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1.
Nanotechnology ; 34(3)2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36228546

RESUMO

2D boron nitride (2D-BN) was synthesized by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy on polycrystalline and monocrystalline Ni substrates using gaseous borazine and active nitrogen generated by a remote plasma source. The excess of nitrogen atoms allows to overcome the thickness self-limitation active on Ni when using borazine alone. The nucleation density and the shape of the 2D-BN domains are clearly related to the Ni substrate preparation and to the growth parameters. Based on spatially-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and on the detection of the π plasmon peak, we discuss the origin of the N1s and B1s components and their relationship with an electronic coupling at the interface. After optimization of the growth parameters, a full 2D-BN coverage is obtained, although the material thickness is not evenly distributed. The 2D-BN presents a granular structure on (111) oriented Ni grains, showing a rather poor cristallographic quality. On the contrary, high quality 2D-BN is found on (101) and (001) Ni grains, where triangular islands are observed whose lateral size is limited to ∼20µm.

2.
Nanoscale ; 14(16): 6075-6084, 2022 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35383814

RESUMO

Cross-plane electrical and thermal transport in thin films of a conducting polymer (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT) stabilized with trifluoromethanesulfonate (OTf) is investigated in this study. We explore their electrical properties by conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM), which reveals the presence of highly conductive nano-domains. Thermal conductivity in the cross-plane direction is measured by null-point scanning thermal microscopy (NP-SThM). PEDOT:OTf indeed demonstrates a non-negligible electronic contribution to the thermal transport. We further investigate the correlation between electrical and thermal conductivity by applying post-treatment: chemical reduction (de-doping) to lower charge carrier concentration and hence, electrical conductivity and acid treatment (over-doping) to increase the latter. From our measurements, we find a vibrational thermal conductivity of 0.34 ± 0.04 W m-1 K-1. From the linear dependence or the electronic contribution of thermal conductivity vs. the electronic conductivity (Wiedemann-Franz law), we infer a Lorenz number 6 times larger than the classical Sommerfeld value as also observed in many organic materials for in-plane thermal transport. By applying the recently proposed molecular Wiedemann-Franz law, we deduced a reorganization energy of 0.53 ± 0.06 eV.

3.
ACS Nano ; 16(2): 3081-3091, 2022 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35156366

RESUMO

Oriented attachment of colloidal quantum dots allows the growth of two-dimensional crystals by design, which could have striking electronic properties upon progress on manipulating their conductivity. Here, we explore the origin of doping in square and epitaxially fused PbSe quantum dot superlattices with low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. Probing the density of states of numerous individual quantum dots reveals an electronic coupling between the hole ground states of the quantum dots. Moreover, a small amount of quantum dots shows a reproducible deep level in the band gap, which is not caused by structural defects in the connections but arises from unpassivated sites at the {111} facets. Based on semiconductor statistics, these distinct defective quantum dots, randomly distributed in the superlattice, trap electrons, releasing a concentration of free holes, which is intimately related to the interdot electronic coupling. They act as acceptor quantum dots in the host quantum dot lattice, mimicking the role of dopant atoms in a semiconductor crystal.

4.
Nanoscale ; 13(14): 6977-6990, 2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33885499

RESUMO

We report the formation of self-assembled monolayers of a molecular photoswitch (azobenzene-bithiophene derivative, AzBT) on cobalt via a thiol covalent bond. We study the electrical properties of the molecular junctions formed with the tip of a conductive atomic force microscope under ultra-high vacuum. The statistical analysis of the current-voltage curves shows two distinct states of the molecule conductance, suggesting the coexistence of both the trans and cis azobenzene isomers on the surface. The cis isomer population (trans isomer) increases (decreases) upon UV light irradiation. The situation is reversed under blue light irradiation. The experiments are confronted to first-principle calculations performed on the molecular junctions with the Non-Equilibrium Green's Function formalism combined with Density Functional Theory (NEGF/DFT). The theoretical results consider two different molecular orientations for each isomer. Whereas the orientation does not affect the conductance of the trans isomer, it significantly modulates the conductance of the cis isomer and the resulting conductance ON/OFF ratio of the molecular junction. This helps identifying the molecular orientation at the origin of the observed current differences between the trans and cis forms. The ON state is associated to the trans isomer irrespective of its orientation in the junction, while the OFF state is identified as a cis isomer with its azobenzene moiety folded upward with respect to the bithiophene core. The experimental and calculated ON/OFF conductance ratios have a similar order of magnitude. This conductance ratio seems reasonable to make these Co-AzBT molecular junctions a good test-bed to further explore the relationship between the spin-polarized charge transport, the molecule conformation and the molecule-Co spinterface.

