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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861383

RESUMO

Conduct problems (CP) in patients with disruptive behavior disorders have been linked to impaired prefrontal processing of negative facial affect compared to controls. However, it is unknown whether associations with prefrontal activity during affective face processing hold along the CP dimension in a healthy population sample, and how subcortical processing is affected. We measured functional brain responses during negative affective face processing in 1444 healthy adolescents [M = 14.39 years (SD = 0.40), 51.5% female] from the European IMAGEN multicenter study. To determine the effects of CP, we applied a two-step approach: (a) testing matched subgroups of low versus high CP, extending into the clinical range [N = 182 per group, M = 14.44 years, (SD = 0.41), 47.3% female] using analysis of variance, and (b) considering (non)linear effects along the CP dimension in the full sample and in the high CP group using multiple regression. We observed no significant cortical or subcortical effect of CP group on brain responses to negative facial affect. In the full sample, regression analyses revealed a significant linear increase of left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) activity with increasing CP up to the clinical range. In the high CP group, a significant inverted u-shaped effect indicated that left OFC responses decreased again in individuals with high CP. Left OFC activity during negative affective processing which is increasing with CP and decreasing in the highest CP range may reflect on the importance of frontal control mechanisms that counteract the consequences of severe CP by facilitating higher social engagement and better evaluation of social content in adolescents.

2.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818852

RESUMO

Extensive research has demonstrated that rs1360780, a common single nucleotide polymorphism within the FKBP5 gene, interacts with early-life stress in predicting psychopathology. Previous results suggest that carriers of the TT genotype of rs1360780 who were exposed to child abuse show differences in structure and functional activation of emotion-processing brain areas belonging to the salience network. Extending these findings on intermediate phenotypes of psychopathology, we examined if the interaction between rs1360780 and child abuse predicts resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) between the amygdala and other areas of the salience network. We analyzed data of young European adults from the general population (N = 774; mean age = 18.76 years) who took part in the IMAGEN study. In the absence of main effects of genotype and abuse, a significant interaction effect was observed for rsFC between the right centromedial amygdala and right posterior insula (p < .025, FWE-corrected), which was driven by stronger rsFC in TT allele carriers with a history of abuse. Our results suggest that the TT genotype of rs1360780 may render individuals with a history of abuse more vulnerable to functional changes in communication between brain areas processing emotions and bodily sensations, which could underlie or increase the risk for psychopathology.

3.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dysfunctional reward processing is implicated in multiple mental disorders. Novelty seeking (NS) assesses preference for seeking novel experiences, which is linked to sensitivity to reward environmental cues. METHODS: A subset of 14-year-old adolescents (IMAGEN) with the top 20% ranked high-NS scores was used to identify high-NS-associated multimodal components by supervised fusion. These features were then used to longitudinally predict five different risk scales for the same and unseen subjects (an independent dataset of subjects at 19 years of age that was not used in predictive modeling training at 14 years of age) (within IMAGEN, n ≈1100) and even for the corresponding symptom scores of five types of patient cohorts (non-IMAGEN), including drinking (n = 313), smoking (n = 104), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (n = 320), major depressive disorder (n = 81), and schizophrenia (n = 147), as well as to classify different patient groups with diagnostic labels. RESULTS: Multimodal biomarkers, including the prefrontal cortex, striatum, amygdala, and hippocampus, associated with high NS in 14-year-old adolescents were identified. The prediction models built on these features are able to longitudinally predict five different risk scales, including alcohol drinking, smoking, hyperactivity, depression, and psychosis for the same and unseen 19-year-old adolescents and even predict the corresponding symptom scores of five types of patient cohorts. Furthermore, the identified reward-related multimodal features can classify among attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, major depressive disorder, and schizophrenia with an accuracy of 87.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents with higher NS scores can be used to reveal brain alterations in the reward-related system, implicating potential higher risk for subsequent development of multiple disorders. The identified high-NS-associated multimodal reward-related signatures may serve as a transdiagnostic neuroimaging biomarker to predict disease risks or severity.

