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1.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 145(1): 46-69, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568798

RESUMO

Genetic testing has become an integral component of the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected primary immunodeficiency diseases. Results of genetic testing can have a profound effect on clinical management decisions. Therefore clinical providers must demonstrate proficiency in interpreting genetic data. Because of the need for increased knowledge regarding this practice, the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases Committee established a work group that reviewed and summarized information concerning appropriate methods, tools, and resources for evaluating variants identified by genetic testing. Strengths and limitations of tests frequently ordered by clinicians were examined. Summary statements and tables were then developed to guide the interpretation process. Finally, the need for research and collaboration was emphasized. Greater understanding of these important concepts will improve the diagnosis and management of patients with suspected primary immunodeficiency diseases.

4.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 31(6): 851-862, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693597

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs) are no longer defined by infections alone. First clinical sign or sequelae of PID may include autoimmunity, such as cytopenias, arthritis or enteropathy. This review addresses the latest in multidisciplinary approaches for expanding clinical phenotypes of PIDs with autoimmunity, including new presentations of known entities and novel gene defects. We also discuss diagnostic tools for identifying the distinct changes in immune cells subsets and autoantibodies, mechanistic understanding of the process, and targeted treatment and indications for hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). RECENT FINDINGS: In the past years, increased awareness and use of genetic screening, confirmatory functional studies and immunological biomarkers opened the door for early recognition of PIDs among patients with autoimmunity. Large cohort studies detail the clinical spectrum and treatment outcome of PIDs with autoimmunity with specific immune genes (e.g., CTLA4, LRBA, PI3Kδ, NFKB1, RAG). The benefit of early recognition is initiation of targeted therapies with precise re-balancing of the dysregulated immune pathways (e.g., biologicals) or definitive therapy (e.g., HSCT). SUMMARY: Clinical presentation of patients with PID and autoimmunity is highly variable and requires in-depth diagnostics and precision medicine approaches.

5.
Sci Signal ; 12(604)2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641080

RESUMO

Transitional B cells must actively undergo selection for self-tolerance before maturing into their resting follicular B cell successors. We found that metabolic quiescence was acquired at the follicular B cell stage in both humans and mice. In follicular B cells, the expression of genes involved in ribosome biogenesis, aerobic respiration, and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling was reduced when compared to that in transitional B cells. Functional metabolism studies, profiling of whole-cell metabolites, and analysis of cell surface proteins in human B cells suggested that this transition was also associated with increased extracellular adenosine salvage. Follicular B cells increased the abundance of the cell surface ectonucleotidase CD73, which coincided with adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. Differentiation to the follicular B cell stage in vitro correlated with surface acquisition of CD73 on human transitional B cells and was augmented with the AMPK agonist, AICAR. Last, individuals with gain-of-function PIK3CD (PI3Kδ) mutations and increased pS6 activation exhibited a near absence of circulating follicular B cells. Together, our data suggest that mTORC1 attenuation may be necessary for human follicular B cell development. These data identify a distinct metabolic switch during human B cell development at the transitional to follicular stages, which is characterized by an induction of extracellular adenosine salvage, AMPK activation, and the acquisition of metabolic quiescence.

6.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 15(10): 1033-1046, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535575

RESUMO

Introduction: Patients with primary immunodeficiency secondary to abnormal recombinase activating genes (RAG) can present with broad clinical phenotypes ranging from early severe infections to autoimmune complications and inflammation. Immunological phenotype may also vary from T-B- severe combined immunodeficiency to combined immunodeficiency or antibody deficiencies with near-normal T and B cell counts and even preserved specific antibody response to pathogens. It is not uncommon that RAG variants of uncertain significance are identified by serendipity during a broad genetic screening process and pathogenic RAG variants are increasingly recognized among all age groups, including adults. Establishing the pathogenicity and clinical relevance of novel RAG variants can be challenging since RAG genes are highly polymorphic. This review paper aims to summarize clinical phenotypes of RAG deficiencies and provide practical guidance for confirming the direct link between specific RAG variants and clinical disease. Lastly, we will review the current understanding of treatment option for patients with varying severity of RAG deficiencies. Area covered: This review discusses the different phenotypes and immunological aspects of RAG deficiencies, the diagnosis dilemma facing clinicians, and an overview of current and advancement in treatments. Expert opinion: A careful analysis of immunological and clinical data and their correlation with genetic findings helps to determine the significance of the genetic polymorphism. Advances in functional assays, as well as anti-cytokine antibodies, make it easier to resolve the diagnostic dilemma.

