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Sci Adv ; 6(31): eabb7721, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32832693


Increasingly impressive demonstrations of voltage-controlled magnetism have been achieved recently, highlighting potential for low-power data processing and storage. Magnetoionic approaches appear particularly promising, electrolytes and ionic conductors being capable of on/off control of ferromagnetism and tuning of magnetic anisotropy. A clear limitation, however, is that these devices either electrically tune a known ferromagnet or electrically induce ferromagnetism from another magnetic state, e.g., antiferromagnetic. Here, we demonstrate that ferromagnetism can be voltage-induced even from a diamagnetic (zero-spin) state suggesting that useful magnetic phases could be electrically induced in "nonmagnetic" materials. We use ionic liquid-gated diamagnetic FeS2 as a model system, showing that as little as 1 V induces a reversible insulator-metal transition by electrostatic surface inversion. Anomalous Hall measurements then reveal electrically tunable surface ferromagnetism at up to 25 K. Density functional theory-based modeling explains this in terms of Stoner ferromagnetism induced via filling of a narrow e g band.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(17): 15552-15563, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31008575


Pyrite FeS2 has long been considered a potential earth-abundant low-cost photovoltaic material for thin-film solar cells but has been plagued by low power conversion efficiencies and open-circuit voltages. Recent efforts have identified a lack of understanding and control of doping, as well as uncontrolled surface conduction, as key roadblocks to the development of pyrite photovoltaics. In particular, while n-type bulk behavior in unintentionally doped single crystals and thin films is speculated to arise from sulfur vacancies (VS), proof remains elusive. Here, we provide strong evidence, from extensive electronic transport measurements on high-quality crystals, that VS are deep donors in bulk pyrite. Otherwise identical crystals grown via chemical vapor transport under varied S vapor pressures are thoroughly characterized structurally and chemically, and shown to exhibit systematically different electronic transport. Decreased S vapor pressure during growth leads to reduced bulk resistivity, increased bulk Hall electron density, reduced transport activation energy, onset of positive temperature coefficient of resistivity, and approach to an insulator-metal transition, all as would be expected from increased VS donor density. Impurity analyses show that these trends are uncorrelated with metal impurity concentration and that extracted donor densities significantly exceed total impurity concentrations, directly evidencing a native defect. Well-controlled, wide-range n-doping of pyrite is thus achieved via the control of VS concentration, with substantial implications for photovoltaic and other applications. The location of the VS state within the gap, the influence of specific impurities, unusual aspects to the insulator-metal transition, and the influence of doping on surface conduction are also discussed.

Phys Rev Lett ; 118(10): 106801, 2017 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28339226


Stimulated by experimental advances in electrolyte gating methods, we investigate theoretically percolation in thin films of inhomogeneous complex oxides, such as La_{1-x}Sr_{x}CoO_{3} (LSCO), induced by a combination of bulk chemical and surface electrostatic doping. Using numerical and analytical methods, we identify two mechanisms that describe how bulk dopants reduce the amount of electrostatic surface charge required to reach percolation: (i) bulk-assisted surface percolation and (ii) surface-assisted bulk percolation. We show that the critical surface charge strongly depends on the film thickness when the film is close to the chemical percolation threshold. In particular, thin films can be driven across the percolation transition by modest surface charge densities. If percolation is associated with the onset of ferromagnetism, as in LSCO, we further demonstrate that the presence of critical magnetic clusters extending from the film surface into the bulk results in considerable enhancement of the saturation magnetization, with pronounced experimental consequences. These results should significantly guide experimental work seeking to verify gate-induced percolation transitions in such materials.

ACS Nano ; 10(8): 7799-810, 2016 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27479878


Recently, electrolyte gating techniques employing ionic liquids/gels in electric double layer transistors have proven remarkably effective in tuning charge carrier density in a variety of materials. The ability to control surface carrier densities at levels above 10(14) cm(-2) has led to widespread use in the study of superconductivity, insulator-metal transitions, etc. In many cases, controversy remains over the doping mechanism, however (i.e., electrostatic vs electrochemical (e.g., redox-based)), and the technique has been less applied to magnetic materials. Here, we discuss ion gel gating of nanoscale 8-unit-cell-thick hole-doped La0.5Sr0.5CoO3-δ (LSCO) films, probing in detail the critical bias windows and doping mechanisms. The LSCO films, which are under compressive stress on LaAlO3(001) substrates, are metallic and ferromagnetic (Curie temperature, TC ∼ 170 K), with strong anomalous Hall effect and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Transport measurements reveal that negative gate biases lead to reversible hole accumulation (i.e., predominantly electrostatic operation) up to some threshold, whereas positive bias immediately induces irreversibility. Experiments in inert/O2 atmospheres directly implicate oxygen vacancies in this irreversibility, supported by atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results are thus of general importance, suggesting that hole- and electron-doped oxides may respond very differently to electrolyte gating. Reversible voltage control of electronic/magnetic properties is then demonstrated under hole accumulation, including resistivity, magnetoresistance, and TC. The sizable anomalous Hall coefficient and perpendicular anisotropy in LSCO provide a particularly powerful probe of magnetism, enabling direct extraction of the voltage-dependent order parameter and TC shift. The latter amounts to ∼7%, with potential for much stronger modulation at lower Sr doping.

J Glaucoma ; 15(5): 358-63, 2006 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16988596


PURPOSE: Previous studies have suggested that Optineurin (OPTN) sequence variants contribute to low-tension glaucoma (LTG) in ethnically homogeneous populations. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of OPTN sequence variants in an ethnically diverse population of LTG patients from the United States, and to describe the phenotype of patients with OPTN sequence variants preferentially found in LTG patients. METHODS: Genomic DNA purified from 67 LTG patients was screened for DNA sequence variants located in the exons and flanking introns of the OPTN gene using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis and direct genomic DNA sequencing. Eighty-six primary open-angle glaucoma probands and 100 control patients were also analyzed. RESULTS: Nine OPTN DNA sequence variants were identified in this patient population including the 2 previously identified heterozygous nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms in exons 4 and 5. Four LTG patients with severe disease and positive family history of glaucoma, were found to have DNA sequence changes not found in primary open-angle glaucoma probands or control individuals including the previously reported E50K variation. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study support the rare association of OPTN sequence variants with familial forms of LTG. The E50K mutation seems to be associated with a severe form of LTG, and although rare, the identification of this sequence variant in patients at risk may help direct appropriate therapy.

Americanos Asiáticos , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/etnologia , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fator de Transcrição TFIIIA/genética , Adulto , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hipertensão Ocular/etnologia , Hipertensão Ocular/genética , Fenótipo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia