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1.
Chest ; 160(2): e173-e176, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366039

RESUMO

Sweet's Syndrome (SS), also known as acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis, is one of several cutaneous inflammatory disorders classified as neutrophilic dermatoses. Respiratory complications are described in <50 cases in the literature,1 without prior report of lung transplantation (LT). This article explains the clinical course of the first patient to receive LT for pulmonary SS and presents evidence suggesting recurrence of the primary lung disease in the allograft.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4884, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385460

RESUMO

Pathology is practiced by visual inspection of histochemically stained tissue slides. While the hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain is most commonly used, special stains can provide additional contrast to different tissue components. Here, we demonstrate the utility of supervised learning-based computational stain transformation from H&E to special stains (Masson's Trichrome, periodic acid-Schiff and Jones silver stain) using kidney needle core biopsy tissue sections. Based on the evaluation by three renal pathologists, followed by adjudication by a fourth pathologist, we show that the generation of virtual special stains from existing H&E images improves the diagnosis of several non-neoplastic kidney diseases, sampled from 58 unique subjects (P = 0.0095). A second study found that the quality of the computationally generated special stains was statistically equivalent to those which were histochemically stained. This stain-to-stain transformation framework can improve preliminary diagnoses when additional special stains are needed, also providing significant savings in time and cost.


Assuntos
Biópsia com Agulha de Grande Calibre/métodos , Aprendizado Profundo , Diagnóstico por Computador/métodos , Nefropatias/patologia , Rim/patologia , Coloração e Rotulagem/métodos , Algoritmos , Corantes/química , Corantes/classificação , Corantes/normas , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Nefropatias/diagnóstico , Patologia Clínica/métodos , Patologia Clínica/normas , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Coloração e Rotulagem/normas
3.
Clin Nephrol ; 95(5): 278-282, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624585

RESUMO

IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a newly recognized multi-organ fibro-inflammatory condition with characteristic histopathological findings of increased IgG4+ plasma cells in tissue and usually with increased IgG4 serum levels. Kidney involvement in IgG4-RD has been well described since 2006. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has reportedly been associated with nodal IgG4-RD, but not in extra-nodal disease. We report a case of renal IgG4-RD in the setting of acute EBV infection in a young healthy man, resulting in severe renal failure. Biopsy of kidney revealed IgG4+ plasma cell-rich tubulointerstitial nephritis, tissue eosinophilia, early-stage membranous nephropathy, and scattered EBV-positive cells. Oral prednisone and acyclovir only partially rescued his renal function.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/complicações , Doença Relacionada a Imunoglobulina G4/etiologia , Imunoglobulina G/análise , Adulto , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/etiologia , Humanos , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Nefrite Intersticial/etiologia , Nefrite Intersticial/patologia , Plasmócitos/química , Insuficiência Renal/etiologia
4.
Comput Biol Med ; 131: 104253, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601084

RESUMO

Large numbers of histopathological images have been digitized into high resolution whole slide images, opening opportunities in developing computational image analysis tools to reduce pathologists' workload and potentially improve inter- and intra-observer agreement. Most previous work on whole slide image analysis has focused on classification or segmentation of small pre-selected regions-of-interest, which requires fine-grained annotation and is non-trivial to extend for large-scale whole slide analysis. In this paper, we proposed a multi-resolution multiple instance learning model that leverages saliency maps to detect suspicious regions for fine-grained grade prediction. Instead of relying on expensive region- or pixel-level annotations, our model can be trained end-to-end with only slide-level labels. The model is developed on a large-scale prostate biopsy dataset containing 20,229 slides from 830 patients. The model achieved 92.7% accuracy, 81.8% Cohen's Kappa for benign, low grade (i.e. Grade group 1) and high grade (i.e. Grade group ≥ 2) prediction, an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 98.2% and an average precision (AP) of 97.4% for differentiating malignant and benign slides. The model obtained an AUROC of 99.4% and an AP of 99.8% for cancer detection on an external dataset.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Biópsia , Humanos , Masculino , Gradação de Tumores , Curva ROC
5.
Cell Rep ; 29(11): 3488-3505.e9, 2019 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825831