4.
J Psychopharmacol ; : 269881121991992, 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33726538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) quantifies the extent to which a stimulus that has been associated with reward or punishment alters operant behaviour. In alcohol dependence (AD), the PIT effect serves as a paradigmatic model of cue-induced relapse. Preclinical studies have suggested a critical role of the opioid system in modulating Pavlovian-instrumental interactions. The A118G polymorphism of the OPRM1 gene affects opioid receptor availability and function. Furthermore, this polymorphism interacts with cue-induced approach behaviour and is a potential biomarker for pharmacological treatment response in AD. In this study, we tested whether the OPRM1 polymorphism is associated with the PIT effect and relapse in AD. METHODS: Using a PIT task, we examined three independent samples: young healthy subjects (N = 161), detoxified alcohol-dependent patients (N = 186) and age-matched healthy controls (N = 105). We used data from a larger study designed to assess the role of learning mechanisms in the development and maintenance of AD. Subjects were genotyped for the A118G (rs1799971) polymorphism of the OPRM1 gene. Relapse was assessed after three months. RESULTS: In all three samples, participants with the minor OPRM1 G-Allele (G+ carriers) showed increased expression of the PIT effect in the absence of learning differences. Relapse was not associated with the OPRM1 polymorphism. Instead, G+ carriers displaying increased PIT effects were particularly prone to relapse. CONCLUSION: These results support a role for the opioid system in incentive salience motivation. Furthermore, they inform a mechanistic model of aberrant salience processing and are in line with the pharmacological potential of opioid receptor targets in the treatment of AD.

5.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 49: 11-22, 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770525

RESUMO

Early initiation of polysubstance use (PSU) is a strong predictor of subsequent addiction, however scarce individuals present resilience capacity. This neuroimaging study aimed to investigate structural correlates associated with cessation or reduction of PSU and determine the extent to which brain structural features accounted for this resilient outcome. Participants from a European community-based cohort self-reported their alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use frequency at ages 14, 16 and 19 and had neuroimaging sessions at ages 14 and 19. We included three groups in the study: the resilient-to-PSU participants showed PSU at 16 and/or 14 but no more at 19 (n = 18), the enduring polysubstance users at 19 displayed PSU continuation from 14 or 16 (n = 193) and the controls were abstinent or low drinking participants (n = 460). We conducted between-group comparisons of grey matter volumes on whole brain using voxel-based morphometry and regional fractional anisotropy using tract-based spatial statistics. Random-forests machine-learning approach generated individual-level PSU-behavior predictions based on personality and neuroimaging features. Adolescents resilient to PSU showed significant larger grey matter volumes in the bilateral cingulate gyrus compared with enduring polysubstance users and controls at ages 19 and 14 (p<0.05 corrected) but no difference in fractional anisotropy. The larger cingulate volumes and personality trait "openness to experience" were the best precursors of resilience to PSU. Early in adolescence, a larger cingulate gyrus differentiated adolescents resilient to PSU, and this feature was critical in predicting this outcome. This study encourages further research into the neurobiological bases of resilience to addictive behaviors.

6.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 157, 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33664233

