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1.
J Clin Immunol ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411155

RESUMO

Newborn screening efforts focusing on the quantification of T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs), as a biomarker for abnormal thymic production of T cells, have allowed for the identification and definitive treatment of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in asymptomatic neonates. With the adoption of TREC quantification in Guthrie cards across the USA and abroad, typical, and atypical SCID constitutes only ~ 10% of cases identified with abnormal TRECs associated with T cell lymphopenia. Several other non-SCID-related conditions may be identified by newborn screening in a term infant. Thus, it is important for physicians to recognize that other factors, such as prematurity, are often associated with low TRECs initially, but often improve with age. This paper focuses on a challenge that immunologists face: the diagnostic evaluation and management of cases in which abnormal TRECs are associated with variants of T cell lymphopenia in the absence of a genetically defined form of typical or atypical SCID. Various syndromes associated with T cell impairment, secondary forms of T cell lymphopenia, and idiopathic T cell lymphopenia are identified using this screening approach. Yet there is no consensus or guidelines to assist in the evaluation and management of these newborns, despite representing 90% of the patients identified, resulting in significant work for the clinical teams until a diagnosis is made. Using a case-based approach, we review pearls relevant to the evaluation of these newborns, as well as the management dilemmas for the families and team related to the resolution of genetic ambiguities.

2.
J Clin Immunol ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33415666

RESUMO

PURPOSE: T cell receptor excision circle (TREC) quantification is a recent addition to newborn screening (NBS) programs and is intended to identify infants with severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCID). However, other primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID) have also been identified as the result of TREC screening. We recently reported a newborn with a low TREC level on day 1 of life who was diagnosed with WHIM (warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, myelokathexis) syndrome, a non-SCID primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the chemokine receptor CXCR4. METHODS: We have now retrospectively reviewed the birth and clinical histories of all known WHIM infants born after the implementation of NBS for SCID. RESULTS: We identified six infants with confirmed WHIM syndrome who also had TREC quantification on NBS. Three of the six WHIM infants had low TREC levels on NBS. All six patients were lymphopenic but only one infant had a T cell count below 1,500 cells/µL. The most common clinical manifestation was viral bronchiolitis requiring hospitalization. One infant died of complications related to Tetralogy of Fallot, a known WHIM phenotype. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that WHIM syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis of newborns with low NBS TREC levels. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not applicable.

3.
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program ; 2020(1): 312-318, 2020 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33275746

RESUMO

Rituximab and eculizumab, monoclonal antibodies that deplete most B cells and activate the terminal complement, respectively, are used to treat nonmalignant hematologic disorders (NMHDs), sometimes with unfavorable effects on the immune system. Hypogammaglobulinemia and neutropenia have been reported with variable prevalence in patients treated with rituximab. Neutropenia is mild and transient, and serious infectious complications are uncommon, so treatment is not indicated. Hypogammaglobulinemia is of greater concern. There is a lack of agreement on a standardized definition, and pre- and posttreatment immunoglobulin (Ig) levels are not routinely obtained. The association among low Ig levels, infectious risk, and mortality and morbidity in this population is unclear. There are also no formal guidelines on indication, risk factors, and threshold level of IgG to prompt Ig replacement therapy (IgRT). Among patients with NMHD, preexisting or persistent hypogammaglobulinemia (PH) after treatment with rituximab has been linked to underlying primary immunodeficiency disorders; therefore, a high index of suspicion should be maintained, and immunologic and genetic evaluation should be considered. Overall, important strategies in managing patients who are receiving rituximab include routine monitoring of pre- and posttreatment IgG levels, immune reconstitution (eg, B-cell subsets), assessment of vaccination status and optimization before treatment, and individualized consideration for IgRT. Accordingly, we discuss immunizations. Eculizumab, most commonly used in the treatment of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, poses increased risk of meningococcal infections. To decrease the risk of infection, a meningococcal vaccination series is recommended before initiating therapy, and prophylactic antibiotics are preferred during the course of treatment.

