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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e047296, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610931

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of chronic, lifestyle-related diseases is increasing among adults and children from low-income and middle-income countries. Despite the effectiveness of community-based interventions to address this situation, the benefits thereof may disappear in the long term, due to a lack of maintenance, especially among disadvantaged and high-risk populations. The KaziBantu randomised controlled trial conducted in 2019 consisted of two school-based health interventions, KaziKidz and KaziHealth. This study will evaluate the long-term effectiveness and sustainability of these interventions in promoting positive lifestyle changes among children and educators in disadvantaged schools in Nelson Mandela Bay, South Africa, in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study has an observational, longitudinal, mixed-methods design. It will follow up educators and children from the KaziBantu study. All 160 educators enrolled in KaziHealth will be invited to participate, while the study will focus on 361 KaziKidz children (aged 10-16 years) identified as having an increased risk for non-communicable diseases. Data collection will take place 1.5 and 2 years postintervention and includes quantitative and qualitative methods, such as anthropometric measurements, clinical assessments, questionnaires, interviews and focus group discussions. Analyses will encompass: prevalence of health parameters; descriptive frequencies of self-reported health behaviours and quality of life; the longitudinal association of these; extent of implementation; personal experiences with the programmes and an impact analysis based on the Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance framework. DISCUSSION: In settings where resources are scarce, sustainable and effective prevention programmes are needed. The purpose of this protocol is to outline the design of a study to evaluate KaziKidz and KaziHealth under real-world conditions in terms of effectiveness, being long-lasting and becoming institutionalised. We hypothesise that a mixed-methods approach will increase understanding of the interventions' capacity to lead to sustainable favourable health outcomes amid challenging environments, thereby generating evidence for policy. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN15648510.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Pandemias , Qualidade de Vida , SARS-CoV-2 , Instituições Acadêmicas
2.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1177: 338758, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482896

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused the unprecedented global pandemic of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Efforts are needed to develop rapid and accurate diagnostic tools for extensive testing, allowing for effective containment of the infection via timely identification and isolation of SARS-CoV-2 carriers. Current gold standard nucleic acid tests require many separate steps that need trained personnel to operate specialist instrumentation in laboratory environments, hampering turnaround time and test accessibility, especially in low-resource settings. We devised an integrated on-chip platform coupling RNA extraction based on immiscible filtration assisted by surface tension (IFAST), with RNA amplification and detection via colorimetric reverse-transcription loop mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), using two sets of primers targeting open reading frame 1a (ORF1a) and nucleoprotein (N) genes of SARS-CoV-2. Results were identified visually, with a colour change from pink to yellow indicating positive amplification, and further confirmed by DNA gel electrophoresis. The specificity of the assay was tested against HCoV-OC43 and H1N1 RNAs. The assay based on use of gene N primers was 100% specific to SARS-CoV-2 with no cross-reactivity to HCoV-OC43 nor H1N1. Proof-of-concept studies on water and artificial sputum containing genomic SARS-CoV-2 RNA showed our IFAST RT-LAMP device to be capable of extracting and detecting 470 SARS-CoV-2 copies mL-1 within 1 h (from sample-in to answer-out). IFAST RT-LAMP is a simple-to-use, integrated, rapid and accurate COVID-19 diagnostic platform, which could provide an attractive means for extensive screening of SARS-CoV-2 infections at point-of-care, especially in resource-constrained settings.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , RNA Viral , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
3.
Front Public Health ; 9: 671782, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490179