RESUMO

Traditional models of future alcohol use in adolescents have used variable-centered approaches, predicting alcohol use from a set of variables across entire samples or populations. Following the proposition that predictive factors may vary in adolescents as a function of family history, we used a two-pronged approach by first defining clusters of familial risk, followed by prediction analyses within each cluster. Thus, for the first time in adolescents, we tested whether adolescents with a family history of drug abuse exhibit a set of predictors different from adolescents without a family history. We apply this approach to a genetic risk score and individual differences in personality, cognition, behavior (risk-taking and discounting) substance use behavior at age 14, life events, and functional brain imaging, to predict scores on the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) at age 14 and 16 in a sample of adolescents (N = 1659 at baseline, N = 1327 at follow-up) from the IMAGEN cohort, a longitudinal community-based cohort of adolescents. In the absence of familial risk (n = 616), individual differences in baseline drinking, personality measures (extraversion, negative thinking), discounting behaviors, life events, and ventral striatal activation during reward anticipation were significantly associated with future AUDIT scores, while the overall model explained 22% of the variance in future AUDIT. In the presence of familial risk (n = 711), drinking behavior at age 14, personality measures (extraversion, impulsivity), behavioral risk-taking, and life events were significantly associated with future AUDIT scores, explaining 20.1% of the overall variance. Results suggest that individual differences in personality, cognition, life events, brain function, and drinking behavior contribute differentially to the prediction of future alcohol misuse. This approach may inform more individualized preventive interventions.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33753312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescent onset of depression is associated with long-lasting negative consequences. Identifying adolescents at risk for developing depression would enable the monitoring of risk-factors and the development of early intervention strategies. Using machine learning to combine several risk factors from multiple modalities might allow prediction of depression onset at the individual level. METHODS: A subsample of a multi-site longitudinal study in adolescents, the IMAGEN study, was used to predict future (subthreshold) major depressive disorder (MDD) onset in healthy adolescents. Based on 2-year and 5-year follow-up data, participants were grouped into: 1) developing an MDD diagnosis or subthreshold MDD and 2) healthy controls. Baseline measurements of 145 variables from different modalities (clinical, cognitive, environmental and structural magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) at age 14 were used as input to penalized logistic regression (with different levels of penalization) to predict depression onset in a training dataset (N=407). The features contributing highest to the prediction were validated in an independent hold-out sample (3 independent IMAGEN sites; N=137). RESULTS: The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUROC) for predicting depression onset ranged between 0.70-0.72 in the training dataset. Baseline severity of depressive symptoms, female sex, neuroticism, stressful life events and surface area of the supramarginal gyrus contributed most to the predictive model and predicted onset of depression with an AUROC between 0.68-0.72 in the independent validation sample. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that depression onset in adolescents can be predicted based on a combination multimodal data of clinical, life events, personality traits, brain structure variables.

8.
Psychol Med ; : 1-11, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sex-related differences in psychopathology are known phenomena, with externalizing and internalizing symptoms typically more common in boys and girls, respectively. However, the neural correlates of these sex-by-psychopathology interactions are underinvestigated, particularly in adolescence. METHODS: Participants were 14 years of age and part of the IMAGEN study, a large (N = 1526) community-based sample. To test for sex-by-psychopathology interactions in structural grey matter volume (GMV), we used whole-brain, voxel-wise neuroimaging analyses based on robust non-parametric methods. Psychopathological symptom data were derived from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). RESULTS: We found a sex-by-hyperactivity/inattention interaction in four brain clusters: right temporoparietal-opercular region (p < 0.01, Cohen's d = -0.24), bilateral anterior and mid-cingulum (p < 0.05, Cohen's d = -0.18), right cerebellum and fusiform (p < 0.05, Cohen's d = -0.20) and left frontal superior and middle gyri (p < 0.05, Cohen's d = -0.26). Higher symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention were associated with lower GMV in all four brain clusters in boys, and with higher GMV in the temporoparietal-opercular and cerebellar-fusiform clusters in girls. CONCLUSIONS: Using a large, sex-balanced and community-based sample, our study lends support to the idea that externalizing symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention may be associated with different neural structures in male and female adolescents. The brain regions we report have been associated with a myriad of important cognitive functions, in particular, attention, cognitive and motor control, and timing, that are potentially relevant to understand the behavioural manifestations of hyperactive and inattentive symptoms. This study highlights the importance of considering sex in our efforts to uncover mechanisms underlying psychopathology during adolescence.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33637836

