Seq analysis with betamethasone identified GC response element-binding sites close to the previously characterized GR target genes Per1, Dusp1, Fkbp5, and Sgk1 and near the genes identified by transcriptome sequencing encoding Crispld2, Tgm2, Hif3α, and Kdr, defining direct genomic induction of expression in fetal lung fibroblasts via the GR. These results demonstrate that betamethasone stimulates specific genes and cellular pathways controlling cell proliferation and extracellular matrix remodeling in lung mesenchymal fibroblasts, providing a basis for betamethasone's treatment efficacy in preterm birth.


Assuntos
Betametasona/farmacologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Mesoderma/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Corticosterona/farmacologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Pulmão/citologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Transglutaminases/análise
9.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 133(10): 1185-1196, 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088858

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease that has its origins in early life. Postnatal inflammation exacerbates atherosclerosis, but the possible effect of intrauterine inflammation is largely unexplored. Exposure to inflammation in utero is common, especially in infants born preterm, who have increased cardiovascular risk in adulthood. We hypothesised that exposure to inflammation before birth would accelerate the development of atherosclerosis, with the most severe atherosclerosis following exposure to both pre- and postnatal inflammation. Here we studied the effect of prenatal and postnatal inflammation on the development of atherosclerosis by combining established techniques for modelling histological chorioamnionitis and atherosclerosis using apolipoprotein E (ApoE) knockout mice. A single intra-amniotic (IA) injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) caused intrauterine inflammation, and increased atherosclerosis at 13 weeks of postnatal age. In mice exposed to postnatal LPS, chorioamnionitis modulated subsequent responses; atherosclerotic lesion size, number and severity were greatest for mice exposed to both intrauterine and postnatal inflammation, with a concomitant decrease in collagen content and increased inflammation of the atherosclerotic plaque. In conclusion, pre- and postnatal inflammation have additive and deleterious effects on the development of atherosclerosis in ApoE knockout mice. The findings are particularly relevant to preterm human infants, whose gestations are frequently complicated by chorioamnionitis and who are particularly susceptible to repeated postnatal infections. Human and mechanistic studies are warranted to guide preventative strategies.

10.
J Interpers Violence ; : 886260519831380, 2019 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827141

RESUMO

African American youth are disproportionately represented among trauma-exposed youth; yet, they are significantly less likely to access and complete mental health services. Research suggests that barriers to accessing and engaging in trauma-focused treatment include both logistical factors and engagement factors. This multiple case study sought to illustrate the initial feasibility and acceptability of delivering culturally tailored, trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) via telehealth in a school setting with three African American youth presenting with multiple barriers to accessing treatment. Barriers to treatment, telehealth modifications, and cultural tailoring are described for each participant. The UCLA Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (UCLA PTSD-RI) was completed at pretreatment and posttreatment. Results demonstrated significant decreases in symptoms of posttraumatic stress, as evidenced by a reduction in total UCLA PTSD-RI scores to nonclinical levels for all participants at posttreatment (UCLA scores posttreatment = 8-12). In addition, at posttreatment no participants met diagnostic criteria for PTSD or adjustment disorder. This multiple case study provides preliminary support for school-based, culturally tailored TF-CBT delivered via telehealth with African American youth.

11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(1): e186816, 2019 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30646196

