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1.
Neurosurgery ; 86(1): 132-138, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30809678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurosciences intensive care units (NICUs) provide institutional centers for specialized care. Despite a demonstrable reduction in morbidity and mortality, NICUs may experience significant capacity strain with resulting supraoptimal utilization and diseconomies of scale. We present an implementation study in the recognition and management of capacity strain within a large NICU in the United States. Excessive resource demand in an NICU creates significant operational issues. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of a Reserved Bed Pilot Program (RBPP), implemented to maximize economies of scale, to reduce transfer declines due to lack of capacity, and to increase transfer volume for the neurosciences service-line. METHODS: Key performance indicators (KPIs) were created to evaluate RBPP efficacy with respect to primary (strategic) objectives. Operational KPIs were established to evaluate changes in operational throughput for the neurosciences and other service-lines. For each KPI, pilot-period data were compared to the previous fiscal year. RESULTS: RBPP implementation resulted in a significant increase in accepted transfer volume to the neurosciences service-line (P = .02). Transfer declines due to capacity decreased significantly (P = .01). Unit utilization significantly improved across service-line units relative to theoretical optima (P < .03). Care regionalization was achieved through a significant reduction in "off-service" patient placement (P = .01). Negative externalities were minimized, with no significant negative impact in the operational KPIs of other evaluated service-lines (P = .11). CONCLUSION: Capacity strain is a significant issue for hospital units. Reducing capacity strain can increase unit efficiency, improve resource utilization, and augment service-line throughput. RBPP implementation resulted in a significant improvement in service-line operations, regional access to care, and resource efficiency, with minimal externalities at the institutional level.

2.
Neurosurgery ; 86(1): 150-153, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30715491

RESUMO

The bulk of a resident's daily work is patient care related; however, other aspects of residency training are vital both to a resident's education and to the advancement of the field. Basic science and clinical research are the more common academic activities in which residents participate after completion of daily patient care objectives. Less frequently, residents participate in a process vital to the delivery of efficient, cost-effective, and safe patient care: hospital policy development. Two policies were identified as outdated or absent: (1) the process for the declaration of brain death and (2) a policy for the use of hypertonic saline in the Neurosciences Intensive Care Unit. The policies were rewritten after review of the existing policy (when applicable), other institutions' examples, national guidelines, and state and federal laws. Once written, proposals were reviewed by department leadership, hospital ethics, legal counsel, ad hoc specialty committees, the Medical Directors Council, and the Medical Executive Committee. After multiple revisions, each proposal was endorsed by the above bodies and ratified as hospital policy. Residents may make a substantial impact on patient care through active participation in the authorship and implementation of hospital policy. The inclusion of residents in policy development has improved the process for declaring brain death and management of patients with devastating neurological pathology. Resident involvement in hospital policy initiatives can be successful, valuable to the institution, and beneficial to patient care. Resident involvement is predicated on faculty and institutional support of such endeavors.

5.
J Neurosurg Spine ; 31(4): 457-463, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574462

RESUMO

The authors believe that the standardized and systematic study of immobilization techniques, diagnostic modalities, medical and surgical treatment strategies, and ultimately outcomes and outcome measurement after cervical spinal trauma and cervical spinal fracture injuries, if performed using well-designed medical evidence-based comparative investigations with meaningful follow-up, has both merit and the remarkable potential to identify optimal strategies for assessment, characterization, and clinical management. However, they recognize that there is inherent difficulty in attempting to apply evidence-based medicine (EBM) to identify ideal treatment strategies for individual cervical fracture injuries. First, there is almost no medical evidence reported in the literature for the management of specific isolated cervical fracture subtypes; specific treatment strategies for specific fracture injuries have not been routinely studied in a rigorous, comparative way. One of the vulnerabilities of an evidenced-based scientific review in spinal cord injury (SCI) is the lack of studies in comparative populations and scientific evidence on a given topic or fracture pattern providing level II evidence or higher. Second, many modest fracture injuries are not associated with vascular or neural injury or spinal instability. The application of the science of EBM to the care of patients with traumatic cervical spine injuries and SCIs is invaluable and necessary. The dedicated multispecialty author groups involved in the production and publication of the two iterations of evidence-based guidelines on the management of acute cervical spine and spinal cord injuries have provided strategic guidance in the care of patients with SCIs. This dedicated service to the specialty has been carried out to provide neurosurgical colleagues with a qualitative review of the evidence supporting various aspects of care of these patients. It is important to state and essential to understand that the science of EBM and its rigorous application is important to medicine and to the specialty of neurosurgery. It should be embraced and used to drive and shape investigations of the management and treatment strategies offered patients. It should not be abandoned because it is not convenient or it does not support popular practice bias or patterns. It is the authors' view that the science of EBM is essential and necessary and, furthermore, that it has great potential as clinician scientists treat and study the many variations and complexities of patients who sustain acute cervical spine fracture injuries.