RESUMO

Exposure to maltreatment during childhood is associated with structural changes throughout the brain. However, the structural differences that are most strongly associated with maltreatment remain unclear given the limited number of whole-brain studies. The present study used machine learning to identify if and how brain structure distinguished young adults with and without a history of maltreatment. Young adults (ages 18-21, n = 384) completed an assessment of childhood trauma exposure and a structural MRI as part of the IMAGEN study. Elastic net regularized regression was used to identify the structural features that identified those with a history of maltreatment. A generalizable model that included 7 cortical thicknesses, 15 surface areas, and 5 subcortical volumes was identified (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.71, p < 0.001). Those with a maltreatment history had reduced surface areas and cortical thicknesses primarily in fronto-temporal regions. This group also had larger cortical thicknesses in occipital regions and surface areas in frontal regions. The results suggest childhood maltreatment is associated with multiple measures of structure throughout the brain. The use of a large sample without exposure to adulthood trauma provides further evidence for the unique contribution of childhood trauma to brain structure. The identified regions overlapped with regions associated with psychopathology in adults with maltreatment histories, which offers insights as to how these disorders manifest.

10.
Sci Adv ; 7(6)2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536210

RESUMO

Prompted by recent evidence of neural circuitry in rodent models, functional magnetic resonance imaging and functional connectivity analyses were conducted for a large adolescent population at two ages, together with alcohol abuse measures, to characterize a neural network that may underlie the onset of alcoholism. A network centered on the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC), as well as including the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG), central nucleus of the amygdala, and nucleus accumbens, was identified, consistent with the rodent models, with evidence of both inhibitory and excitatory coregulation by the mOFC over the dPAG. Furthermore, significant relationships were detected between raised baseline excitatory coregulation in this network and impulsivity measures, supporting a role for negative urgency in alcohol dependence.

11.
Schizophr Res ; 228: 271-279, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493775

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in cannabis use in young adults as a function of psychotic-like experiences. METHOD: Participants were initially recruited at age 14 in high schools for the longitudinal IMAGEN study. All measures presented here were assessed at follow-ups at age 19 and at age 22, respectively. Perceived stress was only assessed once at age 22. Ever users of cannabis (N = 552) gave qualitative and quantitative information on cannabis use and psychotic-like experiences using the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE). Of those, nearly all n = 549 reported to have experienced at least one psychotic experience of any form at age 19. RESULTS: Mean cannabis use increased from age 19 to 22 and age of first use of cannabis was positively associated with a change in cannabis use between the two time points. Change in cannabis use was not significantly associated with psychotic-like experiences at age 19 or 22. In exploratory analysis, we observed a positive association between perceived stress and the experience of psychotic experiences at age 22. CONCLUSION: Age of first use of cannabis influenced trajectories of young cannabis users with later onset leading to higher increase, whereas the frequency of psychotic-like experiences was not associated with a change in cannabis use. The observed association between perceived stress and psychotic-like experiences at age 22 emphasizes the importance of stress experiences in developing psychosis independent of cannabis use.

12.
Cereb Cortex ; 31(6): 3021-3033, 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471126

RESUMO

Psychological androgyny has long been associated with greater cognitive flexibility, adaptive behavior, and better mental health, but whether a similar concept can be defined using neural features remains unknown. Using the neuroimaging data from 9620 participants, we found that global functional connectivity was stronger in the male brain before middle age but became weaker after that, when compared with the female brain, after systematic testing of potentially confounding effects. We defined a brain gender continuum by estimating the likelihood of an observed functional connectivity matrix to represent a male brain. We found that participants mapped at the center of this continuum had fewer internalizing symptoms compared with those at the 2 extreme ends. These findings suggest a novel hypothesis proposing that there exists a neuroimaging concept of androgyny using the brain gender continuum, which may be associated with better mental health in a similar way to psychological androgyny.

13.
Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci ; 21(1): 242-253, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469886

RESUMO

Previous research has demonstrated that loss of sleep has a negative impact on both emotional and cognitive functioning. We examined whether subjectively reported natural sleep loss is associated with the interplay between emotion and cognition, as was probed by brain activity in response to emotional distraction during a working memory task. Forty-six healthy male adults reported their typical weekly sleep pattern using the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ), while recent sleep loss was enquired using a sleep diary in the 7 days preceding scanning. Participants performed a delayed match-to-sample task with negative and neutral distracters during the delay period inside the MRI scanner. Activity differences between negative and neutral distracters were associated to both sleep loss measures across participants. The amount of typically encountered sleep loss indicated by the MCTQ, but not sleep diary, was negatively associated with activity in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex during emotionally negative compared to neutral distraction (p < 0.025, whole brain corrected). Participants showed less distracter-related activity in the ACC and dorsomedial PFC with increasing sleep loss, which, in the long run, might contribute to less adaptive emotional processing, and therefore a greater vulnerability to develop affective disorders.