RESUMO

Progressive organ fibrosis accounts for one-third of all deaths worldwide, yet preclinical models that mimic the complex, progressive nature of the disease are lacking, and hence, there are no curative therapies. Progressive fibrosis across organs shares common cellular and molecular pathways involving chronic injury, inflammation, and aberrant repair resulting in deposition of extracellular matrix, organ remodeling, and ultimately organ failure. We describe the generation and characterization of an in vitro progressive fibrosis model that uses cell types derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. Our model produces endogenous activated transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß) and contains activated fibroblastic aggregates that progressively increase in size and stiffness with activation of known fibrotic molecular and cellular changes. We used this model as a phenotypic drug discovery platform for modulators of fibrosis. We validated this platform by identifying a compound that promotes resolution of fibrosis in in vivo and ex vivo models of ocular and lung fibrosis.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/patologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
6.
J Pathol Inform ; 10: 31, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31620310

RESUMO

Background: The need for extending pathology diagnostic expertise to more areas is now being met by the maturation of technology that can effectively deliver this level of care. The experience and lessons learned from our successfully deployed International Telepathology Service (ITS) to a hospital system in China guided us in starting a domestic telepathology network, the California Telepathology Service (CTS). Many of the lessons learned from the ITS project informed our decision-making for the CTS. New challenges were recognized and overcome, such as addressing the complexity and cost-benefit tradeoffs involved in setting up a digital consultation system that competes with an established conventional glass slide delivery system. Methods: The CTS is based on a hub-and-spoke telepathology network using Leica Biosystems whole-slide image scanners and the eSlide Manager (eSM Version 12.3.3.7055, Leica Biosystems) digital image management software solution. The service currently comprises six spoke sites (UC San Diego [UCSD], UC Irvine [UCI], UC Davis, Northridge Hospital Medical Center [NHMC], Olive View Medical Center [OVMC], and Children's Hospital Los Angeles) and one central hub site (UCLA Medical Center). So far, five sites have been validated for telepathology case consultations following established practice guidelines, and four sites (UCI, UCSD, NHMC, and OVMC) have activated the service. Results: For the active spoke sites, we reviewed the volume, turnaround time (TAT), and case types and evaluated for utility and value. From May 2017 to July 2018, a total of 165 cases were submitted. Of note, digital consultations were particularly advantageous for preliminary kidney biopsy diagnoses (avg TAT 0.7 day). Conclusion: For spoke sites, telepathology provided shortened TAT and significant financial savings over hiring faculty with expertise to support a potentially low-volume service. For the hub site, the value includes exposure to educationally valuable cases, additional caseload volume to support specialized services, and improved communication with referring facilities over traditional carrier mail. The creation of a hub-and-spoke telepathology network is an expensive undertaking, and careful consideration needs to be given to support the needs of the clinical services, acquisition and effective deployment of the appropriate equipment, network requirements, and laboratory workflows to ensure a successful and cost-effective system.

7.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 3(6): 466-477, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142829