Assuntos
Vértebras Cervicais/lesões , Traumatismos da Coluna Vertebral/terapia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos
6.
Neurosurgery ; 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the last 20 yr, the rate of neurosurgical guideline publication has increased. However, despite the higher volume and increasing emphasis on quality there remains no reliable means of measuring the overall impact of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). OBJECTIVE: To utilize citation analysis to evaluate the dispersion of neurosurgical CPGs. METHODS: A list of neurosurgical guidelines was compiled by performing electronic searches using the Scopus (Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands) and National Guideline Clearinghouse databases. The Scopus database was queried to obtain current publication and citation data for all included documents and categorized based upon recognized neurosurgical specialties. The h-index, R-index, h2-index, i10-index, and dissemination index (D-Index) were manually calculated for each subspecialty. RESULTS: After applying screening criteria the search yielded 372 neurosurgical CPGs, which were included for bibliometric analysis. The overall calculated h-index for neurosurgery was 56. When broken down by subspecialty trauma/critical care had the highest value at 35, followed by spine and peripheral nerve at 30, cerebrovascular at 28, tumor at 16, pediatrics at 14, miscellaneous at 11, and functional/stereotactic/pain at 6. Cerebrovascular neurosurgery was noted to have the highest D-Index at 3.4. CONCLUSION: A comprehensive framework is useful for guideline impact analysis. Bibliometric data provides a novel and adequate means of evaluating the successful dissemination of neurosurgical guidelines. There remains a paucity of data regarding implementation and clinical outcomes of individual guidelines.

7.
Neurosurg Rev ; 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332702

RESUMO

Loss of consciousness (LOC) at presentation with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) has been associated with early brain injury and poor functional outcome. The impact of LOC on the clinical course after aSAH deserves further exploration. A retrospective analysis of 149 aSAH patients who were prospectively enrolled in the Cerebral Aneurysm Renin Angiotensin Study (CARAS) between 2012 and 2015 was performed. The impact of LOC was analyzed with emphasis on patients presenting in excellent or good neurological condition (Hunt and Hess 1 and 2). A total of 50/149 aSAH patients (33.6%) experienced LOC at presentation. Loss of consciousness was associated with severity of neurological condition upon admission (Hunt and Hess, World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) grade), hemorrhage burden on initial head CT (Fisher CT grade), acute hydrocephalus, cardiac instability, and nosocomial infection. Of Hunt and Hess grade 1 and 2 patients, 21/84 (25.0%) suffered LOC at presentation. Cardiac instability and nosocomial infection were significantly more frequent in these patients. In multivariable analysis, LOC was the predominant predictor of cardiac instability and nosocomial infection. Loss of consciousness at presentation with aSAH is associated with an increased rate of complications, even in good-grade patients. The presence of LOC may identify good-grade patients at risk for complications such as cardiac instability and nosocomial infection.

8.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(8): e737, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) has high fatality and permanent disability rates due to the severe damage to brain cells and inflammation. The SERPINE1 gene that encodes PAI-1 for the regulation of tissue plasminogen activator is considered an important therapeutic target for aSAH. METHODS: Six SNPs in the SERPINE1 gene (in order of rs2227631, rs1799889, rs6092, rs6090, rs2227684, rs7242) were investigated. Blood samples were genotyped with Taqman genotyping assays and pyrosequencing. The experiment-wide statistically significant threshold for single marker analysis was set at p < 0.01 after evaluation of independent markers. Haplotype analysis was performed in Haplo.stats package with permutation tests. Bonferroni correction for multiple comparison in dominant, additive, and recessive model was applied. RESULTS: A total of 146 aSAH patients and 49 control subjects were involved in this study. The rs2227631 G allele is significant (p = 0.01) for aSAH compared to control. In aSAH group, haplotype analysis showed that G5GGGT homozygotes in recessive model were associated with delayed cerebral ischemia (p < 0.01, Odds Ratio = 5.14, 95% CI = 1.45-18.18), clinical vasospasm (p = 0.01, Odds Ratio = 4.58, 95% CI = 1.30-16.13), and longer intensive care unit stay (p = 0.01). By contrast, the G5GGAG carriers were associated with less incidence of cerebral edema (p < 0.01) and higher Glasgow Coma Scale (p < 0.01). The A4GGGT carriers were associated with less incidence of severe hypertension (>140/90) (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The results suggested an important regulatory role of the SERPINE1 gene polymorphism in clinical outcomes of aSAH.