14.
Cereb Cortex ; 31(5): 2686-2700, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386409

RESUMO

Derailment of inhibitory control (IC) underlies numerous psychiatric and behavioral disorders, many of which emerge during adolescence. Identifying reliable predictive biomarkers that place the adolescents at elevated risk for future IC deficits can help guide early interventions, yet the scarcity of longitudinal research has hindered the progress. Here, using a large-scale longitudinal dataset in which the same subjects performed a stop signal task during functional magnetic resonance imaging at ages 14 and 19, we tracked their IC development individually and tried to find the brain features predicting their development by constructing prediction models using 14-year-olds' functional connections within a network or between a pair of networks. The participants had distinct between-subject trajectories in their IC development. Of the candidate connections used for prediction, ventral attention-subcortical network interconnections could predict the individual development of IC and formed a prediction model that generalized to previously unseen individuals. Furthermore, we found that connectivity between these two networks was related to substance abuse problems, an IC-deficit related problematic behavior, within 5 years. Our study reveals individual differences in IC development from mid- to late-adolescence and highlights the importance of ventral attention-subcortical network interconnections in predicting future IC development and substance abuse in adolescents.

15.
Exp Neurol ; 339: 113608, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513353

RESUMO

By promising more accurate diagnostics and individual treatment recommendations, deep neural networks and in particular convolutional neural networks have advanced to a powerful tool in medical imaging. Here, we first give an introduction into methodological key concepts and resulting methodological promises including representation and transfer learning, as well as modelling domain-specific priors. After reviewing recent applications within neuroimaging-based psychiatric research, such as the diagnosis of psychiatric diseases, delineation of disease subtypes, normative modeling, and the development of neuroimaging biomarkers, we discuss current challenges. This includes for example the difficulty of training models on small, heterogeneous and biased data sets, the lack of validity of clinical labels, algorithmic bias, and the influence of confounding variables.

16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e2026874, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33263759

RESUMO

Importance: Eating disorders are serious mental disorders with increasing prevalence. Without early identification and treatment, eating disorders may run a long-term course. Objective: To characterize any associations among disordered eating behaviors (DEBs) and other mental health disorders and to identify early associations with the development of symptoms over time. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter, population-based, longitudinal cohort study used data from baseline (collected in 2010), follow-up 1 (collected in 2012), and follow-up 2 (collected in 2015) of the IMAGEN Study, which included adolescents recruited from 8 European sites. The present study assessed data from 1623 healthy adolescents, aged 14 years at baseline, recruited from high schools. Data analyses were performed from January 2018 to September 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Body mass index (BMI), mental health symptoms, substance use behaviors, and personality variables were investigated as time-varying associations of DEBs (dieting, binge eating, and purging) or change in BMI over time. Polygenic risk scores were calculated to investigate genetic contributions associated with BMI, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and neuroticism to DEBs. Results: In this cohort study of 1623 adolescents (829 girls [51.1%]) recruited at a mean (SD) age of 14.5 (0.4) years and followed up at ages 16 and 19 years, 278 adolescents (17.1%) reported binge eating, 334 adolescents (20.6%) reported purging, and 356 adolescents (21.9%) reported dieting at 14, 16, or 19 years. Among the precursors of DEBs, high BMI was associated with future dieting (OR, 3.44; 95% CI, 2.09-5.65). High levels of neuroticism (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.06), conduct problems (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.17-1.69), and deliberate self-harm (OR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.37-3.45) were associated with future binge eating. Low agreeableness (OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92-0.97), deliberate self-harm (OR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.69-3.95), conduct problems (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.20-1.68), alcohol misuse (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.10-1.54), and drug abuse (OR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.78-4.74) were associated with future purging. Polygenetic risk scores for BMI were associated with dieting (at 14 years: OR, 1.27; lower bound 95% CI, 1.08; at 16 years: OR, 1.38; lower bound 95% CI, 1.17); ADHD, with purging (at 16 years: OR, 1.25; lower bound 95% CI, 1.08; at 19 years, OR, 1.23; lower bound 95% CI, 1.06); and neuroticism, with binge eating (at 14 years: OR, 1.32; lower bound 95% CI, 1.11; at 16 years: OR, 1.24; lower bound 95% CI, 1.06), highlighting distinct etiologic overlaps between these traits. The DEBs predated other mental health problems, with dieting at 14 years associated with future symptoms of depression (OR, 2.53; 95% CI, 1.56-4.10), generalized anxiety (OR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.14-4.51), deliberate self-harm (OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.51-4.24), emotional problems (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.08-1.43), and smoking (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.36-3.48). Purging at 14 years was also associated with future depression (OR, 2.87; 95% CI, 1.69-5.01) and anxiety (OR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.49-4.12) symptoms. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study delineate temporal associations and shared etiologies among DEBs and other mental health disorders and emphasize the potential of genetic and phenotypical assessments of obesity, behavioral disorders, and neuroticism to improve early and differential diagnosis of eating disorders.

17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 22346, 2020 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339879

RESUMO

The risk of relapsing into depression after stopping antidepressants is high, but no established predictors exist. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) measures may help predict relapse and identify the mechanisms by which relapses occur. rsfMRI data were acquired from healthy controls and from patients with remitted major depressive disorder on antidepressants. Patients were assessed a second time either before or after discontinuation of the antidepressant, and followed up for six months to assess relapse. A seed-based functional connectivity analysis was conducted focusing on the left subgenual anterior cingulate cortex and left posterior cingulate cortex. Seeds in the amygdala and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were explored. 44 healthy controls (age: 33.8 (10.5), 73% female) and 84 patients (age: 34.23 (10.8), 80% female) were included in the analysis. 29 patients went on to relapse and 38 remained well. The seed-based analysis showed that discontinuation resulted in an increased functional connectivity between the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the parietal cortex in non-relapsers. In an exploratory analysis, this functional connectivity predicted relapse risk with a balanced accuracy of 0.86. Further seed-based analyses, however, failed to reveal differences in functional connectivity between patients and controls, between relapsers and non-relapsers before discontinuation and changes due to discontinuation independent of relapse. In conclusion, changes in the connectivity between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the posterior default mode network were associated with and predictive of relapse after open-label antidepressant discontinuation. This finding requires replication in a larger dataset.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/efeitos adversos , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tonsila do Cerebelo/patologia , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Mapeamento Encefálico , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/diagnóstico por imagem , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/patologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vias Neurais/patologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/patologia , Recidiva , Prevenção Secundária
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is implicated in depression. The hypothesis investigated was whether the OFC sensitivity to reward and nonreward is related to the severity of depressive symptoms. METHODS: Activations in the monetary incentive delay task were measured in the IMAGEN cohort at ages 14 years (n = 1877) and 19 years (n = 1140) with a longitudinal design. Clinically relevant subgroups were compared at ages 19 (high-severity group: n = 116; low-severity group: n = 206) and 14. RESULTS: The medial OFC exhibited graded activation increases to reward, and the lateral OFC had graded activation increases to nonreward. In this general population, the medial and lateral OFC activations were associated with concurrent depressive symptoms at both ages 14 and 19 years. In a stratified high-severity depressive symptom group versus control group comparison, the lateral OFC showed greater sensitivity for the magnitudes of activations related to nonreward in the high-severity group at age 19 (p = .027), and the medial OFC showed decreased sensitivity to the reward magnitudes in the high-severity group at both ages 14 (p = .002) and 19 (p = .002). In a longitudinal design, there was greater sensitivity to nonreward of the lateral OFC at age 14 for those who exhibited high depressive symptom severity later at age 19 (p = .003). CONCLUSIONS: Activations in the lateral OFC relate to sensitivity to not winning, were associated with high depressive symptom scores, and at age 14 predicted the depressive symptoms at ages 16 and 19. Activations in the medial OFC were related to sensitivity to winning, and reduced reward sensitivity was associated with concurrent high depressive symptom scores.