RESUMO

The histological analysis of tissue samples, widely used for disease diagnosis, involves lengthy and laborious tissue preparation. Here, we show that a convolutional neural network trained using a generative adversarial-network model can transform wide-field autofluorescence images of unlabelled tissue sections into images that are equivalent to the bright-field images of histologically stained versions of the same samples. A blind comparison, by board-certified pathologists, of this virtual staining method and standard histological staining using microscopic images of human tissue sections of the salivary gland, thyroid, kidney, liver and lung, and involving different types of stain, showed no major discordances. The virtual-staining method bypasses the typically labour-intensive and costly histological staining procedures, and could be used as a blueprint for the virtual staining of tissue images acquired with other label-free imaging modalities.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Coloração e Rotulagem , Algoritmos , Fluorescência , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Melaninas/metabolismo , Redes Neurais de Computação , Padrões de Referência
8.
Circulation ; 139(19): 2238-2255, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30759996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deficiencies of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters, metal complexes that control redox state and mitochondrial metabolism, have been linked to pulmonary hypertension (PH), a deadly vascular disease with poorly defined molecular origins. BOLA3 (BolA Family Member 3) regulates Fe-S biogenesis, and mutations in BOLA3 result in multiple mitochondrial dysfunction syndrome, a fatal disorder associated with PH. The mechanistic role of BOLA3 in PH remains undefined. METHODS: In vitro assessment of BOLA3 regulation and gain- and loss-of-function assays were performed in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells using siRNA and lentiviral vectors expressing the mitochondrial isoform of BOLA3. Polymeric nanoparticle 7C1 was used for lung endothelium-specific delivery of BOLA3 siRNA oligonucleotides in mice. Overexpression of pulmonary vascular BOLA3 was performed by orotracheal transgene delivery of adeno-associated virus in mouse models of PH. RESULTS: In cultured hypoxic pulmonary artery endothelial cells, lung from human patients with Group 1 and 3 PH, and multiple rodent models of PH, endothelial BOLA3 expression was downregulated, which involved hypoxia inducible factor-2α-dependent transcriptional repression via histone deacetylase 1-mediated histone deacetylation. In vitro gain- and loss-of-function studies demonstrated that BOLA3 regulated Fe-S integrity, thus modulating lipoate-containing 2-oxoacid dehydrogenases with consequent control over glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration. In contexts of siRNA knockdown and naturally occurring human genetic mutation, cellular BOLA3 deficiency downregulated the glycine cleavage system protein H, thus bolstering intracellular glycine content. In the setting of these alterations of oxidative metabolism and glycine levels, BOLA3 deficiency increased endothelial proliferation, survival, and vasoconstriction while decreasing angiogenic potential. In vivo, pharmacological knockdown of endothelial BOLA3 and targeted overexpression of BOLA3 in mice demonstrated that BOLA3 deficiency promotes histological and hemodynamic manifestations of PH. Notably, the therapeutic effects of BOLA3 expression were reversed by exogenous glycine supplementation. CONCLUSIONS: BOLA3 acts as a crucial lynchpin connecting Fe-S-dependent oxidative respiration and glycine homeostasis with endothelial metabolic reprogramming critical to PH pathogenesis. These results provide a molecular explanation for the clinical associations linking PH with hyperglycinemic syndromes and mitochondrial disorders. These findings also identify novel metabolic targets, including those involved in epigenetics, Fe-S biogenesis, and glycine biology, for diagnostic and therapeutic development.


Assuntos
Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Glicina/metabolismo , Hipertensão Pulmonar/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Respiração Celular , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/metabolismo , Lactente , Proteínas Ferro-Enxofre/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Mutação/genética , Oxirredução , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Adulto Jovem
9.
Sci Transl Med ; 10(467)2018 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429355

RESUMO

The diagnostic definition of indeterminate lung nodules as malignant or benign poses a major challenge for clinicians. We discovered a potential marker, the sodium-dependent glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2), whose activity identified metabolically active lung premalignancy and early-stage lung adenocarcinoma (LADC). We found that SGLT2 is expressed early in lung tumorigenesis and is found specifically in premalignant lesions and well-differentiated adenocarcinomas. SGLT2 activity could be detected in vivo by positron emission tomography (PET) with the tracer methyl 4-deoxy-4-[18F] fluoro-alpha-d-glucopyranoside (Me4FDG), which specifically detects SGLT activity. Using a combination of immunohistochemistry and Me4FDG PET, we identified high expression and functional activity of SGLT2 in lung premalignancy and early-stage/low-grade LADC. Furthermore, selective targeting of SGLT2 with FDA-approved small-molecule inhibitors, the gliflozins, greatly reduced tumor growth and prolonged survival in autochthonous mouse models and patient-derived xenografts of LADC. Targeting SGLT2 in lung tumors may intercept lung cancer progression at early stages of development by pairing Me4FDG PET imaging with therapy using SGLT2 inhibitors.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/diagnóstico , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Transportador 2 de Glucose-Sódio/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos SCID , Camundongos Transgênicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/metabolismo , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/farmacologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
10.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med ; 39(4): 425-433, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30404110