RESUMO

Background: Physical inactivity and low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are independent cardiovascular risk factors among children, but have rarely been investigated concurrently in sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this study was to compare physical activity (PA) and CRF of primary schoolchildren living in Côte d'Ivoire (CI), South Africa (ZA), and Tanzania (TZ), to test sex- and age-related differences, and to examine whether PA and CRF are associated with each other. Methods: Baseline data from an ongoing cluster-randomized controlled trial were used, including 499 children from CI (Taabo, 49% girls, M = 8.0 ± 1.6 years), 1,074 children from ZA (Gqeberha, 49% girls, M = 8.3 ± 1.4 years), and 593 children from TZ (Ifakara, 51% girls, M = 9.4 ± 1.7 years). PA was assessed by accelerometry and CRF by a 20 m shuttle-run test. The data were analyzed using multi-/univariate analyses of variance and mixed linear models. Results: Most children met recommendations put forward by the World Health Organization for moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and achieved high CRF scores. In CI, 89.6% of the children met MVPA recommendations (boys: 91.7%, girls: 87.4%), whereas this rate was 76.9% in ZA (boys: 91.0%, girls: 62.4%), and 93.8% in TZ (boys: 95.5%, girls: 92.0%). Children from TZ had the highest CRF and MVPA levels, followed by children from CI and ZA. Boys had higher MVPA levels than girls, whereas girls engaged in more sedentary behavior. Sex differences were strongest in ZA. Sedentary behavior and MVPA were higher among older schoolchildren compared to their younger peers. Higher MVPA, but not sedentary behavior, was associated with better CRF. Conclusions: In all three settings, higher levels of MVPA were associated with higher CRF scores. Nevertheless, children living in the most urbanized setting (such as observed in ZA) were physically less active and had lower CRF than peers living in more rural areas (such as observed in CI and TZ). Particularly for girls, urbanization might increase the risk for insufficient MVPA, which may have negative effects on their CRF, thus negatively influencing health and well-being at later age.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Criança , Costa do Marfim/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
4.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444895

RESUMO

(1) Background: Early childhood malnutrition may result in increased fat mass (FM) among school-aged children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We explored whether South African children with shorter stature have greater overall and abdominal FM compared to normal stature children. (2) Methods: Baseline assessments of body composition and weight were determined among school-aged children enrolled in a randomized controlled trial in Port Elizabeth, South Africa, using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Multiple linear regression models tested associations of children's height and degree of stunting with FM, fat free mass (FFM), truncal fat mass (TrFM), and truncal fat free mass (TrFFM) overall and by sex. (3) Results: A total of 1287 children (619 girls, 668 boys) were assessed at baseline. Reduced child height was associated with higher FM and lower FFM and TrFFM, but these associations were reversed with increases in height. Girls classified as mildly or moderately/severely stunted had higher FM and TrFM but lower FFM and TrFFM, while no association was found for boys. (4) Conclusions: Our study suggests that efforts to reduce the non-communicable disease burden in LMICs should target growth-impaired children who may have greater overall FM and greater abdominal FM.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Composição Corporal , Estatura , Transtornos do Crescimento/fisiopatologia , Tecido Adiposo , Criança , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores Sexuais , África do Sul/epidemiologia
5.
J Sports Sci ; : 1-14, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334121

RESUMO

Childhood hypertension drives hypertension in later life; hence, assessing blood pressure in children is an important measure to determine current and future cardiovascular health. There is, however, a paucity of childhood blood pressure data, particularly for sub-Saharan Africa. This study explores blood pressure and associations with age, sex, socioeconomic status, physical activity, fitness, and cardiovascular risk markers. In the 'Disease, Activity and Schoolchildren's Health' (DASH) study, a cross-sectional analysis was conducted in disadvantaged neighbourhoods in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. Assessments included blood pressure, accelerometer-measured physical activity, physical fitness, and cardiovascular risk markers. The study consisted of 785 children (383 boys, 402 girls, M = 12.4±0.9 years). Overall, 18% of the children were classified as hypertensive, while 20% were either overweight/obese, and almost four out of ten children did not meet global daily physical activity recommendations. Hypertensive children were more likely to be overweight/obese, χ2 (2,785) = 14.42, p < 0.01, but only if they did not meet physical activity recommendations, χ2 (2,295) = 11.93, p < 0.01. Considering the moderating effect which sufficient activity has on the relationship between hypertension and body weight, more emphasis should be placed on early primary health intervention and education strategies.