RESUMO

Importance: Health departments can be grouped together based on sociodemographic characteristics of the population served. Comparisons within these groups can then help with monitoring and improving the health of their populations. Objective: To compare county-level percentile rankings on outcomes of smoking, motor vehicle crash deaths, and obesity within sociodemographic peer clusters vs nationwide rankings. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional, population-based study of demographic and health data from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and the 2016 Robert Wood Johnson Foundation County Health Rankings data set was conducted at 3139 of 3143 US counties and county-equivalents. Four locations were excluded due to incomplete data. Data analysis was conducted between January and August 2017. Exposures: Random forest algorithms were used to identify sociodemographic characteristics most associated with the outcomes of interest. These characteristics were race and ethnicity, educational attainment, age, marital status, employment status, sex, and health insurance status. k-means clustering was used to cluster counties based on these sociodemographic characteristics and the percentage of the county classified as rural. Main Outcomes and Measures: County-level smoking prevalence, motor vehicle crash death rate, and obesity prevalence. County percentile rankings on the outcomes of interest were compared in the national context and the within-cluster context. Results: A total of 318 856 967 individuals (mean [SD] individuals per county, 101 579.2 [326 315]; 161 911 910 women [50.8%]) were represented by the 3139 counties used in this analysis. Eight distinct sociodemographic clusters throughout the United States were found. Cluster-specific percentile rankings for both smoking prevalence and motor vehicle crash death rates improved more than 70 percentile points for several counties in the rural, American Indian cluster compared with the nationwide percentiles. Conversely, the young, urban, middle to high socioeconomic status cluster included counties with cluster-specific percentile rankings that declined by 60 percentile points or more compared with the nationwide rankings for all 3 outcomes of interest. Conclusions and Relevance: Comparing county health outcomes on a nationwide or statewide basis fails to adequately account for sociodemographic context. Clustering counties by sociodemographic factors related to the outcome of interest allows a better understanding of other factors that may be shaping the prevalence of health outcomes. These groupings may also aid learning exchange.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Obesidade , Fumar , Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade , Acidentes de Trânsito/psicologia , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Maryland/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Prevalência , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
Respir Res ; 19(1): 155, 2018 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30126423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal glucocorticoid treatment decreases alveolar tissue volumes and facilitates fetal lung maturation, however the mechanisms responsible are largely unknown. This study examines whether changes in versican levels or sulphation patterns of chondroitin sulphate (CS) side chains, are associated with glucocorticoid-induced reductions in peri-alveolar tissue volumes. METHODS: Lung tissue was collected from 1) fetal sheep at 131 ± 0.1 days gestational age (GA) infused with cortisol (122-131d GA) to prematurely induce a pre-parturient-like rise in circulating cortisol, 2) fetal sheep at 143d GA bilaterally adrenalectomised (ADX) at 112d GA to remove endogenous cortisol and 3) fetal sheep at 124d GA in which bolus doses (2 × 11.4 mg) of betamethasone were administered to the pregnant ewe. The level and distribution of versican and CS glycosaminoglycans (GAG) were determined using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Fluorophore assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE) was used to determine changes in CS sulphation patterns. RESULTS: Cortisol infusion significantly decreased chondrotin-6-sulphate levels (C-6-S) to 16.4 ± 0.7 AU, compared with saline-infused fetuses (18.9 ± 0.7 AU: p = 0.04) but did not significantly alter the level of versican or chondroitin-4-sulphate (C-4-S). ADX significantly increased the level of C-4-S (28.2 ± 2.2 AU), compared with sham-operated fetuses (17.8 ± 2.0 AU; p = 0.006) without altering versican or C-6-S levels. Betamethasone significantly decreased versican, C-4-S and C-6-S in the fetal sheep lung (19.2 ± 0.9 AU, 24.9 ± 1.4 AU and 23.2 ± 1.0 AU, respectively), compared with saline-exposed fetuses (24.3 ± 0.4 AU, p = 0.0004; 33.3±0.6 AU, p = 0.0003; 29.8±1.3 AU, 0.03, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that glucocorticoids alter versican levels and CS side chain microstructure in alveolar lung tissue. Betamethasone appears to have a greater impact on versican and CS side chains than cortisol.