RESUMO

Vasculitides are a heterogeneous group of disorders in which inflammation of blood vessel walls is present at least some time during the course of the disease. Vasculitides can affect any caliber or type of vessel in many anatomic sites; however, the disease can alter more than just vasculature. Given the diversity of vasculitides, in 2012, a revised classification system was proposed to categorize vasculitides by the type of vessel involved including size, function, and structural attributes. In the lung, vasculitis impacts both the pulmonary vessels and parenchyma. Extrapulmonary involvement, particularly with concomitant kidney involvement, is a frequent occurrence. Pulmonary vasculitides often present with hemoptysis, pathologically manifested as diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) with or without capillaritis and can be life threatening when diffuse throughout the lungs. Etiologies for DAH include both primary and secondary vasculitides, along with collagen-vascular diseases, infection, and drug toxicity. Therefore, diagnosing the specific vasculitic etiology often relies on comprehensive assessment of all clinical, laboratory/serological, imaging, and histopathologic features that may be present. The most common primary pulmonary vasculitides often affect small vessels and are associated with circulating antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs). In the 2012 classification, these include granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly Wegener granulomatosis), eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly Churg-Strauss' syndrome), and microscopic polyangiitis. Other less frequent vasculitides that are non-ANCA associated or affect medium- to large-sized vessels can have pulmonary involvement. These entities are usually associated with extrapulmonary disease and include polyarteritis nodosa, Takayasu's arteritis, Behçet's disease, and antibasement membrane antibody disease (formerly Goodpasture's syndrome). Although all vasculitides have vessel wall inflammation at some phase in the disease process, their histopathologic findings are as diverse as the group of diseases themselves. The characteristic histologic findings of the pulmonary vasculitides will be reviewed here.


Assuntos
Hemorragia/etiologia , Alvéolos Pulmonares/patologia , Vasculite/patologia , Anticorpos Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/sangue , Síndrome de Churg-Strauss/complicações , Síndrome de Churg-Strauss/patologia , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/complicações , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/patologia , Humanos , Poliangiite Microscópica/complicações , Poliangiite Microscópica/patologia , Vasculite/complicações
11.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med ; 39(2): 155-171, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29579768

RESUMO

Lung transplantation has become an established therapeutic option for a variety of end-stage lung diseases. Technical advances in graft procurement, implantation, perioperative care, immunosuppression, and posttransplant medical management have led to significant improvements in 1-year survival, but outcomes after the first year have improved minimally over the last two decades. The main limitation to better long-term survival after lung transplantation is chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD). CLAD also impairs quality of life and increases the costs of medical care. Our understanding of CLAD manifestations, risk factors, and mechanisms is rapidly evolving. Recognition of different CLAD phenotypes (e.g., bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome and restrictive allograft syndrome) and the unique pathogenic mechanisms will be important for developing novel therapies. In addition to alloimmune-mediated rejection, we now recognize the importance of alloimmune-independent mechanisms of injury to the allograft. CLAD is the consequence of dysregulated repair of allograft injury. Unfortunately, currently available therapies for CLAD are usually not effective. However, the advances in knowledge, reviewed in this manuscript, should lead to novel strategies for CLAD prevention and treatment, as well as improvement in long-term outcomes after lung transplantation. We provide an overview of the evolving terminology related to CLAD, its varying clinical phenotypes and their diagnosis, natural history, pathogenesis, and potential treatments.


Assuntos
Rejeição de Enxerto/imunologia , Transplante de Pulmão/efeitos adversos , Pulmão/cirurgia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Aloenxertos/fisiopatologia , Animais , Bronquiolite Obliterante/fisiopatologia , Doença Crônica , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Transplante de Pulmão/mortalidade , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Reoperação , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med ; 39(6): 637-648, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30641581

RESUMO

Transbronchial lung cryobiopsy (TBLCB) is a relatively new and promising technique for the acquisition of larger amounts of higher quality lung tissue for the diagnosis of lung diseases. There is a growing body of literature describing a diagnostic yield comparable to surgical lung biopsy with a favorable safety profile. Due to its advantages TBLCB has garnered significant interest with more institutions beginning to adopt this technique. However, several questions remain including its role in the diagnostic algorithm, indications, and technique. Herein we provide a review of the available literature describing diagnostic yield, complications, and differing techniques as well as a perspective from pathology.