5.
Nano Lett ; 21(1): 680-685, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337891

RESUMO

Electron states in semiconductor materials can be modified by quantum confinement. Adding to semiconductor heterostructures the concept of lateral geometry offers the possibility to further tailor the electronic band structure with the creation of unique flat bands. Using block copolymer lithography, we describe the design, fabrication, and characterization of multiorbital bands in a honeycomb In0.53Ga0.47As/InP heterostructure quantum well with a lattice constant of 21 nm. Thanks to an optimized surface quality, scanning tunnelling spectroscopy reveals the existence of a strong resonance localized between the lattice sites, signature of a p-orbital flat band. Together with theoretical computations, the impact of the nanopatterning imperfections on the band structure is examined. We show that the flat band is protected against the lateral and vertical disorder, making this industry-standard system particularly attractive for the study of exotic phases of matter.

6.
ACS Nano ; 13(2): 1961-1967, 2019 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30726057

RESUMO

Semiconductor nanocrystalline heterostructures can be produced by the immersion of semiconductor substrates into an aqueous precursor solution, but this approach usually leads to a high density of interfacial traps. In this work, we study the effect of a chemical passivation of the substrate prior to the nanocrystalline growth. PbS nanoplatelets grown on sulfur-treated InP (001) surfaces at temperatures as low as 95 °C exhibit abrupt crystalline interfaces that allow a direct and reproducible electron transfer to the InP substrate through the nanometer-thick nanoplatelets with scanning tunnelling spectroscopy. It is in sharp contrast with the less defined interface and the hysteresis of the current-voltage characteristics found without the passivation step. Based on a tunnelling effect occurring at energies below the bandgap of PbS, we show the formation of a type II, trap-free, epitaxial heterointerface, with a quality comparable to that grown on a nonreactive InP (110) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. Our scheme offers an attractive alternative to the fabrication of semiconductor heterostructures in the gas phase.

7.
Nanotechnology ; 30(3): 035301, 2019 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30452388

RESUMO

In this paper we report on the fabrication and electrical characterization of InAs-on-nothing metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor composed of a suspended InAs channel and raised InAs n+ contacts. This architecture is obtained using 3D selective and localized molecular beam epitaxy on a lattice mismatched InP substrate. The suspended InAs channel and InAs n+ contacts feature a reproducible and uniform shape with well-defined 3D sidewalls. Devices with 1 µm gate length present a saturation drain current (I Dsat) of 300 mA mm-1 at V DS = 0.8 V and a trans-conductance (GM ) of 120 mS mm-1 at V DS = 0.5 V. In terms of electrostatic control, the devices display a minimal subthreshold swing of 110 mV dec-1 at V DS = 0.5 V and a small drain induced barrier lowering of 50 mV V-1.

8.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 3017, 2018 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29445196

RESUMO

A counter-intuitive behavior analogous to the Braess paradox is encountered in a two-terminal mesoscopic network patterned in a two-dimensional electron system (2DES). Decreasing locally the electron density of one channel of the network paradoxically leads to an increased network electrical conductance. Our low temperature scanning gate microscopy experiments reveal different occurrences of such puzzling conductance variations, thanks to tip-induced localized modifications of electron flow throughout the network's channels in the ballistic and coherent regime of transport. The robustness of the puzzling behavior is inspected by varying the global 2DES density, magnetic field and the tip-surface distance. Depending on the overall 2DES density, we show that either Coulomb Blockade resonances due to disorder-induced localized states or Fabry-Perot interferences tuned by the tip-induced electrostatic perturbation are at the origin of transport inefficiencies in the network, which are lifted when gradually closing one channel of the network with the tip.

9.
Nanotechnology ; 28(22): 225601, 2017 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28480873

RESUMO

This work presents a detailed study of GaSb quantum dot (QD) epitaxy on (001) GaP substrates by means of molecular beam epitaxy. Despite the large mismatch between GaP and GaSb, we show that in the nucleation-diffusion regime, the QD size distribution follows the predictions of the scaling theory. Scanning transmission electron microscopy analysis of grown QDs reveal that they are plastically relaxed by 60° pairs of misfit dislocations and the valence band offset measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy on such QDs amounts to 0.5 eV. After capping, the QD morphology is strongly modified with a large P/Sb exchange-segregation reaction, which even leads to the formation of core-shell nanostructures. Remarkably the resulting QD layer is coherent to the substrate without any remaining misfit dislocation and exhibits still strong composition modulations.