Assuntos
Sulfatos de Condroitina/biossíntese , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Proteoglicanas/biossíntese , Versicanas/biossíntese , Animais , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feto , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gravidez , Ovinos
13.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 11412, 2018 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30061729

RESUMO

Phase contrast X-ray imaging (PCXI) is an emerging imaging modality that has the potential to greatly improve radiography for medical imaging and materials analysis. PCXI makes it possible to visualise soft-tissue structures that are otherwise unresolved with conventional CT by rendering phase gradients in the X-ray wavefield visible. This can improve the contrast resolution of soft tissues structures, like the lungs and brain, by orders of magnitude. Phase retrieval suppresses noise, revealing weakly-attenuating soft tissue structures, however it does not remove the artefacts from the highly attenuating bone of the skull and from imperfections in the imaging system that can obscure those structures. The primary causes of these artefacts are investigated and a simple method to visualise the features they obstruct is proposed, which can easily be implemented for preclinical animal studies. We show that phase contrast X-ray CT (PCXI-CT) can resolve the soft tissues of the brain in situ without a need for contrast agents at a dose ~400 times lower than would be required by standard absorption contrast CT. We generalise a well-known phase retrieval algorithm for multiple-material samples specifically for CT, validate its use for brain CT, and demonstrate its high stability in the presence of noise.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Animais , Artefatos , Simulação por Computador , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Coelhos
14.
Public Health Nutr ; 21(13): 2523-2525, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29708088

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Doctors play an important role in the identification of nutritional disorders and as advocates for a healthy diet, and although the key tenets of good nutrition education for medical students have been discussed, reports on implementation are sparse. The present commentary responds to a gap in UK medical students' understanding of nutrition and public health and suggests ways to improve it. DESIGN: We review literature about nutrition education in medical schools and discuss a 6-week elective in public health nutrition for medical students. We discuss suggested competencies in nutrition and compare means of students' confidence and knowledge before and after. SETTING: A nutrition and public health elective in a UK medical school, discussing advocacy, motivational interviewing, supplements, nutritional deficits, parenteral nutrition, obesity services. We utilised multidisciplinary teaching approaches including dietitians, managers and pharmacists, and students implemented a public health activity in a local school. SUBJECTS: Fifteen final-year medical students were enrolled; sixty school pupils participated in the public health activity. RESULTS: The students were not confident in nutrition competencies before and were taught less than European counterparts. Students enjoyed the course, had improved knowledge, and felt more confident in interviewing and prescribing supplements. Feedback from the local school was positive. CONCLUSIONS: Students in our UK medical school were not confident in their required competencies within the confines of the current educational programme. An elective course can improve medical students' knowledge. Similar courses could be implemented in other medical schools to improve nutrition and public health knowledge and practice in future doctors.


Assuntos
Educação Médica/métodos , Ciências da Nutrição/educação , Saúde Pública/educação , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adulto , Competência Clínica , Currículo , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Reino Unido
15.
Dev Neurosci ; 40(2): 162-174, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29763885

RESUMO

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can lead to adverse neurodevelopmental sequelae in postnatal life. However, the effects of IUGR on the cerebellum are still to be fully elucidated. A major determinant of growth and development of the cerebellum is proliferation and subsequent migration of cerebellar granule cells. Our objective was to determine whether IUGR, induced by chronic placental insufficiency (CPI) in guinea pigs, results in abnormal cerebellar development due to deficits suggestive of impaired granule cell proliferation and/or migration. CPI was induced by unilateral ligation of the uterine artery at mid-gestation, producing growth-restricted (GR) foetuses at 52 and 60 days of gestation (dg), and neonates at 1 week postnatal age (term approx. 67 dg). Controls were from sham-operated animals. In GR foetuses compared with controls at 52 dg, the external granular layer (EGL) width and internal granular layer (IGL) area were similar. In GR foetuses compared with controls at 60 dg: (a) the EGL width was greater (p < 0.005); (b) the IGL area was smaller (p < 0.005); (c) the density of Ki67-negative (postmitotic) granule cells in the EGL was greater (p < 0.01); (d) the somal area of Purkinje cells was reduced (p < 0.005), and (e) the linear density of Bergmann glia was similar. The EGL width in GR foetuses at 60 dg was comparable to that of 52 dg control and GR foetuses. The pattern of p27-immunoreactivity in the EGL was the inverse of Ki67-immunoreactivity at both foetal ages; there was no difference between control and GR foetuses at either age in the width of p27-immunoreactivity, or in the percentage of the EGL width that it occupied. In the molecular layer of GR neonates compared with controls there was an increase in the areal density of granule cells (p < 0.05) and in the percentage of migrating to total number of granule cells (p < 0.01) at 1 week but not at 60 dg (p > 0.05). Thus, we found no specific evidence that IUGR affects granule cell proliferation, but it alters the normal program of migration to the IGL and, in addition, the development of Purkinje cells. Such alterations will likely affect the development of appropriate circuitry and have implications for cerebellar function.