9.
World Neurosurg ; 130: e199-e205, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dysphagia is one of the most common complications of anterior cervical spine surgery, and there is a need to establish that the means of testing for it are reliable and valid. The objective of this study was to measure observer variability of the fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) test, specifically when used for evaluation of dysphagia in patients undergoing revisionary anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF). METHODS: Images from patients undergoing revision ACDF at a single institution were collected from May 1, 2010, through July 1, 2014. Two senior certified speech pathologists independently evaluated the swallowing function of patients preoperatively and at 2 weeks postoperatively. Their numeric evaluations of the Rosenbeck Penetration-Aspiration Scale and the Swallowing Performance Scale during the FEES were then compared for interrater reliability. RESULTS: Positive agreement between raters was 94% for the preoperative Penetration-Aspiration Scale (prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted κ, 0.77). The postoperative Penetration-Aspiration Scale showed reliability coefficients for κ, Kendall's W, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.34 (fair agreement), 0.70 (extremely strong agreement), and 0.35 (poor agreement), respectively. The preoperative Swallowing Performance Scale showed strong agreement, with a Kendall's W coefficient of 0.68, and fair reliability, with an ICC of 0.40. The postoperative Swallowing Performance Scale indicated extremely strong agreement between raters, with a Kendall's W of 0.82, and good agreement, with an ICC of 0.53. CONCLUSIONS: The FEES test appears to be a reliable assessor of dysphagia in patients undergoing ACDF and may be a useful measure for exploring outcomes in this population.


Assuntos
Vértebras Cervicais/cirurgia , Deglutição/fisiologia , Discotomia/normas , Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica/normas , Neuroendoscopia/normas , Fusão Vertebral/normas , Estudos de Coortes , Descompressão Cirúrgica/métodos , Descompressão Cirúrgica/normas , Discotomia/métodos , Feminino , Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroendoscopia/métodos , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Reoperação/métodos , Reoperação/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fusão Vertebral/métodos
10.
Cureus ; 11(3): e4316, 2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183296

RESUMO

The objective of the study was to establish how patient satisfaction with surgical treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) has been previously measured, determine whether an ideal patient satisfaction instrument exists, and to define the dimensions of care that determine patient satisfaction with the surgical treatment of PD. A systematic search of four online databases, unpublished sources, and citations was undertaken to identify 15 studies reporting patient satisfaction with the surgical treatment of PD. Manuscripts were reviewed and instruments were categorized by content and method axes. One study was found to utilize two distinct patient satisfaction instruments, which brought the total number of satisfaction instruments assessed to 16. Major factors influencing patient satisfaction were identified and served as a structure to define the dimensions of patient satisfaction in the surgical treatment of PD. Studies used predominantly multidimensional (10/16), rather than global (6/16) satisfaction instruments. Generic (12/16) rather than disease-specific (4/16) instruments were utilized more frequently. Every study reported on satisfaction with outcome and four studies reported on satisfaction with outcome and care. Six dimensions of patient status, outcome and care experience affecting patient satisfaction were identified: motor function, patient-specific health characteristics, programming/long-term care, surgical considerations, device/hardware, and functional independence.  At present, no patient satisfaction instrument exists that is disease-specific and covers all dimensions of patient satisfaction in surgery for PD. For quality improvement, such a disease-specific, comprehensive patient satisfaction instrument should be designed, and, if demonstrated to be reliable and valid, widely implemented.