Assuntos
Broncoscopia/métodos , Criocirurgia/métodos , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico , Biópsia/métodos , Broncoscopia/efeitos adversos , Criocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Pneumopatias/patologia
13.
Cancer ; 123(24): 4800-4807, 2017 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29125624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical trials in lung cancer increasingly require patients to provide fresh tumor tissue as a prerequisite to enrollment. The effects of this requirement on enrollment rates, enrollment durations, and patient selection have not been fully elucidated. METHODS: The authors retrospectively reviewed data generated by patients who consented to 1 or more interventional lung cancer clinical trials at the University of California-Los Angeles Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center between January 2013 and December 2014. Trials were considered to require a biopsy when enrollment was conditional on the procurement of tissue without intervening therapy between procurement and enrollment. RESULTS: In total, 311 patients underwent 368 screening incidents for 1 or more of 19 trials. Trials that required a new biopsy had a longer median screening duration (34 vs 14 days) than trials that did not require a biopsy (P < .001). Trials that required a biopsy had a greater screen failure rate (49.1% vs 26.5%; P < .001), which was largely driven by patients who did not undergo the required biopsy or lacked the required biomarker. Worsening performance status led to the majority of screen failures (56.5%) among biomarker-eligible patients. CONCLUSIONS: Although the scientific benefits of obtaining a new biopsy and requiring specific results for trial enrollment are clear, these requirements lead to a lengthening of the screening period, which, in some patients, is associated with clinical decline before enrollment. Implications for the interpretation of data from studies of this design should be explored. Cancer 2017;123:4800-7. © 2017 American Cancer Society.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Seleção de Pacientes , Adulto , Biópsia por Agulha , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Modelos Logísticos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
J Clin Invest ; 126(9): 3313-35, 2016 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27548520

RESUMO

Dysregulation of vascular stiffness and cellular metabolism occurs early in pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, the mechanisms by which biophysical properties of the vascular extracellular matrix (ECM) relate to metabolic processes important in PH remain undefined. In this work, we examined cultured pulmonary vascular cells and various types of PH-diseased lung tissue and determined that ECM stiffening resulted in mechanoactivation of the transcriptional coactivators YAP and TAZ (WWTR1). YAP/TAZ activation modulated metabolic enzymes, including glutaminase (GLS1), to coordinate glutaminolysis and glycolysis. Glutaminolysis, an anaplerotic pathway, replenished aspartate for anabolic biosynthesis, which was critical for sustaining proliferation and migration within stiff ECM. In vitro, GLS1 inhibition blocked aspartate production and reprogrammed cellular proliferation pathways, while application of aspartate restored proliferation. In the monocrotaline rat model of PH, pharmacologic modulation of pulmonary vascular stiffness and YAP-dependent mechanotransduction altered glutaminolysis, pulmonary vascular proliferation, and manifestations of PH. Additionally, pharmacologic targeting of GLS1 in this model ameliorated disease progression. Notably, evaluation of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected nonhuman primates and HIV-infected subjects revealed a correlation between YAP/TAZ-GLS activation and PH. These results indicate that ECM stiffening sustains vascular cell growth and migration through YAP/TAZ-dependent glutaminolysis and anaplerosis, and thereby link mechanical stimuli to dysregulated vascular metabolism. Furthermore, this study identifies potential metabolic drug targets for therapeutic development in PH.


Assuntos
Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Hipertensão Pulmonar/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Rigidez Vascular , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Criança , Colágeno/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mecanotransdução Celular , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transativadores , Fatores de Transcrição , Adulto Jovem
15.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 13(5): 627-35, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27144793

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The clinical course of chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) is heterogeneous. Forced vital capacity (FVC) loss at onset, which may suggest a restrictive phenotype, was associated with worse survival for bilateral lung transplant recipients in one previously published single-center study. OBJECTIVES: We sought to replicate the significance of FVC loss in an independent, retrospectively identified cohort of bilateral lung transplant recipients and to investigate extended application of this approach to single lung recipients. METHODS: FVC loss and other potential predictors of survival after the onset of CLAD were assessed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: FVC loss at the onset of CLAD was associated with higher mortality in an independent cohort of bilateral lung transplant recipients (hazard ratio [HR], 2.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.02-3.73; P < 0.0001) and in a multicenter cohort of single lung recipients (HR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.09-2.98; P = 0.02). Including all subjects, the deleterious impact of FVC loss on survival persisted after adjustment for other relevant clinical variables (HR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.77-3.15; P < 0.0001). In patients who develop CLAD without FVC loss, chest computed tomography features suggestive of pleural or parenchymal fibrosis also predicted worse survival in both bilateral (HR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.16-5.20; P = 0.02) and single recipients (HR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.24-10.57; P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: We independently validated the prognostic significance of FVC loss for bilateral lung recipients and demonstrated that this approach to CLAD classification also confers prognostic information for single lung transplant recipients. Improved understanding of these discrete phenotypes is critical to the development of effective therapies.


Assuntos
Transplante de Pulmão/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Pulmão/mortalidade , Disfunção Primária do Enxerto/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Aloenxertos , Bronquiolite Obliterante/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Estados Unidos , Capacidade Vital
16.
Acad Radiol ; 23(1): 90-100, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26521686

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The current paradigm of cancer diagnosis involves uncoordinated communication of findings from radiology and pathology to downstream physicians. Discordance between these findings can require additional time from downstream users to resolve, or given incorrect resolution, may adversely impact treatment decisions. To mitigate this problem, we developed a web-based system, called RadPath, for correlating and integrating radiology and pathology reporting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: RadPath includes interfaces to our institution's clinical information systems, which are used to retrieve reports, images, and test results that are structured into an interactive compendium for a diagnostic patient case. The system includes an editing interface for physicians, allowing for the inclusion of additional clinical data, as well as the ability to retrospectively correlate and contextualize imaging findings following pathology diagnosis. RESULTS: During pilot deployment and testing over the course of 1 year, physicians at our institution have completed 60 RadPath cases, requiring an average of 128 seconds from a radiologist and an average of 93 seconds from a pathologist per case. Several technical and workflow challenges were encountered during development, including interfacing with diverse clinical information systems, automatically structuring report contents, and determining the appropriate physicians to create RadPath summaries. Reaction to RadPath has been positive, with users valuing the system's ability to consolidate diagnostic information. CONCLUSIONS: With the increasing complexity of medicine and the movement toward team-based disease management, there is a need for improved clinical communication and information exchange. RadPath provides a platform for generating coherent and correlated diagnostic summaries in cancer diagnosis with minimal additional effort from physicians.


Assuntos
Internet , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Sistemas de Informação em Radiologia/organização & administração , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Humanos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Neoplasias/patologia , Radiologistas , Fluxo de Trabalho
17.
Cell Rep ; 13(5): 1016-32, 2015 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26565914

RESUMO

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a deadly vascular disease with enigmatic molecular origins. We found that vascular extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and stiffening are early and pervasive processes that promote PH. In multiple pulmonary vascular cell types, such ECM stiffening induced the microRNA-130/301 family via activation of the co-transcription factors YAP and TAZ. MicroRNA-130/301 controlled a PPAR?-APOE-LRP8 axis, promoting collagen deposition and LOX-dependent remodeling and further upregulating YAP/TAZ via a mechanoactive feedback loop. In turn, ECM remodeling controlled pulmonary vascular cell crosstalk via such mechanotransduction, modulation of secreted vasoactive effectors, and regulation of associated microRNA pathways. In vivo, pharmacologic inhibition of microRNA-130/301, APOE, or LOX activity ameliorated ECM remodeling and PH. Thus, ECM remodeling, as controlled by the YAP/TAZ-miR-130/301 feedback circuit, is an early PH trigger and offers combinatorial therapeutic targets for this devastating disease.