4.
Front Immunol ; 11: 574738, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193364

RESUMO

Vasculitis can be a life-threatening complication associated with high mortality and morbidity among patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs), including variants of severe and combined immunodeficiencies ((S)CID). Our understanding of vasculitis in partial defects in recombination activating gene (RAG) deficiency, a prototype of (S)CIDs, is limited with no published systematic evaluation of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. In this report, we sought to establish the clinical, laboratory features, and treatment outcome of patients with vasculitis due to partial RAG deficiency. Vasculitis was a major complication in eight (13%) of 62 patients in our cohort with partial RAG deficiency with features of infections and immune dysregulation. Vasculitis occurred early in life, often as first sign of disease (50%) and was complicated by significant end organ damage. Viral infections often preceded the onset of predominately non-granulomatous-small vessel vasculitis. Autoantibodies against cytokines (IFN-α, -ω, and IL-12) were detected in a large fraction of the cases tested (80%), whereas the majority of patients were anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) negative (>80%). Genetic diagnosis of RAG deficiency was delayed up to 2 years from the onset of vasculitis. Clinical cases with sole skin manifestation responded well to first-line steroid treatment, whereas systemic vasculitis with severe end-organ complications required second-line immunosuppression and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for definitive management. In conclusion, our data suggest that vasculitis in partial RAG deficiency is prevalent among patients with partial RAG deficiency and is associated with high morbidity. Therefore, partial RAG deficiency should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with early-onset systemic vasculitis. Diagnostic serology may be misleading with ANCA negative findings, and search for conventional autoantibodies should be extended to include those targeting cytokines.

5.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1954, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33117328

RESUMO

The T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) assay detects T-cell lymphopenia (TCL) in newborns and is especially important to identify severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). A spectrum of SCID variants and non-SCID conditions that present with TCL are being discovered with increasing frequency by newborn screening (NBS). Recombination-activating gene (RAG) deficiency is one the most common causes of classical and atypical SCID and other conditions with immune dysregulation. We present the case of an asymptomatic male with undetectable TRECs on NBS at 1 week of age. The asymptomatic newborn was found to have severe TCL, but normal B cell quantities and lymphocyte proliferation upon mitogen stimulation. Next generation sequencing revealed compound heterozygous hypomorphic RAG variants, one of which was novel. The moderately decreased recombinase activity of the RAG variants (16 and 40%) resulted in abnormal T and B-cell receptor repertoires, decreased fraction of CD3+ TCRVα7.2+ T cells and an immune phenotype consistent with the RAG hypomorphic variants. The patient underwent successful treatment with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) at 5 months of age. This case illustrates how after identification of a novel RAG variant, in vitro studies are important to confirm the pathogenicity of the variant. This confirmation allows the clinician to expedite definitive treatment with HSCT in an asymptomatic phase, mitigating the risk of serious infectious and non-infectious complications.

6.
Front Immunol ; 11: 900, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32655540

RESUMO

Background: Variants in recombination-activating genes (RAG) are common genetic causes of autosomal recessive forms of combined immunodeficiencies (CID) ranging from severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), Omenn syndrome (OS), leaky SCID, and CID with granulomas and/or autoimmunity (CID-G/AI), and even milder presentation with antibody deficiency. Objective: We aim to estimate the incidence, clinical presentation, genetic variability, and treatment outcome with geographic distribution of patients with the RAG defects in populations inhabiting South, West, and East Slavic countries. Methods: Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected from RAG-deficient patients of Slavic origin via chart review, retrospectively. Recombinase activity was determined in vitro by flow cytometry-based assay. Results: Based on the clinical and immunologic phenotype, our cohort of 82 patients from 68 families represented a wide spectrum of RAG deficiencies, including SCID (n = 20), OS (n = 37), and LS/CID (n = 25) phenotypes. Sixty-seven (81.7%) patients carried RAG1 and 15 patients (18.3%) carried RAG2 biallelic variants. We estimate that the minimal annual incidence of RAG deficiency in Slavic countries varies between 1 in 180,000 and 1 in 300,000 live births, and it may vary secondary to health care disparities in these regions. In our cohort, 70% (n = 47) of patients with RAG1 variants carried p.K86Vfs*33 (c.256_257delAA) allele, either in homozygous (n = 18, 27%) or in compound heterozygous (n = 29, 43%) form. The majority (77%) of patients with homozygous RAG1 p.K86Vfs*33 variant originated from Vistula watershed area in Central and Eastern Poland, and compound heterozygote cases were distributed among all Slavic countries except Bulgaria. Clinical and immunological presentation of homozygous RAG1 p.K86Vfs*33 cases was highly diverse (SCID, OS, and AS/CID) suggestive of strong influence of additional genetic and/or epigenetic factors in shaping the final phenotype. Conclusion: We propose that RAG1 p.K86Vfs*33 is a founder variant originating from the Vistula watershed region in Poland, which may explain a high proportion of homozygous cases from Central and Eastern Poland and the presence of the variant in all Slavs. Our studies in this cohort of RAG1 founder variants confirm that clinical and immunological phenotypes only partially depend on the underlying genetic defect. As access to HSCT is improving among RAG-deficient patients in Eastern Europe, we anticipate improvements in survival.

