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1.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 277(6): 1675-1680, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32128609

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Research indicates that rheumatic disorders are accompanied by decreased chemosensory function. The present study aimed to specifically evaluate this issue in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: 212 RA patients (43 men, 169 women, mean age 59 ± 13.3 years), and 30 healthy controls (10 men, 20 women, mean age 40 ± 15.3 years), were included in this study. Chemosensory measurements consisted of olfactory testing using the "Sniffin' Sticks" test battery (with odor thresholds, odor discrimination and odor identification; OT, OD, OI) and gustatory testing on a suprathreshold and a quasi-threshold level using "taste sprays" and "taste strips", respectively. In addition, inflammatory markers (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein) and RA autoantibodies (anti-cyclic citrullinated peptides, RA factors) were evaluated. RESULTS: Olfactory measurements showed 4% of the RA patients functionally anosmic and 40% hyposmic. RA patients scored significantly lower in suprathreshold olfactory tests (OD, OI) compared to controls (OI: 12.5 ± 2.5 vs. 14.1 ± 1.3; OD: 11.3 ± 2.7 vs. 12.9 ± 1.7). In addition, RA patient had decreased taste function compared to healthy individuals (10.4 ± 2.6 vs. 11.7 ± 1.7). Chemosensory function did not correlate with parameters related to the severity of disease. CONCLUSION: Chemosensory function (taste, OD and OI) appears to be decreased in RA patients. In contrast, OT was not affected. Changes in chemosensory function seem to be independent of disease parameters such as duration of disease or disease activity.

2.
Laryngoscope ; 130(7): 1616-1621, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373696

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Olfaction is frequently impaired in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and often improves after endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). Data about dynamics of olfactory changes after ESS are lacking, and little information is available concerning whether preoperatively administered glucocorticosteroids predict postoperative olfaction. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine dynamics of olfaction after ESS in relation to the effect of preoperative administration of glucocorticosteroids in CRSwNP. METHODS: This prospective study included 52 CRSwNP patients (30 men, 22 women, mean age 54 ± 14 years) divided into a control group (n = 31) subjected to ESS without preoperative steroids and a treatment group (n = 21) receiving orally administered glucocorticosteroids preoperatively. Self-ratings of olfaction and olfactory testing using the extended Sniffin' Sticks test battery (threshold, discrimination and identification [TDI] score) were performed. Olfaction was measured preoperatively; after termination of glucocorticosteroid treatment (only treatment group); and 2 weeks, 1 month, and 3 months postoperatively. RESULTS: After glucocorticosteroids, TDI score significantly improved in 57% of patients, and olfactory function remained unchanged in 43%. In addition, improvement in TDI score after steroids and 3 months postoperatively were significantly correlated (r = 0.66, P = 0.01). Patients whose olfaction did not improve after glucocorticosteroids did not benefit from surgery. Regarding postoperative olfactory dynamics, TDI score reached its maximum 1 month postoperatively and decreased again approximately 3 months after surgery. CONCLUSION: Glucocorticosteroids improved olfaction in CRSwNP comparable to surgery. In addition, changes in relation to steroids predicted olfactory outcome postoperatively. Regarding the olfactory dynamics, it could be demonstrated that olfactory function increased 1 month after surgery and decreased 3 months postoperatively. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2 Laryngoscope, 130:1616-1621, 2020.


Assuntos
Endoscopia/efeitos adversos , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Nasais/efeitos adversos , Transtornos do Olfato/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Endoscopia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pólipos Nasais/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Nasais/métodos , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Rinite/cirurgia , Sinusite/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
4.
Laryngorhinootologie ; 97(5): 344-356, 2018 05.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29719895

RESUMO

Approximately 5 % of the general population is affected by functional anosmia. An additional 15 % exhibit decreased olfactory function. Many of these individuals ask ENT-doctors or neurologists for help. A cornerstone of the counselling process is the assessment of olfactory function. The aim of this work is to give a differentiated overview about the administration of commonly used psychophysical tests for olfactory and gustatory function including their normative data. The use of standardized, reliable and validated tools is mandatory to provide patients with state-of the-art counseling on treatment options.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Olfato/fisiopatologia , Olfato/fisiologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicofísica/métodos , Psicofísica/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(10): 2312-2318, 2018 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27951642