7.
Pediatr Transplant ; 23(7): e13571, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31497926

RESUMO

Growing evidence suggests receipt of live-attenuated viral vaccines after solid organ transplant (SOT) has occurred and is safe and needed due to lapses in herd immunity. A 2-day consortium of experts in infectious diseases, transplantation, vaccinology, and immunology was held with the objective to review evidence and create expert recommendations for clinicians when considering live viral vaccines post-SOT. For consideration of VV and MMR post-transplant, evidence exists only for kidney and liver transplant recipients. For MMR vaccine post-SOT, consider vaccination during outbreak or travel to endemic risk areas. Patients who have received antiproliferative agents (eg. mycophenolate mofetil), T cell-depleting agents, or rituximab; or have persistently elevated EBV viral loads, or are in a state of functional tolerance, should be vaccinated with caution and have a more in-depth evaluation to define benefit of vaccination and net state of immune suppression prior to considering vaccination. MMR and/or VV (not combined MMRV) is considered to be safe in patients who are clinically well, are greater than 1 year after liver or kidney transplant and 2 months after acute rejection episode, can be closely monitored, and meet specific criteria of "low-level" immune suppression as defined in the document.

8.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(7): 688-701, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388879

RESUMO

While widespread genome sequencing ushers in a new era of preventive medicine, the tools for predictive genomics are still lacking. Time and resource limitations mean that human diseases remain uncharacterized because of an inability to predict clinically relevant genetic variants. A strategy of targeting highly conserved protein regions is used commonly in functional studies. However, this benefit is lost for rare diseases where the attributable genes are mostly conserved. An immunological disorder exemplifying this challenge occurs through damaging mutations in RAG1 and RAG2 which presents at an early age with a distinct phenotype of life-threatening immunodeficiency or autoimmunity. Many tools exist for variant pathogenicity prediction, but these cannot account for the probability of variant occurrence. Here, we present a method that predicts the likelihood of mutation for every amino acid residue in the RAG1 and RAG2 proteins. Population genetics data from approximately 146,000 individuals was used for rare variant analysis. Forty-four known pathogenic variants reported in patients and recombination activity measurements from 110 RAG1/2 mutants were used to validate calculated scores. Probabilities were compared with 98 currently known human cases of disease. A genome sequence dataset of 558 patients who have primary immunodeficiency but that are negative for RAG deficiency were also used as validation controls. We compared the difference between mutation likelihood and pathogenicity prediction. Our method builds a map of most probable mutations allowing pre-emptive functional analysis. This method may be applied to other diseases with hopes of improving preparedness for clinical diagnosis.

9.
Front Pediatr ; 7: 235, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334206

RESUMO

Autoimmunity is becoming an increasingly recognized complication in patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs), including a variety of combined immune deficiencies such as Recombination Activating Gene (RAG) defects. The approach to treating autoimmunity in PID patients is complex, requiring a balance between immunosuppression and susceptibility to infection. Inflammatory arthritis is a feature of immune dysregulation in many PIDs, and the optimal treatment may differ from first line therapies that usually consist of disease-modifying anti rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). An example of mechanism-based therapy of arthritis in PID uses blockade of IL-6 signaling with tocilizumab for patients with STAT 3 gain-of-function (GOF) mutation and augmented IL-6 pathway. Herein, we describe two PID cases with arthritis who were found to have defects in RAG. One patient with refractory inflammatory arthritis experienced remarkable improvement in symptoms with tocilizumab therapy. Arthritis can be a clinical feature of immune dysregulation in RAG deficiency, and tocilizumab therapy has been suggested to have utility in treatment of arthritis in RAG deficiency.

10.
Front Pediatr ; 7: 122, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058115

RESUMO

Proteins expressed by recombination activating genes 1 and 2 (RAG1/2) are essential in the process of V(D)J recombination that leads to generation of the T and B cell repertoires. Clinical and immunological phenotypes of patients with RAG deficiencies correlate well to the degree of impaired RAG activity and this has been expanding to variants of combined immunodeficiency (CID) or even milder antibody deficiency syndromes. Pathogenic variants that severely impair recombinase activity of RAG1/2 determine a severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) phenotype, whereas hypomorphic variants result in leaky (partial) SCID and other immunodeficiencies. We report a patient with novel pathogenic compound heterozygous RAG2 variants that result in a CID phenotype with two distinctive characteristics: late-onset progressive hypogammaglobulinemia and highly elevated B cell count. In addition, the patient had early onset of infections, T cell lymphopenia and expansion of lymphocytes after exposure to herpes family viruses. This case highlights the importance of considering pathogenic RAG variants among patients with preserved B cell count and CID phenotype.