7.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(5): ofaa076, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32391400

RESUMO

We treated three pediatric cardiac transplant patients with chronic parvovirus viremia with high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (HD-IVIG). One patient with severe T-cell lymphopenia suffered recurrent viremia and aseptic meningitis, which resolved remarkably when he was switched to high-dose hyaluronidase-facilitated subcutaneous immunoglobulin (HD-SCIG-Hy). We discuss the advantages of HD-SCIG-Hy vs HD-IVIG treatment for similar cases.

8.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 145(1): 46-69, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568798

RESUMO

Genetic testing has become an integral component of the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected primary immunodeficiency diseases. Results of genetic testing can have a profound effect on clinical management decisions. Therefore clinical providers must demonstrate proficiency in interpreting genetic data. Because of the need for increased knowledge regarding this practice, the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases Committee established a work group that reviewed and summarized information concerning appropriate methods, tools, and resources for evaluating variants identified by genetic testing. Strengths and limitations of tests frequently ordered by clinicians were examined. Summary statements and tables were then developed to guide the interpretation process. Finally, the need for research and collaboration was emphasized. Greater understanding of these important concepts will improve the diagnosis and management of patients with suspected primary immunodeficiency diseases.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária , Asma , Humanos , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/diagnóstico , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/genética , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/terapia , Estados Unidos
10.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 31(6): 851-862, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693597

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs) are no longer defined by infections alone. First clinical sign or sequelae of PID may include autoimmunity, such as cytopenias, arthritis or enteropathy. This review addresses the latest in multidisciplinary approaches for expanding clinical phenotypes of PIDs with autoimmunity, including new presentations of known entities and novel gene defects. We also discuss diagnostic tools for identifying the distinct changes in immune cells subsets and autoantibodies, mechanistic understanding of the process, and targeted treatment and indications for hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). RECENT FINDINGS: In the past years, increased awareness and use of genetic screening, confirmatory functional studies and immunological biomarkers opened the door for early recognition of PIDs among patients with autoimmunity. Large cohort studies detail the clinical spectrum and treatment outcome of PIDs with autoimmunity with specific immune genes (e.g., CTLA4, LRBA, PI3Kδ, NFKB1, RAG). The benefit of early recognition is initiation of targeted therapies with precise re-balancing of the dysregulated immune pathways (e.g., biologicals) or definitive therapy (e.g., HSCT). SUMMARY: Clinical presentation of patients with PID and autoimmunity is highly variable and requires in-depth diagnostics and precision medicine approaches.


Assuntos
Autoimunidade , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência
12.
Sci Signal ; 12(604)2019 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641080