Assuntos
Cerebelo/embriologia , Cerebelo/patologia , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/patologia , Neurônios/patologia , Animais , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Feto , Cobaias , Neurogênese/fisiologia , Gravidez
16.
Violence Against Women ; 24(12): 1413-1432, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29332548

RESUMO

Predictors of victim injury from intimate partner violence (IPV) were investigated using 1,292 police reports collected in South Carolina in 2009/2010. All cases were opposite sex adults. Results from bivariate statistics showed that IPV cases with ( n = 649) and without visible injuries ( n = 643) differed on victim gender, victim race, type of relationship, and perpetrator's alcohol use. Results from a logistic regression analysis predicting victim injury showed higher odds ratios for males, Whites, and couples identified as cohabitants. Although most victims, including most injured victims, were Black women, males and Whites were overrepresented in the injured group.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Análise de Regressão , Distribuição por Sexo , South Carolina/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/classificação , Ferimentos e Lesões/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 103(2): F112-F119, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29054974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-invasive ventilation is sometimes unable to provide the respiratory needs of very premature infants in the delivery room. While airway obstruction is thought to be the main problem, the site of obstruction is unknown. We investigated whether closure of the larynx and epiglottis is a major site of airway obstruction. METHODS: We used phase contrast X-ray imaging to visualise laryngeal function in spontaneously breathing premature rabbits immediately after birth and at approximately 1 hour after birth. Non-invasive respiratory support was applied via a facemask and images were analysed to determine the percentage of the time the glottis and the epiglottis were open. HYPOTHESIS: Immediately after birth, the larynx is predominantly closed, only opening briefly during a breath, making non-invasive intermittent positive pressure ventilation (iPPV) ineffective, whereas after lung aeration, the larynx is predominantly open allowing non-invasive iPPV to ventilate the lung. RESULTS: The larynx and epiglottis were predominantly closed (open 25.5%±1.1% and 17.1%±1.6% of the time, respectively) in pups with unaerated lungs and unstable breathing patterns immediately after birth. In contrast, the larynx and the epiglottis were mostly open (90.5%±1.9% and 72.3%±2.3% of the time, respectively) in pups with aerated lungs and stable breathing patterns irrespective of time after birth. CONCLUSION: Laryngeal closure impedes non-invasive iPPV at birth and may reduce the effectiveness of non-invasive respiratory support in premature infants immediately after birth.


Assuntos
Laringe/fisiologia , Pulmão/fisiologia , Ventilação não Invasiva , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Epiglote/diagnóstico por imagem , Epiglote/fisiologia , Glote/diagnóstico por imagem , Glote/fisiologia , Laringe/diagnóstico por imagem , Coelhos
18.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 15953, 2017 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29162913

RESUMO

Phase-contrast X-ray imaging can improve the visibility of weakly absorbing objects (e.g. soft tissues) by an order of magnitude or more compared to conventional radiographs. Combining phase retrieval with computed tomography (CT) can increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by up to two orders of magnitude over conventional CT at the same radiation dose, without loss of image quality. Our experiments reveal that as the radiation dose decreases, the relative improvement in SNR increases. We show that this enhancement can be traded for a reduction in dose greater than the square of the gain in SNR. Upon reducing the dose 300 fold, the phase-retrieved SNR was still up to 9.6 ± 0.2 times larger than the absorption contrast data with spatial resolution in the tens of microns. We show that this theoretically reveals the potential for dose reduction factors in the tens of thousands without loss in image quality, which would have a profound impact on medical and industrial imaging applications.