11.
Front Pediatr ; 7: 139, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069201

RESUMO

We report a novel variant in IKZF1 associated with IKAROS haploinsufficiency in a patient with familial immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). IKAROS, encoded by the IKZF1 gene, is a hematopoietic zinc-finger transcription factor that can directly bind to DNA. We show that the identified IKZF1 variant (p.His195Arg) alters a completely conserved histidine residue required for the folding of the third zinc-finger of IKAROS protein, leading to a loss of characteristic immunofluorescence nuclear staining pattern. In our case, genetic testing was essential for the diagnosis of IKAROS haploinsufficiency, of which known presentations include infections, aberrant hematopoiesis, leukemia, and age-related decrease in humoral immunity. Our family study underscores that, after infections, ITP is the second most common clinical manifestation of IKAROS haploinsufficiency.

12.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(5): 1578-1579, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076063
13.
Front Pediatr ; 7: 55, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31024866

RESUMO

In the era of newborn screening (NBS) for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) and the possibility of gene therapy (GT), it is important to link SCID phenotype to the underlying genetic disease. In western countries, X-linked interleukin 2 receptor gamma chain (IL2RG) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency SCID are two of the most common types of SCID and can be treated by GT. As a challenge, both IL2RG and ADA genes are highly polymorphic and a gene-based diagnosis may be difficult if the variant is of unknown significance or if it is located in non-coding areas of the genes that are not routinely evaluated with exon-based genetic testing (e.g., introns, promoters, and the 5'and 3' untranslated regions). Therefore, it is important to extend evaluation to non-coding areas of a SCID gene if the exon-based sequencing is inconclusive and there is strong suspicion that a variant in that gene is the cause for disease. Functional studies are often required in these cases to confirm a pathogenic variant. We present here two unique examples of X-linked SCID with variable immune phenotypes, where IL2R gamma chain expression was detected and no pathogenic variant was identified on initial genetic testing. Pathogenic IL2RG variants were subsequently confirmed by functional assay of gamma chain signaling and maternal X-inactivation studies. We propose that such tests can facilitate confirmation of suspected cases of X-linked SCID in newborns when initial genetic testing is inconclusive. Early identification of pathogenic IL2RG variants is especially important to ensure eligibility for gene therapy.

14.
Front Pediatr ; 7: 61, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30941333

RESUMO

With the accessibility of next-generation sequencing modalities, an increasing number of primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDDs) such as common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) have gained improved understanding of molecular pathogenesis and disease phenotype with the identification of a genetic etiology. We report a patient with early-onset CVID due to an autosomal dominant loss-of-function mutation in NFKB2 who developed a severe herpes vegetans cutaneous infection as well as concurrent herpes simplex virus viremia. The case highlights features of CVID, unique aspects of NF-κB2 deficiency including susceptibility to herpesvirus infections, the detection of neutralizing anticytokine antibodies, and the complexity of medical management of patients with a PIDD that can be aided by a known genetic diagnosis.

15.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(2): 726-735, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29772310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in recombination-activating gene (RAG) 1 and RAG2 are associated with a broad range of clinical and immunologic phenotypes in human subjects. OBJECTIVE: Using a flow cytometry-based assay, we aimed to measure the recombinase activity of naturally occurring RAG2 mutant proteins and to correlate our results with the severity of the clinical and immunologic phenotype. METHODS: Abelson virus-transformed Rag2-/- pro-B cells engineered to contain an inverted green fluorescent protein (GFP) cassette flanked by recombination signal sequences were transduced with retroviruses encoding either wild-type or 41 naturally occurring RAG2 variants. Bicistronic vectors were used to introduce compound heterozygous RAG2 variants. The percentage of GFP-expressing cells was evaluated by using flow cytometry, and high-throughput sequencing was used to analyze rearrangements at the endogenous immunoglobulin heavy chain (Igh) locus. RESULTS: The RAG2 variants showed a wide range of recombination activity. Mutations associated with severe combined immunodeficiency and Omenn syndrome had significantly lower activity than those detected in patients with less severe clinical presentations. Four variants (P253R, F386L, N474S, and M502V) previously thought to be pathogenic were found to have wild-type levels of activity. Use of bicistronic vectors permitted us to assess more carefully the effect of compound heterozygous mutations, with good correlation between GFP expression and the number and diversity of Igh rearrangements. CONCLUSIONS: Our data support genotype-phenotype correlation in the setting of RAG2 deficiency. The assay described can be used to define the possible disease-causing role of novel RAG2 variants and might help predict the severity of the clinical phenotype.