RESUMO

Transitional B cells must actively undergo selection for self-tolerance before maturing into their resting follicular B cell successors. We found that metabolic quiescence was acquired at the follicular B cell stage in both humans and mice. In follicular B cells, the expression of genes involved in ribosome biogenesis, aerobic respiration, and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling was reduced when compared to that in transitional B cells. Functional metabolism studies, profiling of whole-cell metabolites, and analysis of cell surface proteins in human B cells suggested that this transition was also associated with increased extracellular adenosine salvage. Follicular B cells increased the abundance of the cell surface ectonucleotidase CD73, which coincided with adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. Differentiation to the follicular B cell stage in vitro correlated with surface acquisition of CD73 on human transitional B cells and was augmented with the AMPK agonist, AICAR. Last, individuals with gain-of-function PIK3CD (PI3Kδ) mutations and increased pS6 activation exhibited a near absence of circulating follicular B cells. Together, our data suggest that mTORC1 attenuation may be necessary for human follicular B cell development. These data identify a distinct metabolic switch during human B cell development at the transitional to follicular stages, which is characterized by an induction of extracellular adenosine salvage, AMPK activation, and the acquisition of metabolic quiescence.

13.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 15(10): 1033-1046, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535575

RESUMO

Introduction: Patients with primary immunodeficiency secondary to abnormal recombinase activating genes (RAG) can present with broad clinical phenotypes ranging from early severe infections to autoimmune complications and inflammation. Immunological phenotype may also vary from T-B- severe combined immunodeficiency to combined immunodeficiency or antibody deficiencies with near-normal T and B cell counts and even preserved specific antibody response to pathogens. It is not uncommon that RAG variants of uncertain significance are identified by serendipity during a broad genetic screening process and pathogenic RAG variants are increasingly recognized among all age groups, including adults. Establishing the pathogenicity and clinical relevance of novel RAG variants can be challenging since RAG genes are highly polymorphic. This review paper aims to summarize clinical phenotypes of RAG deficiencies and provide practical guidance for confirming the direct link between specific RAG variants and clinical disease. Lastly, we will review the current understanding of treatment option for patients with varying severity of RAG deficiencies. Area covered: This review discusses the different phenotypes and immunological aspects of RAG deficiencies, the diagnosis dilemma facing clinicians, and an overview of current and advancement in treatments. Expert opinion: A careful analysis of immunological and clinical data and their correlation with genetic findings helps to determine the significance of the genetic polymorphism. Advances in functional assays, as well as anti-cytokine antibodies, make it easier to resolve the diagnostic dilemma.

14.
Pediatr Transplant ; 23(7): e13571, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31497926

RESUMO

Growing evidence suggests receipt of live-attenuated viral vaccines after solid organ transplant (SOT) has occurred and is safe and needed due to lapses in herd immunity. A 2-day consortium of experts in infectious diseases, transplantation, vaccinology, and immunology was held with the objective to review evidence and create expert recommendations for clinicians when considering live viral vaccines post-SOT. For consideration of VV and MMR post-transplant, evidence exists only for kidney and liver transplant recipients. For MMR vaccine post-SOT, consider vaccination during outbreak or travel to endemic risk areas. Patients who have received antiproliferative agents (eg. mycophenolate mofetil), T cell-depleting agents, or rituximab; or have persistently elevated EBV viral loads, or are in a state of functional tolerance, should be vaccinated with caution and have a more in-depth evaluation to define benefit of vaccination and net state of immune suppression prior to considering vaccination. MMR and/or VV (not combined MMRV) is considered to be safe in patients who are clinically well, are greater than 1 year after liver or kidney transplant and 2 months after acute rejection episode, can be closely monitored, and meet specific criteria of "low-level" immune suppression as defined in the document.

15.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(7): 688-701, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388879

RESUMO

While widespread genome sequencing ushers in a new era of preventive medicine, the tools for predictive genomics are still lacking. Time and resource limitations mean that human diseases remain uncharacterized because of an inability to predict clinically relevant genetic variants. A strategy of targeting highly conserved protein regions is used commonly in functional studies. However, this benefit is lost for rare diseases where the attributable genes are mostly conserved. An immunological disorder exemplifying this challenge occurs through damaging mutations in RAG1 and RAG2 which presents at an early age with a distinct phenotype of life-threatening immunodeficiency or autoimmunity. Many tools exist for variant pathogenicity prediction, but these cannot account for the probability of variant occurrence. Here, we present a method that predicts the likelihood of mutation for every amino acid residue in the RAG1 and RAG2 proteins. Population genetics data from approximately 146,000 individuals was used for rare variant analysis. Forty-four known pathogenic variants reported in patients and recombination activity measurements from 110 RAG1/2 mutants were used to validate calculated scores. Probabilities were compared with 98 currently known human cases of disease. A genome sequence dataset of 558 patients who have primary immunodeficiency but that are negative for RAG deficiency were also used as validation controls. We compared the difference between mutation likelihood and pathogenicity prediction. Our method builds a map of most probable mutations allowing pre-emptive functional analysis. This method may be applied to other diseases with hopes of improving preparedness for clinical diagnosis.