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of (1) the addition of trigeminal stimuli to an olfactory stimulus and (2) the congruence in the odorous mixture after repeated odor presentation. Twenty-five normosmic volunteers were enrolled and presented stimulation blocks, consisting of three habituation stimuli (H) (orange odor), one dishabituation (DH) (control condition, orange odor; congruent condition, orange odor + CO2; incongruent condition, orange odor + l-isopulegol), and one dishabituated stimulus (D) (orange odor). Olfactory event-related potentials were analyzed. Response amplitudes differed significantly in the incongruent condition (N1P2 between H3 and D; peak to peak N1P2 at electrode positions Cz, Fz, and Pz; response amplitudes between H3 and DH). The addition of CO2 modified the perception of orange odor, pronouncing a fruity note, whereas the addition of l-isopulegol as a DH pronounced the l-isopulegol note. This study provides evidence that incongruent trigeminal-olfactory stimulants increase the response to subsequent olfactory stimulus.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis/metabolismo , Olfato , Adulto , Citrus sinensis/química , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Odorantes/análise , Limiar Sensorial , Adulto Jovem
6.
Acta Otolaryngol ; 138(4): 428-432, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29172836

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: CD39 is the rate-limiting enzyme in the generation of immunosuppressive adenosine and its expression and activity are significant in tumor progression. Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) shows an overall poor prognosis due to high local recurrence rates and early metastatic spread. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Primary tumor specimens and lymph node specimens harvested during neck dissection of 65 patients with a diagnosis of HNSCC were subjected to immunohistochemical and H-score analysis of CD39 expression. Demographics, histopathology and subsequent outcome were analyzed. RESULTS: The primary cancer was squamous cell carcinoma in all patients (male/female 55:10). H-score for CD39 expression in the primary lesion and metastatic lymph nodes was significantly higher in advanced compared to early stages with no significant differences among different tumor locations. High intratumoral and intrametastatic CD39 expression was associated with an inferior patients' overall survival at a mean follow-up of 83.4 months (6-204 months). CONCLUSION: CD39 expression in HNSCC correlated positively with tumor stage and appears to predict poor prognosis. Therefore, CD39 expression in primary lesions and metastatic lymph nodes seems to identify patients at high risk in HNSCC of all tumor sites. Immunotherapeutic approaches targeting CD39 might be promising for this patient population.


Assuntos
Apirase/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/mortalidade , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade , Humanos , Linfonodos/metabolismo , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Laryngoscope ; 128(3): E86-E90, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28895150

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Olfactory dysfunction is common among the general population, with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) as one of the leading causes. Patients affected by CRS often report changes in taste sensations; however, quantitative measurements have not been performed to date. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate gustatory and olfactory function in CRS patients prior to and after multimodal treatment. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Twenty-one patients suffering from CRS with nasal polyps (14 male, seven female) with a mean age of 48 ± 15 years were included in the study. Chemosensory function was assessed prior to and approximately 190 days after multimodal treatment, which included endoscopic sinus surgery, oral antibiotics for 5 days, oral steroids for 12 days, and at least 6 weeks of topical nasal steroids. Olfactory function was tested with the Sniffin' Sticks test battery, whereas gustatory function was measured with taste strips. A clinically relevant change in olfactory function was defined as a change of ≥5 points in the threshold, discrimination, and identification scores. RESULTS: Compared to normative data, patients baseline gustatory and olfactory function was impaired. After multimodal treatment, improvements were seen in olfactory function for eight patients (42%), remained stable in 10 patients (53%), and deteriorated in one patient (5%). Taste function remained unchanged following sinus surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Patients suffering from CRS with polyps exhibit olfactory and taste dysfunctions. Multimodal treatment leads to an improvement in olfactory, but not gustatory functionality. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4. Laryngoscope, 128:E86-E90, 2018.