19.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(11): e19836, 2020 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A growing number of psychological interventions are delivered via smartphones with the aim of increasing the efficacy and effectiveness of these treatments and providing scalable access to interventions for improving mental health. Most of the scientifically tested apps are based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) principles, which are considered the gold standard for the treatment of most mental health problems. OBJECTIVE: This review investigates standalone smartphone-based ecological momentary interventions (EMIs) built on principles derived from CBT that aim to improve mental health. METHODS: We searched the MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and PubMed databases for peer-reviewed studies published between January 1, 2007, and January 15, 2020. We included studies focusing on standalone app-based approaches to improve mental health and their feasibility, efficacy, or effectiveness. Both within- and between-group designs and studies with both healthy and clinical samples were included. Blended interventions, for example, app-based treatments in combination with psychotherapy, were not included. Selected studies were evaluated in terms of their design, that is, choice of the control condition, sample characteristics, EMI content, EMI delivery characteristics, feasibility, efficacy, and effectiveness. The latter was defined in terms of improvement in the primary outcomes used in the studies. RESULTS: A total of 26 studies were selected. The results show that EMIs based on CBT principles can be successfully delivered, significantly increase well-being among users, and reduce mental health symptoms. Standalone EMIs were rated as helpful (mean 70.8%, SD 15.3; n=4 studies) and satisfying for users (mean 72.6%, SD 17.2; n=7 studies). CONCLUSIONS: Study quality was heterogeneous, and feasibility was often not reported in the reviewed studies, thus limiting the conclusions that can be drawn from the existing data. Together, the studies show that EMIs may help increase mental health and thus support individuals in their daily lives. Such EMIs provide readily available, scalable, and evidence-based mental health support. These characteristics appear crucial in the context of a global crisis such as the COVID-19 pandemic but may also help reduce personal and economic costs of mental health impairment beyond this situation or in the context of potential future pandemics.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Saúde Mental , Aplicativos Móveis , Smartphone , Telemedicina/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011213

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: It is unclear whether deviations in brain and behavioral development, that may underpin elevated substance use during adolescence, are predispositions for or are consequences of substance use initiation. Here, we examine behavioral and neuroimaging indices at early and mid-adolescence in drug naïve youth to identify possible predisposing factors for substance use initiation and its possible consequences. METHOD: Among 304 drug-naïve adolescents at baseline (age 14) from the IMAGEN dataset, 83 stayed drug-naïve, 133 used alcohol on 1-9 occasions, 42 on 10-19 occasions, 27 on 20-39 occasions, and 19 on >40 occasions at follow-up (age 16). Baseline measures included brain activation during the Monetary Incentive Delay task, whereas data at both baseline and follow-up included measures of trait impulsivity and delay discounting. RESULTS: From baseline to follow-up, impulsivity decreased in the 0 and 1-9 occasions groups (p<.004), did not change in the 10-19 and 20-29 occasions groups (p>.294), and uncharacteristically increased in the >40 occasions group (p=.046). Further, blunted mOFC activation during reward outcome at baseline significantly predicted higher alcohol use frequency at follow-up, above and beyond behavioral and clinical variables (p=.008). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that transition from no use to frequent drinking in early to mid-adolescence may disrupt normative developmental changes in behavioral control. Additionally, blunted activity of the mOFC during reward outcome may underscore a predisposition to the development of more severe alcohol use in adolescents. This distinction is clinically important as it informs early intervention efforts in preventing the onset of substance use disorder in adolescents.

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