6.
J Phys Act Health ; : 1-12, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known whether physical activity (PA)-promoting environments are equally accessible to children with divergent socioeconomic status (SES) in low-/middle-income countries. The authors, therefore, examined whether South African children from poorer versus wealthier families living in marginalized communities differed in moderate to vigorous PA and cardiorespiratory fitness. We also tested associations between family car ownership and PA/cardiorespiratory fitness. METHODS: Parents/guardians of 908 children (49% girls, mean age = 8.3 [1.4] y) completed a survey on household SES. PA was assessed via 7-day accelerometry, parental and child self-reports, and cardiorespiratory fitness with the 20-m shuttle run test. RESULTS: Based on accelerometry, most children met current moderate to vigorous PA recommendations (≥60 min/d). About 73% of the children did not engage in structured physical education lessons. Whereas children of the lowest SES quintile accumulated higher levels of device-based moderate to vigorous PA, peers from the highest SES quintile engaged in more sedentary behaviors, but self-reported higher engagement in sports, dance, and moving games after school. Families' car ownership was associated with higher parent/self-reported leisure-time PA. CONCLUSIONS: A deeper understanding is needed about why wealthier children are more sedentary, but simultaneously engage in more leisure-time PA. The fact that access to structural physical education is denied to most children is critical and needs to be addressed.

7.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 852, 2021 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular fitness has been associated with both executive function and academic achievement in multiple cohort studies including children and adolescents. However, research is scarce among children from low- and middle-income countries. Hence, this paper focuses on South African primary schoolchildren living in marginalized areas and examines if academic achievement and inhibitory control can be explained by children's age, socioeconomic status, soil-transmitted helminth infections, food insecurity, stunting, grip strength, and cardiorespiratory fitness. METHODS: The sample of this cross-sectional study consisted of 1277 children (48% girls, mean age: 8.3 years). Data were assessed via questionnaires, stool samples, anthropometric measurements, 20 m shuttle run test, grip strength test, Flanker task, and school grades. Data were analysed with mixed linear regression models with random intercepts for school classes, separately for boys and girls. RESULTS: Higher socioeconomic status was most closely associated with academic achievement among boys (p < 0.05), whereas higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and not being stunted explained most variance in academic achievement in girls (p < 0.05). Higher age turned out to be associated with better performance in the Flanker task (p < 0.01). Additionally, in boys, higher grip strength was associated with better information processing and inhibitory control of attention (p < 0.01), whereas in girls, higher cardiorespiratory fitness levels were positively associated with these cognitive abilities (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Academic performance has been shown to be compromised in schoolchildren living in marginalised areas, compared to schoolchildren in less disadvantaged parts of South Africa. The present study suggests that cardiorespiratory fitness and grip strength are two potentially modifiable factors that are associated with children's academic achievement and cognitive performance, and that should be targeted in future school-based interventions.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Helmintos , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Insegurança Alimentar , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Aptidão Física , Solo , África do Sul/epidemiologia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923436

RESUMO

Childhood stunting can have negative long-term consequences on cognitive development, academic achievement, and economic productivity later in life. We determined the prevalence of stunting and examined whether stunting and associated risk factors (low dietary diversity, insufficient hemoglobin, food insecurity, and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections) are associated with academic achievement and cognitive function among South African children living in marginalized communities. A cross-sectional sample of 1277 children (aged 5-12 years) was analyzed. Stunting was defined according to 2007 WHO growth references. Cognitive functioning was measured with the computerized Flanker task and academic performance via school grades. Blood and stool samples were collected to obtain hemoglobin level and STH infection. Dietary diversity was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Associations were examined via mixed linear regression (with school class as a random intercept). Nine percent of the children were stunted (95% CI: 7.6-10.8%). Low dietary diversity (ß = 0.13, p = 0.004), food insecurity (ß = -0.12, p = 0.034), and stunting (ß = -0.13, p = 0.031) were associated with poorer end of the year results among girls. No such associations were found among boys. No significant associations were found for socioeconomic status and hemoglobin levels. The prevalence of stunting and STH infections were low in the present sample. Risk factors seem differently associated with girls' and boys' academic achievement. Promoting nutrition may help to promote academic achievement among girls living in low- and middle-income countries.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669905