Assuntos
Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Coelhos , Razão Sinal-Ruído , Raios X
19.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 123(5): 1204-1213, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28775070

RESUMO

Excessive liquid in airways and/or distal lung tissue may underpin the respiratory morbidity associated with transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN). However, its effects on lung aeration and respiratory function following birth are unknown. We investigated the effect of elevated airway liquid volumes on newborn respiratory function. Near-term rabbit kittens (30 days gestation; term ~32 days) were delivered, had their lung liquid-drained, and either had no liquid replaced (control; n = 7) or 30 ml/kg of liquid re-added to the airways [liquid added (LA); n = 7]. Kittens were mechanically ventilated in a plethysmograph. Measures of chest and lung parameters, uniformity of lung aeration, and airway size were analyzed using phase contrast X-ray imaging. The maximum peak inflation pressure required to recruit a tidal volume of 8 ml/kg was significantly greater in LA compared with control kittens (35.0 ± 0.7 vs. 26.8 ± 0.4 cmH2O, P < 0.001). LA kittens required greater time to achieve lung aeration (106 ± 14 vs. 60 ± 6 inflations, P = 0.03) and had expanded chest walls, as evidenced by an increased total chest area (32 ± 9%, P < 0.0001), lung height (17 ± 6%, P = 0.02), and curvature of the diaphragm (19 ± 8%, P = 0.04). LA kittens had lower functional residual capacity during stepwise changes in positive end-expiratory pressures (5, 3, 0, and 5 cmH20). Elevated lung liquid volumes had marked adverse effects on lung structure and function in the immediate neonatal period and reduced the ability of the lung to aerate efficiently. We speculate that elevated airway liquid volumes may underlie the initial morbidity in near-term babies with TTN after birth.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Transient tachypnea of the newborn reduces respiratory function in newborns and is thought to result due to elevated airway liquid volumes following birth. However, the effect of elevated airway liquid volumes on neonatal respiratory function is unknown. Using phase contrast X-ray imaging, we show that elevated airway liquid volumes have adverse effects on lung structure and function in the immediate newborn period, which may underlie the pathology of TTN in near-term babies after birth.


Assuntos
Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Taquipneia Transitória do Recém-Nascido/diagnóstico por imagem , Taquipneia Transitória do Recém-Nascido/fisiopatologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Feminino , Pulmão/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Medidas de Volume Pulmonar/métodos , Gravidez , Coelhos , Testes de Função Respiratória/métodos
20.
Pediatr Res ; 82(3): 536-543, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28399114

RESUMO

BackgroundA congenital diaphragmatic hernia (DH) can result in severe lung hypoplasia that increases the risk of morbidity and mortality after birth; however, little is known about the cardiorespiratory transition at birth.MethodsUsing phase-contrast X-ray imaging and angiography, we examined the cardiorespiratory transition at birth in rabbit kittens with DHs. Surgery was performed on pregnant New Zealand white rabbits (n=18) at 25 days' gestation to induce a left-sided DH. Kittens were delivered at 30 days' gestation, intubated, and ventilated to achieve a tidal volume (Vt) of 8 ml/kg in control and 4 ml/kg in DH kittens while they were imaged.ResultsFunctional residual capacity (FRC) recruitment and Vt in the hypoplastic left lung were markedly reduced, resulting in a disproportionate distribution of FRC into the right lung. Following lung aeration, relative pulmonary blood flow (PBF) increased equally in both lungs, and the increase in pulmonary venous return was similar in both control and DH kittens.ConclusionThese findings indicate that nonuniform lung hypoplasia caused by DH alters the distribution of ventilation away from hypoplastic and into normally grown lung regions. During transition, the increase in PBF and pulmonary venous return, which is vital for maintaining cardiac output, is not affected by lung hypoplasia.


Assuntos
Hérnias Diafragmáticas Congênitas/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/irrigação sanguínea , Ventilação Pulmonar , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Feminino , Hérnias Diafragmáticas Congênitas/diagnóstico por imagem , Hérnias Diafragmáticas Congênitas/patologia , Gravidez , Coelhos , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar
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