Assuntos
Rinite/fisiopatologia , Sinusite/fisiopatologia , Olfato/fisiologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Administração Oral , Administração Tópica , Adulto , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Doença Crônica , Terapia Combinada , Endoscopia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Nasais/métodos , Nariz , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/fisiopatologia , Seios Paranasais/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Rinite/complicações , Rinite/terapia , Sinusite/complicações , Sinusite/terapia , Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Distúrbios do Paladar/etiologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Chem Senses ; 42(8): 699-708, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28981826

RESUMO

This study investigated the relation of the fungiform taste papillae density and saliva composition with the taste perception of patients suffering from diagnosed taste disorders. For this purpose, 81 patients and 40 healthy subjects were included. Taste was measured by means of regional and whole mouth chemosensory tests, and electrogustometry. Olfaction was assessed using the Sniffin Sticks. Fungiform papillae were quantified using the "Denver Papillae Protocol for Objective Analysis of Fungiform Papillae". In addition, salivary parameters [flow rate, total proteins, catalase, total anti-oxidative capacity (TAC), carbonic anhydrase VI (caVI), and pH] were determined and the Beck Depression Inventory was administered. Patients showed less taste papillae compared to healthy subjects. The number of papillae correlated with total taste strip score and salivary flow rate. Regarding salivary parameters, the flow rate, protein concentration, and TAC of patients were higher compared to controls. In addition, salivary flow rate, protease, caVI, and catalase values correlated with the summed taste strip score. Regarding various taste disorders, salty-dysgeusia patients showed the lowest taste test scores compared to those with bitter or metal-dysgeusia. Olfactory function of patients was significantly worse compared to healthy controls. This difference was most pronounced for ageusia patients. Compared to controls, patients also exhibited higher depressive symptoms. The density of fungiform papillae seemed to be positively associated with taste perception. Furthermore, patients exhibited changes in saliva composition (higher salivary flow rate, increased protein concentration, proteolysis, and TAC) compared to controls indicating that assessment of saliva may be critical for the diagnostic procedure in taste disorders.


Assuntos
Saliva/química , Papilas Gustativas/metabolismo , Distúrbios do Paladar/metabolismo , Distúrbios do Paladar/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distúrbios do Paladar/diagnóstico , Percepção Gustatória , Adulto Jovem
9.
Acta Otolaryngol ; 137(11): 1215-1219, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28741409

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The prevalence and activity of regulatory T cells in patients with cancer correlates with poor prognosis. These cells are characterized by their expression of Forkhead box protein-3 (Foxp3). Squamous cell carcinoma is the most prevalent type of cancer in the head and neck region with overall poor survival rates, also due to early spread of metastatic cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Primary tumor specimens as well as lymph node specimens harvested during neck dissection of 65 patients with a diagnosis of HNSCC were subjected to immunohistochemical and H-score analysis of Foxp3 expression. Demographics, diagnoses, histopathology and subsequent outcome were analyzed. RESULTS: The primary cancer was squamous cell carcinoma in all patients (male/female 55:10) with the following tumor locations: oral cavity n = 16, oropharynx n = 28, hypopharynx n = 11 and larynx n = 10 (Stage III n = 18; Stage IVA n = 45; Stage IVB n = 2). The H-score for Foxp3 expression in the primary lesion as well as metastatic lymph nodes was significantly higher in advanced stages compared to early stages with differences among tumor locations, which were not significant. High Foxp3 expression was associated with inferior overall survival rates at a mean follow-up of 83.4 months (6-204 months) Conclusions: Foxp3 expression in HNSCC varied from the anatomical site and correlated positively with tumor stage and was associated with poor prognosis. Therefore, Foxp3 expressions in primary lesions as well as lymphogenic metastases appear to predict high-risk HSNCC patients. Novel therapeutic approaches targeting Foxp3+ cells might seem promising for this patient population.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Linfonodos/metabolismo , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Linfonodos/patologia , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Sleep Med ; 34: 24-29, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28522094