RESUMO

The coexistence of multiple cardiovascular risk factors has been reported in school-aged children from the age of nine years, but most evidence stems from high-income countries. This cross-sectional study aimed at describing the cardiovascular health risk, physical activity (PA) behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) levels of South African primary schoolchildren, and at examining the associations between PA/CRF and a composite measure of cardiovascular risk. Cross-sectional data from 832 primary schoolchildren (grade 1-4) were analyzed. Total cholesterol/HDL ratio, triglycerides, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, body fat, and glycated hemoglobin were assessed as cardiovascular risk markers. Data were analyzed via mixed linear regressions and analyses of covariance. Overall, 24.2% of the participants did not meet current PA standards. Higher CRF/PA were associated with lower body fat and lower clustered cardiovascular risk (p < 0.05). When categorizing children into CRF/PA quartiles, a lower clustered cardiovascular risk gradient was found in children with higher CRF (p < 0.05) or PA (p < 0.05). Our data shows that higher CRF/PA is associated with lower clustered cardiovascular risk already from a young age. Given that clustered cardiovascular risk present during childhood can track into adulthood, we advocate for PA participation and a healthy weight from a young age onwards.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Aptidão Física , Fatores de Risco , Populações Vulneráveis
10.
BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med ; 6(1): e000823, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33062303

RESUMO

Background/Aim: Physical inactivity (PIA) is a growing global health problem and evidence suggests that PIA is a key driver for cardiovascular and chronic diseases. Recent data from South Africa revealed that only about half of the children achieved recommended daily physical activity (PA) levels. Assessing the intensity of PA in children from low socioeconomic communities in low-income and middle-income countries is important to estimate the extent of cardiovascular risk and overall impact on health. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in eight quintile 3 primary schools in disadvantaged communities in the Port Elizabeth region, South Africa. Children aged 10-15 years were subjected to PA, blood pressure, cholesterol, blood glucose and skinfold thickness assessments. Cardiovascular risk markers were converted into standardised z-scores and summed, to obtain a clustered cardiovascular risk score. Results: Overall, 650 children had complete data records. 40.8% of the children did not meet recommended PA levels (ie, logged <60 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day). If quartiles were developed based on children's cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and MVPA levels, a significant difference was found in clustered cardiovascular risk among children in the highest versus lowest fitness (p<0.001) or MVPA (p<0.001) quartiles. Conclusions: CRF and objectively assessed PA are closely linked with children's clustered cardiovascular risk. Given that 4 out of 10 South African schoolchildren from marginalised communities do not meet international PA recommendations, efforts should be made to ensure that promoting a physically active lifestyle is recognised as an important educational goal in primary schools. Trial registration numbers: ISRCTN68411960 and H14-HEA-HMS-002.