Assuntos
Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Hipertensão Pulmonar/metabolismo , Mecanotransdução Celular , MicroRNAs/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Apolipoproteínas E/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/patologia , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hipertensão Pulmonar/patologia , Proteínas Relacionadas a Receptor de LDL/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
18.
EMBO Mol Med ; 7(6): 695-713, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25825391

RESUMO

Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are essential for mitochondrial metabolism, but their regulation in pulmonary hypertension (PH) remains enigmatic. We demonstrate that alterations of the miR-210-ISCU1/2 axis cause Fe-S deficiencies in vivo and promote PH. In pulmonary vascular cells and particularly endothelium, hypoxic induction of miR-210 and repression of the miR-210 targets ISCU1/2 down-regulated Fe-S levels. In mouse and human vascular and endothelial tissue affected by PH, miR-210 was elevated accompanied by decreased ISCU1/2 and Fe-S integrity. In mice, miR-210 repressed ISCU1/2 and promoted PH. Mice deficient in miR-210, via genetic/pharmacologic means or via an endothelial-specific manner, displayed increased ISCU1/2 and were resistant to Fe-S-dependent pathophenotypes and PH. Similar to hypoxia or miR-210 overexpression, ISCU1/2 knockdown also promoted PH. Finally, cardiopulmonary exercise testing of a woman with homozygous ISCU mutations revealed exercise-induced pulmonary vascular dysfunction. Thus, driven by acquired (hypoxia) or genetic causes, the miR-210-ISCU1/2 regulatory axis is a pathogenic lynchpin causing Fe-S deficiency and PH. These findings carry broad translational implications for defining the metabolic origins of PH and potentially other metabolic diseases sharing similar underpinnings.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hipertensão Pulmonar/genética , Hipóxia/complicações , Proteínas Ferro-Enxofre/genética , Ferro/deficiência , MicroRNAs/genética , Enxofre/deficiência , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Células Endoteliais/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/patologia , Camundongos
19.
Acad Radiol ; 22(4): 481-7, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25601302

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to quantify the degree of imaging-histologic discordance in a cohort of patients undergoing computed tomography (CT)-guided lung biopsy for focal lung disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of 186 patients who underwent percutaneous lung biopsy of a parenchymal lesion at our institution between January and December 2009. Diagnostic radiology reports of CT or positron emission tomography-CTs performed before biopsy were used to classify the lesion as malignant or benign by five readers. Pathology reports of the biopsied lesions were classified by three readers. Inter-reader agreement and imaging-histologic concordance were quantified using kappa statistics. Discordant benign cases were then revisited to determine downstream effects. RESULTS: Inter-reader agreement on report content was substantial or almost perfect with kappas >0.783. Kappas for concordance were as follows: malignant (0.448), primary lung cancer (0.517), metastatic disease to lung (0.449), benign (0.510), and overall agreement (0.381). Of the twelve discordant benign cases that were revisited, four were found to be false negatives, resulting in a delay in diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our study of imaging-histologic discordance in percutaneous biopsy of lung lesions supports the need for imaging report standardization and improved integration and communication between the fields of radiology and pathology.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Radiografia Intervencionista/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biópsia por Agulha , Feminino , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Am J Med Genet A ; 164A(12): 3076-82, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25256560

RESUMO

Deletions of chromosome 17q12 [OMIM 614527] encompass a wide range of phenotypes, including renal cysts, diabetes mellitus, pancreatic structural abnormalities, genital tract anomalies, developmental delay, learning difficulties, and more recently, autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. To date, gastrointestinal malformations have not been fully characterized in this syndrome. In this case report, we describe a four-year-old girl with a 17q12 microdeletion who was born with duodenal atresia, bilateral renal cysts, left kidney dysplasia, a midline cystic structure at the conus medullaris, and dysmorphic features. Both the patient and her affected father were found to have a deletion of 17q12, which encompasses the HNF1B (hepatocyte nuclear factor beta). It is hypothesized that HNF1B may play a role in intestinal differentiation and development. Our clinical report further expands the pre-and post-natal presentation of this rare microdeletion syndrome.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17/genética , Obstrução Duodenal/genética , Fator 1-beta Nuclear de Hepatócito/deficiência , Fenótipo , Feminino , Fator 1-beta Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Humanos , Atresia Intestinal , Análise em Microsséries , Síndrome
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