16.
Front Pediatr ; 7: 235, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334206

RESUMO

Autoimmunity is becoming an increasingly recognized complication in patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs), including a variety of combined immune deficiencies such as Recombination Activating Gene (RAG) defects. The approach to treating autoimmunity in PID patients is complex, requiring a balance between immunosuppression and susceptibility to infection. Inflammatory arthritis is a feature of immune dysregulation in many PIDs, and the optimal treatment may differ from first line therapies that usually consist of disease-modifying anti rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). An example of mechanism-based therapy of arthritis in PID uses blockade of IL-6 signaling with tocilizumab for patients with STAT 3 gain-of-function (GOF) mutation and augmented IL-6 pathway. Herein, we describe two PID cases with arthritis who were found to have defects in RAG. One patient with refractory inflammatory arthritis experienced remarkable improvement in symptoms with tocilizumab therapy. Arthritis can be a clinical feature of immune dysregulation in RAG deficiency, and tocilizumab therapy has been suggested to have utility in treatment of arthritis in RAG deficiency.

17.
Front Pediatr ; 7: 122, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058115

RESUMO

Proteins expressed by recombination activating genes 1 and 2 (RAG1/2) are essential in the process of V(D)J recombination that leads to generation of the T and B cell repertoires. Clinical and immunological phenotypes of patients with RAG deficiencies correlate well to the degree of impaired RAG activity and this has been expanding to variants of combined immunodeficiency (CID) or even milder antibody deficiency syndromes. Pathogenic variants that severely impair recombinase activity of RAG1/2 determine a severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) phenotype, whereas hypomorphic variants result in leaky (partial) SCID and other immunodeficiencies. We report a patient with novel pathogenic compound heterozygous RAG2 variants that result in a CID phenotype with two distinctive characteristics: late-onset progressive hypogammaglobulinemia and highly elevated B cell count. In addition, the patient had early onset of infections, T cell lymphopenia and expansion of lymphocytes after exposure to herpes family viruses. This case highlights the importance of considering pathogenic RAG variants among patients with preserved B cell count and CID phenotype.

18.
Front Pediatr ; 7: 139, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069201

RESUMO

We report a novel variant in IKZF1 associated with IKAROS haploinsufficiency in a patient with familial immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). IKAROS, encoded by the IKZF1 gene, is a hematopoietic zinc-finger transcription factor that can directly bind to DNA. We show that the identified IKZF1 variant (p.His195Arg) alters a completely conserved histidine residue required for the folding of the third zinc-finger of IKAROS protein, leading to a loss of characteristic immunofluorescence nuclear staining pattern. In our case, genetic testing was essential for the diagnosis of IKAROS haploinsufficiency, of which known presentations include infections, aberrant hematopoiesis, leukemia, and age-related decrease in humoral immunity. Our family study underscores that, after infections, ITP is the second most common clinical manifestation of IKAROS haploinsufficiency.

20.
Front Pediatr ; 7: 61, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30941333

RESUMO

With the accessibility of next-generation sequencing modalities, an increasing number of primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDDs) such as common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) have gained improved understanding of molecular pathogenesis and disease phenotype with the identification of a genetic etiology. We report a patient with early-onset CVID due to an autosomal dominant loss-of-function mutation in NFKB2 who developed a severe herpes vegetans cutaneous infection as well as concurrent herpes simplex virus viremia. The case highlights features of CVID, unique aspects of NF-κB2 deficiency including susceptibility to herpesvirus infections, the detection of neutralizing anticytokine antibodies, and the complexity of medical management of patients with a PIDD that can be aided by a known genetic diagnosis.

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