10.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2014: 136340, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24707193

RESUMO

We report on high frequency (HF) and noise performances of AlSb/InAs high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with 100 nm gate length at room temperature in low-power regime. Extrinsic cut-off frequencies fT/f max of 100/125 GHz together with minimum noise figure NF(min) = 0.5 dB and associated gain G(ass) = 12 dB at 12 GHz have been obtained at drain bias of only 80 mV, corresponding to 4 mW/mm DC power dissipation. This demonstrates the great ability of AlSb/InAs HEMT for high-frequency operation combined with low-noise performances in ultra-low-power regime.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Elétrica/tendências , Elétrons , Transistores Eletrônicos/tendências
11.
Nano Lett ; 14(1): 326-32, 2014 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24329502

RESUMO

With the continued maturation of III-V nanowire research, expectations of material quality should be concomitantly raised. Ideally, III-V nanowires integrated on silicon should be entirely free of extended planar defects such as twins, stacking faults, or polytypism, position-controlled for convenient device processing, and gold-free for compatibility with standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) processing tools. Here we demonstrate large area vertical GaAsxSb1-x nanowire arrays grown on silicon (111) by molecular beam epitaxy. The nanowires' complex faceting, pure zinc blende crystal structure, and composition are mapped using characterization techniques both at the nanoscale and in large-area ensembles. We prove unambiguously that these gold-free nanowires are entirely twin-free down to the first bilayer and reveal their three-dimensional composition evolution, paving the way for novel infrared devices integrated directly on the cost-effective Si platform.

12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 5(19): 9760-4, 2013 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24024581

RESUMO

Determining the atomic structure of misfit dislocations at highly lattice mismatched interface is essential to optimize the quality of the epitaxial layer. Here, with aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy at sub-Angstrom resolution and molecular dynamics simulation, we investigated the atomic structure of misfit dislocations at GaSb/GaAs interface. New types of Lomer misfit dislocation formed on an Sb wetting monolayer were observed, in contrast to a conventional misfit dislocation whose core is located at interface. These Sb-mediated dislocations have highly localized cores and offer more capability to confine the mismatch strain at the interface. The low strain atomic configuration of Sb-mediated dislocations is driven by minimization of the core energy. This unveiled mechanism may pave the way to the growth of high quality hetero-epitaxial layers.

13.
Nanotechnology ; 24(40): 405707, 2013 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24029455

RESUMO

Thanks to their wide band structure tunability, GaAs(1-x)Sb(x) nanowires provide exciting perspectives in optoelectronic and energy harvesting applications. The control of composition and strain of these ternary alloys is crucial in the determination of their optical and electronic properties. Raman scattering provides information on the vibrational properties of materials, which can be related to the composition and strain. We present a systematic study of the vibrational properties of GaAs(1-x)Sb(x) nanowires for Sb contents from 0 to 44%, as determined by energy-dispersive x-ray analyses. We find that optical phonons red-shift with increasing Sb content. We explain the shift by alloying effects, including mass disorder, dielectric changes and ionic plasmon coupling. The influence of Sb on the surface optical modes is addressed. Finally, we compare the luminescence yield between GaAs and GaAs(1-x)Sb(x), which can be related to a lower surface recombination rate. This work provides a reference for the study of ternary alloys in the form of nanowires, and demonstrates the tunability and high material quality of gold-free ternary antimonide nanowires directly grown on silicon.

14.
Sci Rep ; 3: 2439, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23942471

RESUMO

The ability to produce large, continuous and defect free films of graphene is presently a major challenge for multiple applications. Even though the scalability of graphene films is closely associated to a manifest polycrystalline character, only a few numbers of experiments have explored so far the electronic structure down to single graphene grains. Here we report a high resolution angle and lateral resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (nano-ARPES) study of one-atom thick graphene films on thin copper foils synthesized by chemical vapor deposition. Our results show the robustness of the Dirac relativistic-like electronic spectrum as a function of the size, shape and orientation of the single-crystal pristine grains in the graphene films investigated. Moreover, by mapping grain by grain the electronic dynamics of this unique Dirac system, we show that the single-grain gap-size is 80% smaller than the multi-grain gap recently reported by classical ARPES.

15.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 13(2): 771-5, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23646513

RESUMO

III-V Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor (MOSFET) with a gate stack based on high-kappa dielectric appears as an appealing solution to increase the performance of either microwave or logic circuits with low supply voltage (V(DD)). The main objective of this work is to provide a theoretical model of the gate charge control in III-V MOS capacitors (MOSCAPs) using the accurate self-consistent solution of 1D and 2D Poisson-Schrödinger equations. This study allows us to identify the major mechanisms which must be included to get theoretical calculations in good agreement with experiments. Actually, our results obtained for an Al2O3/In0.53Ga0.47As MOSCAP structure are successfully compared to experimental measurements. We evaluate how III-V MOS technology is affected by the density of interface states which favors the Fermi level pinning at the Al2O3/In0.53Ga0.47As interface in both depletion and inversion regimes, which is a consequence of the poor gate control of the mobile inversion carrier density. The high energy valleys (satellite valleys) contribution observed in many theoretical calculations appears to be fully negligible in the presence of interface states. The enhancement of doping density in the channel is shown to improve the short-channel effect (SCE) immunity but to the price of higher sensitivity to the interface trap effect which manifests through a low Fermi level movement efficiency at interface in OFF-state and a low inversion carrier density in ON-state, even in the long channel case.