11.
Front Public Health ; 8: 492618, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33102419

RESUMO

Introduction: Regular physical activity is associated with multiple health benefits for children. Evidence from cross-sectional studies suggests that physical activity is positively associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The promotion of physical activity, and hence HRQoL, through a school-based intervention is therefore an important endeavor, particularly in disadvantaged areas of low- and middle-income countries, including South Africa. Methods: We designed a multicomponent physical activity intervention that was implemented over a 20-week period in 2015 in eight disadvantaged primary schools of Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Overall, 758 children aged 8-13 years participated. HRQoL was measured with the 27-item KIDSCREEN questionnaire. Self-reported physical activity was assessed with a single item of the Health-Behavior of School-Aged Children test, and cardiorespiratory fitness with the 20-m shuttle run test. Post-intervention scores were predicted with mixed linear regression models, taking into consideration the clustered nature of the data. Results: Higher baseline levels as well as increasing levels of self-reported physical activity predicted all dimensions of children's HRQoL. Baseline levels and increases in cardiorespiratory fitness predicted children's self-perceived physical well-being (one of the HRQoL subscales). Participation in the multicomponent physical activity intervention did not affect children's HRQoL. Conclusion: Higher and increasing self-reported physical activity predict all assessed HRQoL dimensions, which underlines that the promotion of regular physical activity among children living in disadvantaged settings is an important public health measure. Policy makers should encourage schools to create physical activity friendly environments, while schools should implement regular physical education as proposed by the school curriculum.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Autorrelato , África do Sul
12.
Trials ; 21(1): 22, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In low- and middle-income countries, infectious diseases remain a key public health issue. Additionally, non-communicable diseases are a rapidly growing public health problem that impose a considerable burden on population health. One way to address this dual disease burden, is to incorporate (lifestyle) health promotion measures within the education sector. In the planned study, we will (i) assess and compare physical activity, physical fitness, micronutrient status, body composition, infections with soil-transmitted helminths, Schistosoma mansoni, malaria, inflammatory and cardiovascular health risk markers, cognitive function, health-related quality of life, and sleep in schoolchildren in Côte d'Ivoire, South Africa and Tanzania. We will (ii) determine the bi- and multivariate associations between these variables and (iii) examine the effects of a school-based health intervention that consists of physical activity, multi-micronutrient supplementation, or both. METHODS: Assuming that no interaction occurs between the two interventions (physical activity and multi-micronutrient supplementation), the study is designed as a cluster-randomised, placebo-controlled trial with a 2 × 2 factorial design. Data will be obtained at three time points: at baseline and at 9 months and 21 months after the baseline assessment. In each country, 1320 primary schoolchildren from grades 1-4 will be recruited. In each school, classes will be randomly assigned to one of four interventions: (i) physical activity; (ii) multi-micronutrient supplementation; (iii) physical activity plus multi-micronutrient supplementation; and (iv) no intervention, which will serve as the control. A placebo product will be given to all children who do not receive multi-micronutrient supplementation. After obtaining written informed consent from the parents/guardians, the children will be subjected to anthropometric, clinical, parasitological and physiological assessments. Additionally, fitness tests will be performed, and children will be invited to wear an accelerometer device for 7 days to objectively assess their physical activity. Children infected with S. mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths will receive deworming drugs according to national policies. Health and nutrition education will be provided to the whole study population independently of the study arm allocation. DISCUSSION: The study builds on the experience and lessons of a previous study conducted in South Africa. It involves three African countries with different social-ecological contexts to investigate whether results are generalisable across the continent. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered on August 9, 2018, with ISRCTN. https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN29534081.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Suplementos Nutricionais , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Acelerometria , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Proteção da Criança , Costa do Marfim , Feminino , Helmintíase/diagnóstico , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , África do Sul , Tanzânia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 8(7): e14097, 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The burden of poverty-related infectious diseases remains high in low- and middle-income countries, while noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are rapidly gaining importance. To address this dual disease burden, the KaziBantu project aims at improving and promoting health literacy as a means for a healthy and active lifestyle. The project implements a school-based health intervention package consisting of physical education, moving-to-music, and specific health and nutrition education lessons from the KaziKidz toolkit. It is complemented by the KaziHealth workplace health intervention program for teachers. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the KaziBantu project is to assess the effect of a school-based health intervention package on risk factors for NCDs, health behaviors, and psychosocial health in primary school children in disadvantaged communities in Port Elizabeth, South Africa. In addition, we aim to test a workplace health intervention for teachers. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial (RCT) will be conducted in 8 schools. Approximately 1000 grade 4 to grade 6 school children, aged 9 to 13 years, and approximately 60 teachers will be recruited during a baseline survey in early 2019. For school children, the study is designed as a 36-week, cluster RCT (KaziKidz intervention), whereas for teachers, a 24-week intervention phase (KaziHealth intervention) is planned. The intervention program consists of 3 main components; namely, (1) KaziKidz and KaziHealth teaching material, (2) workshops, and (3) teacher coaches. After randomization, 4 of the 8 schools will receive the education program, whereas the other schools will serve as the control group. Intervention schools will be further randomized to the different combinations of 2 additional intervention components: teacher workshops and teacher coaching. RESULTS: This study builds on previous experience and will generate new evidence on health intervention responses to NCD risk factors in school settings as a decision tool for future controlled studies that will enable comparisons among marginalized communities between South African and other African settings. CONCLUSIONS: The KaziKidz teaching material is a holistic educational and instructional tool designed for primary school teachers in low-resource settings, which is in line with South Africa's Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement. The ready-to-use lessons and assessments within KaziKidz should facilitate the use and implementation of the teaching material. Furthermore, the KaziHealth interventions should empower teachers to take care of their health through knowledge gains regarding disease risk factors, physical activity, fitness, psychosocial health, and nutrition indicators. Teachers as role models will be able to promote better health behaviors and encourage a healthy and active lifestyle for children at school. We conjecture that improved health and well-being increase teachers' productivity with trickle-down effects on the children they teach and train. TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 18485542; http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN18485542. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/14097.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30650624