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have suggested that patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) might be affected by olfactory impairment. However, more evidence is needed on the effect that OSA has on the chemical senses (olfaction and gustatory) of these patients, and whether continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment might help to reverse possible impairment. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted with 44 OSA patients (17 female and 27 male, mean age 54 ± 9.9 years) who were diagnosed via polysomnography and eligible for CPAP treatment. Orthonasal olfactory and gustatory function was measured with the extended Sniffin' Sticks test battery and "taste strips," respectively, before and after CPAP treatment. RESULTS: Baseline olfaction was decreased in OSA patients and after CPAP therapy olfactory scores (odor threshold-discrimination-identification score [TDI]: baseline 29.4 ± 4.11 after CPAP 32.3 ± 4.82; p = 0.001; odor threshold [THR]: baseline 5.28 ± 1.69 after CPAP 6.78 ± 2.61; p = 0.000; odor identification [ID]: baseline 12.9 ± 1.95 after CPAP 13.6 ± 1.33; p = 0.013) improved significantly. In contrast, neither baseline taste function in OSA patients nor gustatory function after treatment seemed to be affected. CONCLUSION: Orthonasal olfactory function in patients with OSA improves under CPAP therapy; however, gustatory function is not impaired in OSA patients.


Assuntos
Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/terapia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Olfato/fisiopatologia , Polissonografia , Estudos Prospectivos , Limiar Sensorial , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Olfato , Paladar , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 274(7): 2813-2818, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28429112

RESUMO

Testicular cancer is the most frequent malignant disease in young males between 15 and 35 years. Platinum based chemotherapy regimen is the therapy of choice in advanced disease. This treatment has also adverse effects caused by the cytostatic active substances, such as olfactory dysfunctions. The aim of this study was, therefore, to monitor olfactory function of testicular cancer patients during and 6 months after chemotherapy. A total of 17 patients (mean age 31.06 ± 10.26 years), which underwent chemotherapy (mean 2.47 cycles ± 0.5) were enrolled in this study. Odor threshold, discrimination and identification were assessed by means of the "Sniffin' Sticks" prior to and on day 42, 90 and 180 after chemotherapy has been completed. Furthermore, patients' ratings of olfactory function and depressive symptoms were evaluated. Threshold scores were significantly lower on day 90 (8.0 ± 2.51) compared to baseline (10.4 ± 2.20) (p = 0.014) and recovered almost completely on day 180 (9.65 ± 3.26). Odor discrimination and identification did not show significant changes during therapy. The decrease of the olfactory function during/immediately after chemotherapy was underlined by the subjectively perceived impaired olfactory function during this time. In addition almost every fourth patient presented with a depressed mood at the beginning of chemotherapy. Patients should be informed about possible transient olfactory impairment during/immediately after chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Transtornos do Olfato/induzido quimicamente , Seminoma/tratamento farmacológico , Limiar Sensorial/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Testiculares/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Olfato/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int Forum Allergy Rhinol ; 7(2): 185-191, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28177594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Viral rhinitis (the "common" cold) is a frequent worldwide disease. Olfactory dysfunction is one complication that arises during infection, which in most cases heals up spontaneously upon recovery, whereas in some cases it may persist as a partial or total loss of olfaction. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the change of other chemosensory systems during a cold. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients (age 18 to 69 years) with an acute cold were compared to a healthy control group (n = 59; age 19 to 63 years). All patients were examined on 2 occasions separated by approximately 4 weeks. Orthonasal, retronasal, gustatory, and trigeminal nasal function were investigated. Furthermore, ratings of real foods, in terms of intensity and pleasantness, were obtained. RESULTS: Compared to the control group, patients showed a decreased orthonasal (threshold and discrimination) and retronasal function. Furthermore, patients exhibited a decreased sensitivity to salt and a reduced ability to localize menthol, indicating a decreased taste and trigeminal function, respectively. Upon recovery from the infection, orthonasal olfactory and trigeminal sensitivity increased, whereas retronasal sensitivity showed no improvement and salt sensitivity decreased. CONCLUSION: This comprehensive study provides empirical evidence that chemosensory impairment is prevalent during a cold, and additionally shows for the first time that chemosensory features associated with food consumption persist postinfection.


Assuntos
Resfriado Comum/fisiopatologia , Olfato , Paladar , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nariz/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Laryngorhinootologie ; 96(5): 299-305, 2017 May.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27832681

RESUMO

Introduction A 2006 position paper suggests assessing coagulation status via a standardized questionnaire instead of performing routine coagulation testing for children undergoing tonsillectomy/adenotomy. The aim of the presented study was to evaluate whether this paradigm change led to a change in the incidence of secondary bleeding. Methods Descriptive statistical analysis of existing clinical data was performed to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of secondary bleeding in children after tonsillectomy/adenotomy in 2003 vs. 2009. Result In 2003, 352 children underwent surgery. Secondary bleeding occurred in 25 cases (7.1%), 18, (6.1%) of which required surgical treatment. In 2009, 20 out of 293 children who had undergone tonsillectomy/adenotomy suffered from secondary bleeding, 14 required (4.7%) surgical treatment. There was no significant difference in the incidence of bleeding between those years. In 5 children who suffered from secondary bleeding in 2003, preoperative diagnostic blood coagulation testing was performed, none of them showed abnormal results. Furthermore, none of the diagnostic blood coagulation tests performed after secondary bleeding in both groups showed any abnormalities. Conclusion Using a standardized questionnaire instead of a diagnostic blood coagulation testing for preoperative coagulation assessment does not have an influence on the incidence of secondary bleeding after tonsillectomy/adenotomy. The results of this study suggest that secondary bleeding is not is not caused by abnormal hemostasis.


Assuntos
Adenoidectomia , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/diagnóstico , Anamnese/normas , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/sangue , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Tonsilectomia , Adolescente , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/sangue , Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea/normas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/cirurgia , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco
16.
Chem Senses ; 41(8): 697-701, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27432834

RESUMO

Sniffin' Sticks have become a popular procedure to measure overall olfactory functionality with 3 subtest: phenyl ethyl alcohol threshold test (T), discrimination (D), and identification (I). However, several procedural components specified by the original paper have not been tested nor has the impact of deviations been measured. The aim of the present work was to measure olfactory performance under modified testing procedures. First, the reverse order of subtests (IDT) was compared with more standard practices (TDI). Next, the possible impact of background noise and positive concurrent feedback were assessed. A total of 120 individuals participated in the study where the 3 conditional experiments, each involving 40 participants, were completed. Testing procedures that reversed the presentation order of subtests (I->D->T) scored a significantly lower overall TDI score than standard testing order with the threshold subtest being the most influenced. Additionally, nonverbal background noise lowered overall olfactory performance while concurrent feedback modulated threshold performance. These results emphasize the importance of testing parameters where olfactory perception and tasks may be modulated by adaptation and attentional distraction, respectively. This study helped furthermore to demonstrate that the investigated 3 deviations from the standard procedure revealed a significant impact on the performance outcome in olfactory assessment using the Sniffin' Sticks.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação , Ruído , Odorantes/análise , Percepção Olfatória/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Limiar Sensorial , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 11(6): e0157560, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27332887

RESUMO

Aim of the current work was to examine developmental changes in adolescents' olfactory performance and personal significance of olfaction. In the first study olfactory identification abilities of 76 participants (31 males and 45 females aged between 10 and 18 years; M = 13.8, SD = 2.3) was evaluated with the Sniffin Stick identification test, presented in a cued and in an uncued manner. Verbal fluency was additionally examined for control purpose. In the second study 131 participants (46 males and 85 females aged between 10 and 18 years; (M = 14.4, SD = 2.2) filled in the importance of olfaction questionnaire. Odor identification abilities increased significantly with age and were significantly higher in girls as compared to boys. These effects were especially pronounced in the uncued task and partly related to verbal fluency. In line, the personal significance of olfaction increased with age and was generally higher among female compared to male participants.


Assuntos
Bulbo Olfatório/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Olfato/fisiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Odorantes/análise , Inquéritos e Questionários
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