11.
World Neurosurg ; 129: 34-44, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No widely accepted gold standard for diagnosis of shunt infection exists, with definitions variable among clinicians and publications. This article summarizes the utility of commonly used diagnostic tools and provides a comprehensive review of optimal measures for diagnosis. METHODS: A query of PubMed was performed extracting articles related to shunt infection in children. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were followed, resulting in 1756 articles related to shunt infection, 49 of which ultimately met inclusion criteria. RESULTS: Of the 49 articles included in the analysis, 9 did not define infection, 9 used culture alone, 9 used cultures and/or symptomatology, and 4 used a combination of cultures, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis and symptomatology. The remainder of the studies used definitions from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (n = 2) and the Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network (n = 2) or borrowed elements from these definitions. Variation in definition stems from the lack of sensitivity and specificity of commonly used signs, symptoms, and tests. Shunt tap alone is considered half as sensitive as hardware culture. Fever upon presentation was present in 16% to 42% of cases. CSF pleocytosis combined with fever has a sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 99%. CSF eosinophilia, lactic acid, serum anti-Staphylococcus epidermidis titer, procalcitonin, and C-reactive protein are non-specific and their utility is not well established. CONCLUSIONS: The definition of shunt infection is variable across studies, with CSF culture and/or symptomatology being the most commonly utilized parameters.


Assuntos
Derivações do Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/efeitos adversos , /etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocefalia/cirurgia , Masculino
13.
Neurocrit Care ; 30(2): 261-271, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29651626

RESUMO

Acute traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) affects more than 250,000 people in the USA, with approximately 17,000 new cases each year. It continues to be one of the most significant causes of trauma-related morbidity and mortality. Despite the introduction of primary injury prevention education and vehicle safety devices, such as airbags and passive restraint systems, traumatic SCI continues to have a substantial impact on the healthcare system. Over the last three decades, there have been considerable advancements in the management of patients with traumatic SCI. The advent of spinal instrumentation has improved the surgical treatment of spinal fractures and the ability to manage SCI patients with spinal mechanical instability. There has been a concomitant improvement in the nonsurgical care of these patients with particular focus on care delivered in the pre-hospital, emergency room, and intensive care unit (ICU) settings. This article represents an overview of the critical aspects of contemporary traumatic SCI care and notes areas where further research inquiries are needed. We review the pre-hospital management of a patient with an acute SCI, including triage, immobilization, and transportation. Upon arrival to the definitive treatment facility, we review initial evaluation and management steps, including initial neurological assessment, radiographic assessment, cervical collar clearance protocols, and closed reduction of cervical fracture/dislocation injuries. Finally, we review ICU issues including airway, hemodynamic, and pharmacological management, as well as future directions of care.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/diagnóstico , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/terapia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/terapia , Transporte de Pacientes/métodos , Triagem/métodos , Cuidados Críticos/normas , Humanos , Transporte de Pacientes/normas , Triagem/normas
14.
Neurosurgery ; 84(4): 819-826, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30535401

RESUMO

Case-control (case-control, case-controlled) studies are beginning to appear more frequently in the neurosurgical literature. They can be more robust, if well designed, than the typical case series or even cohort study to determine or refine treatment algorithms. The purpose of this review is to define and explore the differences between case-control studies and other so-called nonexperimental, quasiexperimental, or observational studies in determining preferred treatments for neurosurgical patients.

15.
Neurosurgery ; 85(5): 613-621, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30239922

RESUMO

Neurological surgery practice is based on the science of balancing probabilities. A variety of clinical guidance documents have influenced how we collectively practice our art since the early 20th century. The quality of the science within these guidelines varies widely, as does their utility in positively shaping our practice. The guidelines development process in neurological surgery has evolved significantly over the last 30 yr. Historically based in expert opinion, as a specialty we have increasingly relied on objective medical evidence to guide our clinical practice. We assessed the changing practice guidelines development process and the impact of scientifically robust guidelines on patient care. The evolution of the guidelines development process in neurological surgery was chronicled. Several subspecialty guidelines were extracted and reviewed in detail. Their impact on practice patterns was evaluated. The importance of evidence-based research and practice guidelines development was discussed. Evidence-based practice guidelines serve to chronicle multiple acceptable treatment options and help us move towards more standardized care for specific disease processes. They help refute false "standards of care." Guidelines-based care supported by solid medical evidence has the potential to streamline patient care and improve patient outcomes. The guidelines development process identifies areas, issues, and strategies for which little medical evidence exists, as well as topics that need focused scientific investigation and future study. The production of evidence-based practice recommendations is a vital part of furthering our specialty. Guidelines development advances our science, augments the resident education process, and protects our practice from undue external influence.