16.
Nanotechnology ; 23(9): 095702, 2012 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22322440

RESUMO

III-V antimonide nanowires are among the most interesting semiconductors for transport physics, nanoelectronics and long-wavelength optoelectronic devices due to their optimal material properties. In order to investigate their complex crystal structure evolution, faceting and composition, we report a combined scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) study of gold-nucleated ternary InAs/InAs(1-x)Sb(x) nanowire heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy. SEM showed the general morphology and faceting, TEM revealed the internal crystal structure and ternary compositions, while STM was successfully applied to characterize the oxide-free nanowire sidewalls, in terms of nanofaceting morphology, atomic structure and surface composition. The complementary use of these techniques allows for correlation of the morphological and structural properties of the nanowires with the amount of Sb incorporated during growth. The addition of even a minute amount of Sb to InAs changes the crystal structure from perfect wurtzite to perfect zinc blende, via intermediate stacking fault and pseudo-periodic twinning regimes. Moreover, the addition of Sb during the axial growth of InAs/InAs(1-x)Sb(x) heterostructure nanowires causes a significant conformal lateral overgrowth on both segments, leading to the spontaneous formation of a core-shell structure, with an Sb-rich shell.


Assuntos
Antimônio/química , Cristalização/métodos , Microscopia Eletrônica/métodos , Nanotubos/química , Nanotubos/ultraestrutura , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Teste de Materiais/métodos , Conformação Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Transição de Fase , Propriedades de Superfície
17.
Nanotechnology ; 21(38): 385602, 2010 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20798467

RESUMO

We report growth by molecular beam epitaxy and structural characterization of gallium-nucleated GaAs nanowires on silicon. The influences of growth temperature and V/III ratio are investigated and compared in the case of oxide-covered and oxide-free substrates. We demonstrate a precise positioning process for Ga-nucleated GaAs nanowires using a hole array in a dielectric layer thermally grown on silicon. Crystal quality is analyzed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Crystal structure evolves from pure zinc blende to pure wurtzite along a single nanowire, with a transition region.

18.
Langmuir ; 21(21): 9406-8, 2005 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16207013

RESUMO

Despite the importance of the isocyanate group in chemistry, very few examples of isocyanate-modified silicas have been reported, and all of the strategies described so far led to partial or total hydrolysis or condensation of the isocyanate group. By synthesizing trichlorosilane isocyanate as the coupling reagent, we show that oxidized silicon wafers are successfully modified with the isocyanate group. Our method is achieved in mild conditions, at low temperature, without side-reactions and allows the formation of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of isocyanates. The isocyanate group then offers a flexible way to further functionalize silica substrates with different nucleophiles, due to its high and specific reactivity.

19.
J Am Chem Soc ; 127(21): 7871-8, 2005 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15913377

RESUMO

The quantitative characterization of the chemical composition (bonding at grafted and ungrafted sites, surface coverage) is a key issue for the application of silicon-organic monolayer hybrid interfaces. The primary purpose of this article is to demonstrate that X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) requires to be truly quantitative to deal with two main questions. The first one is accounting for X-ray photodiffraction (XPD), a well-known phenomenon that is responsible for azimuthal variations of the XPS signal intensity. A simple procedure is proposed to account for XPD in angle-resolved measurements. The second critical point concerns the choice of photoelectron attenuation lengths (AL). This article demonstrates that n-alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers on Au(111) can be used as a reference system to derive the effective monolayer thickness on silicon substrates and that one may use the empirical relationship established by Laibinis and co-workers to calculate the relevant ALs (Laibinis, P. E.; Bain, C. D.; Whitesides, G. M. J. Phys. Chem. 1991, 95, 7017). A self-consistent approach is presented to justify the above assertions and to give a complete compositional description of alkyl and alkoxy monolayers directly grafted on atomically flat H-Si(111) surfaces. Direct evidences are provided that a Si-C and a Si-O-C linkage is formed, respectively, after reaction with decene and decanol and that the ungrafted sites remain saturated with H atoms. Moreover, the quantitative spectra analysis of satellite peaks at fixed polar angle and three independent angle-resolved Si2p and C1s spectra all give the same surface coverage very close to its theoretical limit.

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