16.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(1): 173-181.e10, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30248356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a highly prevalent chronic inflammatory skin disease that is known to be, at least in part, genetically determined. Mutations in caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 14 (CARD14) have been shown to result in various forms of psoriasis and related disorders. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify rare DNA variants conferring a significant risk for AD through genetic and functional studies in a cohort of patients affected with severe AD. METHODS: Whole-exome and direct gene sequencing, immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR, ELISA, and functional assays in human keratinocytes were used. RESULTS: In a cohort of patients referred with severe AD, DNA sequencing revealed in 4 patients 2 rare heterozygous missense mutations in the gene encoding CARD14, a major regulator of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). A dual luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that both mutations exert a dominant loss-of-function effect and result in decreased NF-κB signaling. Accordingly, immunohistochemistry staining showed decreased expression of CARD14 in patients' skin, as well as decreased levels of activated p65, a surrogate marker for NF-κB activity. CARD14-deficient or mutant-expressing keratinocytes displayed abnormal secretion of key mediators of innate immunity. CONCLUSIONS: Although dominant gain-of-function mutations in CARD14 are associated with psoriasis and related diseases, loss-of-function mutations in the same gene are associated with a severe variant of AD.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização CARD , Dermatite Atópica , Guanilato Ciclase , Queratinócitos , Mutação com Perda de Função , Proteínas de Membrana , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Adolescente , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização CARD/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização CARD/metabolismo , Dermatite Atópica/genética , Dermatite Atópica/metabolismo , Dermatite Atópica/patologia , Feminino , Guanilato Ciclase/genética , Guanilato Ciclase/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/patologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fator de Transcrição RelA/genética , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo
17.
Clin Case Rep ; 6(9): 1834-1840, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30214774

RESUMO

Diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis (DCM) is a rare but potentially fatal condition when diagnosis and targeted treatments are delayed. This case illustrates the life-threatening complications in DCM and reviews the currently available treatments. To our knowledge, this is the first report of mastocytosis with somatic K509I mutation and concomitant tuberous sclerosis.

19.
Blood ; 131(26): 2967-2977, 2018 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29728406

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) typically results in donor T-cell engraftment and function in patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), but humoral immunity, particularly when using donors other than matched siblings, is variable. B-cell function after HSCT for SCID depends on the genetic cause, the use of pre-HSCT conditioning, and whether donor B-cell chimerism is achieved. Patients with defects in IL2RG or JAK3 undergoing HSCT without conditioning often have poor B-cell function post-HSCT, perhaps as a result of impairment of IL-21 signaling in host-derived B cells. To investigate the effect of pre-HSCT conditioning on B-cell function, and the relationship of in vitro B-cell function to clinical humoral immune status, we analyzed 48 patients with IL2RG/JAK3 SCID who were older than 2 years after HSCT with donors other than matched siblings. T follicular helper cells (TFH) developed in these patients with kinetics similar to healthy young children; thus, poor B-cell function could not be attributed to a failure of TFH development. In vitro differentiation of B cells into plasmablasts and immunoglobulin secretion in response to IL-21 strongly correlated with the use of conditioning, donor B-cell engraftment, freedom from immunoglobulin replacement, and response to tetanus vaccine. Patients receiving immunoglobulin replacement who had normal serum immunoglobulin M showed poor response to IL-21 in vitro, similar to those with low serum IgM. In vitro response of B cells to IL-21 may predict clinically relevant humoral immune function in patients with IL2RG/JAK3 SCID after HSCT.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Subunidade gama Comum de Receptores de Interleucina/imunologia , Interleucinas/imunologia , Janus Quinase 3/imunologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/terapia , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Adolescente , Linfócitos B/citologia , Diferenciação Celular , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral , Subunidade gama Comum de Receptores de Interleucina/genética , Janus Quinase 3/genética , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/genética , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Transplante Homólogo , Adulto Jovem
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