RESUMO

Obesity-related conditions impose a considerable and growing burden on low- and middle-income countries, including South Africa. We aimed to assess the effect of twice a 10-week multidimensional, school-based physical activity intervention on children's health in Port Elizabeth, South Africa. A cluster-randomised controlled trial was implemented from February 2015 to May 2016 in grade 4 classes in eight disadvantaged primary schools. Interventions consisted of physical education lessons, moving-to-music classes, in-class activity breaks and school infrastructure enhancement to promote physical activity. Primary outcomes included cardiorespiratory fitness, body mass index (BMI) and skinfold thickness. Explanatory variables were socioeconomic status, self-reported physical activity, stunting, anaemia and parasite infections. Complete data were available from 746 children. A significantly lower increase in the mean BMI Z-score (estimate of difference in mean change: -0.17; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.24 to -0.09; p < 0.001) and reduced increase in the mean skinfold thickness (difference in mean change: -1.06; 95% CI: -1.83 to -0.29; p = 0.007) was observed in intervention schools. No significant group difference occurred in the mean change of cardiorespiratory fitness (p > 0.05). These findings show that a multidimensional, school-based physical activity intervention can reduce the increase in specific cardiovascular risk factors. However, a longer and more intensive intervention might be necessary to improve cardiorespiratory fitness.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Aptidão Física , Instituições Acadêmicas , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade , Educação Física e Treinamento , Classe Social , África do Sul , Populações Vulneráveis
15.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0206908, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30408073

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of a 20-week school-based physical activity intervention program on academic performance and selective attention among disadvantaged South African primary school children. DESIGN: Cluster randomized control trial. METHODS: The study cohort included 663 children from eight primary schools, aged 8-13 years. Data assessment took place between February 2015 and May 2016 following the implementation of a 20-week school-based physical activity program. The d2 test was employed to assess selective attention, while the averaged end-of-year school results (math, life skills, home language, and additional language) were used as an indicator of academic performance. Physical fitness was assessed using the 20-m shuttle run test (VO2 max) and grip strength tests. We controlled for cluster effects, baseline scores in selective attention or academic performance, and potential confounders, such as children's age, gender, socioeconomic status, self-reported physical activity (as determined by a pre-tested questionnaire), body mass index, hemoglobin (as a proxy for anemia, as measured by blood sampling), and soil-transmitted helminth infections (as assessed by the Kato-Katz technique). RESULTS: Our multivariate analysis suggested that the physical activity intervention had a positive effect on academic performance (p = 0.032), while no effect was found on selective attention (concentration performance; p = 0.469; error percentage; p = 0.237). After controlling for potential confounders, the physical activity condition contributed to the maintenance of academic performance, whereas a decrease was observed in learners in the control condition. Furthermore, physically active and fit children tend to have better concentration performance (CP) than their less fit peers (self-reported activity; p<0.016, grip strength; p<0.009, VO2 max p>0.021). CONCLUSION: A 20-week physical activity intervention contributes to the maintenance of academic performance among socioeconomically deprived school children in South Africa. School administrators should ensure that their school staff implements physical activity lessons, which are a compulsory component of the school by the curriculum.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Adolescente , Atenção/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Helmintíase/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Classe Social , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Populações Vulneráveis
17.
Prev Med ; 112: 104-110, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29626554