17.
Neurosurgery ; 84(5): 993-999, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30544216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Confusion exists among neurosurgeons when choosing and implementing an appropriate study design and statistical methods when conducting research. We noticed particular difficulty with mislabeled and inappropriate case-control studies in the neurosurgical literature. OBJECTIVE: To quantify and to rigorously review this issue for appropriateness in publication and to establish quality of the manuscripts using a rigorous technique. METHODS: Following a literature search, pairs drawn from 5 independent reviewers evaluated a complete sample of 125 manuscripts claiming to be case-control studies with respect to basic case-control criteria. Seventy-five papers were then subjected to a more rigorous appraisal for quality using the SIGN Methodology Checklist for case-control studies. RESULTS: Fifty publications were rejected based on basic criteria used to identify case-control design. Of the 75 subjected to quality analysis, 46 were felt to be acceptable for publication. Only 11 papers (9%) achieved the designation of high quality. Of the original 125 papers evaluated, 79 (63%) were inappropriately labeled case-control studies. CONCLUSION: Mislabeling and use of inappropriate study design are common in the neurosurgical literature. Manuscripts should be evaluated rigorously by reviewers and readers, and neurosurgical training programs should include instruction on choice of appropriate study design and critical appraisal of the literature.

18.
Neurosurgery ; 84(1): 17-18, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30551189
19.
Neurosurgery ; 84(3): 778-787, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30010937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have failed to demonstrate statistically significant differences in postsurgical outcomes between operative cases featuring resident participation compared to attending only; however, the effects of level of postgraduate year (PGY) training have not been explored. OBJECTIVE: To correlate different PGYs in neurosurgery with 30-d postoperative outcomes. METHODS: Using National Surgical Quality Improvement Program 2005-2014, adult neurosurgical cases were divided into subspecialties: spine, open-vascular, cranial, and functional in teaching institutions. Comparison groups: cases involving junior residents (PGY 1-PGY 3), mid-level residents (PGY 4 + PGY 5), and senior residents (PGY 6 + PGY 7). Primary outcome measures included any wound disruption (surgical site infections and/or wound dehiscence), Clavien-Dindo grade IV (life-threatening) complications, and death. RESULTS: Compared to junior residents (n = 3729) and mid-level residents (n = 2779), senior residents (n = 3692) operated on patients with a greater comorbidity burden, as reflected by higher American Society of Anesthesiology classifications and decreased level of functional status. Cases with senior resident participation experienced the highest percentages of postoperative wound complications (P = .005), Clavien-Dindo grade IV complications (P = .001), and death (P = .035). However, following multivariable regression, level of residency training in neurosurgery did not predict any of the 3 primary outcome measures. Compared to spinal cases, cranial cases predicted a higher incidence of life-threatening complications (odds ratio 1.84, P < .001). CONCLUSION: Cases in the senior resident cohort were more technically challenging and exhibited a higher comorbidity burden preoperatively; however, level of neurosurgical training did not predict any wound disruption, life-threatening complications, or death. Residents still provide safe and effective assistance to attending neurosurgeons.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Neurocirurgiões/educação , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/educação , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurocirurgia/educação , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia
20.
Neurosurgery ; 84(6): E362-E367, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30189030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Thoracolumbar Injury Classification and Severity Score (TLICS) has been shown to be a valid tool for assessing the need for surgical intervention in adult patients. There is limited insight into its usefulness in children. OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity of the TLICS system in pediatric patients. METHODS: The medical records for pediatric patients with acute, traumatic thoracolumbar fractures at two Level 1 trauma centers were reviewed retrospectively. A TLICS score was calculated for each patient using computed tomography and magnetic resonance images, along with the neurological examination recorded in the patient's medical record. TLICS scores were compared with the type of treatment received. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was employed to quantify the validity of the TLICS scoring system. RESULTS: TLICS calculations were completed for 165 patients. The mean TLICS score was 2.9 (standard deviation ± 2.7). Surgery was the treatment of choice for 23% of patients. There was statistically significant agreement between the TLICS suggested treatment and the actual treatment received (P < 0.001). The ROC curve calculated using multivariate logistic regression analysis of the TLICS system's parameters as a tool for predicting treatment demonstrated excellent discriminative ability, with an area under the ROC curve of 0.96, which was also statistically significant (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The TLICS system demonstrates good validity for selecting appropriate thoracolumbar fracture treatment in pediatric patients.

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