RESUMO

People from low- and middle-income countries still face challenges stemming from parasitic infections. Additionally, non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and their risk factors are rapidly increasing, which puts South African children at an elevated risk of a dual disease burden, with negative consequences for child development and wellbeing. Contrastingly, regular physical activity (PA) is associated with decreased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine whether PA is associated with the double infection-CVD phenotype burden in South African schoolchildren. 801 children (402 boys, 399 girls; mean age 9.5 years) from eight schools from disadvantaged neighbourhoods were included. Data assessment took place between February and March 2015 in Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Children who achieved PA recommendations (physically active on 6-7 days/week for at least 60 min), who were active, but below recommended standards (2-5 physically active days/week), or who were insufficiently active on almost all days (0-1 physically active days/week) were compared with regard to systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), percent body fat, and infection with soil-transmitted helminths. Moderate and high self-reported PA levels were associated with lower BMI, lower body fat, and lower risk of being hypertensive. Conversely, children with high self-reported PA were more likely to be infected with soil-transmitted helminths than peers with low PA levels. Promoting PA in disadvantaged areas is worthwhile to prevent NCD later in life, but should be combined with regular anthelminthic treatment to comprehensively improve children's health and wellbeing.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Helmintíase/diagnóstico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Autorrelato , Populações Vulneráveis , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintos/classificação , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , África do Sul/epidemiologia
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(3): e0006332, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29543807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low- and middle-income countries are facing a dual disease burden with infectious diseases (e.g., gastrointestinal tract infections) and non-communicable diseases (e.g., diabetes) being common. For instance, chronic parasite infections lead to altered immune regulatory networks, anemia, malnutrition, and diarrhea with an associated shift in the gut microbiome. These can all be pathways of potential relevance for insulin resistance and diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between common gastrointestinal tract infections and glycemia in children from non-fee paying schools in South Africa. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 9- to 14-year-old school children in Port Elizabeth. Stool and urine samples were collected to assess infection status with parasitic worms (e.g., Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis, and Trichuris trichiura), intestinal protozoa (e.g., Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia intestinalis), and the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was measured in finger prick derived capillary blood. All children at schools with a high prevalence of helminth infections and only infected children at the schools with low infection rates were treated with albendazole. The association of anthelmintic treatment with changes in HbA1c 6 months after the drug intervention was also investigated. FINDINGS: A high prevalence of 71.8% of prediabetes was measured in this group of children, with only 27.8% having HbA1c in the normal range. H. pylori was the predominant infectious agent and showed an independent positive association with HbA1c in a multivariable regression analysis (ß = 0.040, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.006-0.073, p<0.05). No association of HbA1c with either any other infectious agent or albendazole administration was found. CONCLUSION: The role of H. pylori in diabetes needs confirmation in the context of longitudinal treatment interventions. The specific effect of other gastrointestinal tract infections on glycemia remains unclear. Future studies should integrate the measurement of biomarkers, including immunological parameters, to shed light on the potential mediating mechanisms between parasite infections and diabetes.


Assuntos
Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Infecções por Helicobacter/complicações , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Helicobacter pylori , Helmintos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Regressão , Instituições Acadêmicas , África do Sul/epidemiologia
19.
Qual Life Res ; 27(1): 205-216, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28965191

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The relationship between health-related quality of life (HRQoL), physical activity (PA), and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) among disadvantaged communities in low- and middle-income countries is poorly understood. In South Africa, children from socioeconomically deprived households are at an elevated risk of sedentary lifestyles and poor HRQoL. We examined whether higher self-reported PA and higher CRF levels are associated with better HRQoL in South African schoolchildren from disadvantaged neighbourhoods. METHODS: Overall, 832 children aged 8-12 years participated in this cross-sectional study. HRQoL was assessed through five dimensions of the KIDSCREEN-27 tool. Self-reported PA was measured using a single item of the Health-Behaviour of School-Aged Children test, and CRF with the 20-m shuttle run test. RESULTS: Higher self-reported PA was significantly and positively related to HRQoL. Significant, but small group differences existed across all dimensions of HRQoL between low and high self-reported PA. No significant associations were observed between CRF levels and HRQoL. CONCLUSIONS: Schoolchildren reporting PA of at least 60 min on at least 6 days a week (the recommended minimum) report higher HRQoL than their peers with lower PA levels.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/normas , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , África do Sul
20.
Geospat Health ; 12(2): 601, 2017 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29239572

RESUMO

Risk maps facilitate discussion among different stakeholders and provide a tool for spatial targeting of health interventions. We present maps documenting shrinking risk profiles after deworming with respect to soil-transmitted helminthiasis among schoolchildren from disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Children were examined for soil-transmitted helminth infections using duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears in March 2015, October 2015 and May 2016, and subsequently treated with albendazole after each survey. The mean infection intensities for Ascaris lumbricoides were 9,554 eggs per gram of stool (EPG) in March 2015, 4,317 EPG in October 2015 and 1,684 EPG in March 2016. The corresponding figures for Trichuris trichiura were 664 EPG, 331 EPG and 87 EPG. Repeated deworming shrank the risk of soil-transmitted helminthiasis, but should be complemented by other public health measures.


Assuntos
Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Ascaríase/tratamento farmacológico , Ascaríase/epidemiologia , Tricuríase/tratamento farmacológico , Tricuríase/epidemiologia , Animais , Ascaris lumbricoides , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Mapeamento Geográfico , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Solo/parasitologia
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