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1.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077856

RESUMO

Genes encoding the mRNA targets of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) are enriched for genetic association with psychiatric disorders. However, many FMRP targets possess functions that are themselves genetically associated with psychiatric disorders, including synaptic transmission and plasticity, making it unclear whether the genetic risk is truly related to binding by FMRP or is alternatively mediated by the sampling of genes better characterised by another trait or functional annotation. Using published common variant, rare coding variant and copy number variant data, we examined the relationship between FMRP binding and genetic association with schizophrenia, major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. High-confidence targets of FMRP, derived from studies of multiple tissue types, were enriched for common schizophrenia risk alleles, as well as rare loss-of-function and de novo nonsynonymous variants in schizophrenia cases. Similarly, through common variation, FMRP targets were associated with major depressive disorder, and we present novel evidence of association with bipolar disorder. These relationships could not be explained by other functional annotations known to be associated with psychiatric disorders, including those related to synaptic structure and function. This study reinforces the evidence that targeting by FMRP captures a subpopulation of genes enriched for genetic association with a range of psychiatric disorders.

2.
Schizophr Bull ; 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910150

RESUMO

The variability in the response to antipsychotic medication in schizophrenia may reflect between-patient differences in neurobiology. Recent cross-sectional neuroimaging studies suggest that a poorer therapeutic response is associated with relatively normal striatal dopamine synthesis capacity but elevated anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) glutamate levels. We sought to test whether these measures can differentiate patients with psychosis who are antipsychotic responsive from those who are antipsychotic nonresponsive in a multicenter cross-sectional study. 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) was used to measure glutamate levels (Glucorr) in the ACC and in the right striatum in 92 patients across 4 sites (48 responders [R] and 44 nonresponders [NR]). In 54 patients at 2 sites (25 R and 29 NR), we additionally acquired 3,4-dihydroxy-6-[18F]fluoro-l-phenylalanine (18F-DOPA) positron emission tomography (PET) to index striatal dopamine function (Kicer, min-1). The mean ACC Glucorr was higher in the NR than the R group after adjustment for age and sex (F1,80 = 4.27; P = .04). This was associated with an area under the curve for the group discrimination of 0.59. There were no group differences in striatal dopamine function or striatal Glucorr. The results provide partial further support for a role of ACC glutamate, but not striatal dopamine synthesis, in determining the nature of the response to antipsychotic medication. The low discriminative accuracy might be improved in groups with greater clinical separation or increased in future studies that focus on the antipsychotic response at an earlier stage of the disorder and integrate other candidate predictive biomarkers. Greater harmonization of multicenter PET and 1H-MRS may also improve sensitivity.

3.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959868

RESUMO

Many medical treatments, from oncology to psychiatry, can lower white blood cell counts and thus access to these treatments can be restricted to individuals with normal levels of white blood cells, principally in order to minimise risk of serious infection. This adversely affects individuals of African or Middle Eastern ancestries who have on average a reduced number of circulating white blood cells, due to the Duffy-null (CC) genotype at rs2814778 in the ACKR1 gene. Here, we investigate whether the Duffy-null genotype is associated with the risk of infection using the UK Biobank sample and the iPSYCH Danish case-cohort study, two population-based samples from different countries and age ranges. We found that a high proportion of those with the Duffy-null genotype (21%) had a neutrophil count below the threshold often used as a cut-off for access to relevant treatments, compared to 1% of those with the TC/TT genotype. In addition we found that despite its strong association with lower average neutrophil counts, the Duffy-null genotype was not associated with an increased risk of infection, viral or bacterial. These results have widespread implications for the clinical treatment of individuals of African ancestry and indicate that that neutrophil thresholds to access treatments could be lowered in individuals with the Duffy-null genotype without an increased risk of infection.

4.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32624022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The nature and degree of cognitive impairments in schizoaffective disorder is not well established. The aim of this meta-analysis was to characterise cognitive functioning in schizoaffective disorder and compare it with cognition in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Schizoaffective disorder was considered both as a single category and as its two diagnostic subtypes, bipolar and depressive disorder. METHODS: Following a thorough literature search (468 records identified), we included 31 studies with a total of 1685 participants with schizoaffective disorder, 3357 with schizophrenia and 1095 with bipolar disorder. Meta-analyses were conducted for seven cognitive variables comparing performance between participants with schizoaffective disorder and schizophrenia, and between schizoaffective disorder and bipolar disorder. RESULTS: Participants with schizoaffective disorder performed worse than those with bipolar disorder (g = -0.30) and better than those with schizophrenia (g = 0.17). Meta-analyses of the subtypes of schizoaffective disorder showed cognitive impairments in participants with the depressive subtype are closer in severity to those seen in participants with schizophrenia (g = 0.08), whereas those with the bipolar subtype were more impaired than those with bipolar disorder (g = -0.23) and less impaired than those with schizophrenia (g = 0.29). Participants with the depressive subtype had worse performance than those with the bipolar subtype but this was not significant (g = 0.25, p = 0.05). CONCLUSION: Cognitive impairments increase in severity from bipolar disorder to schizoaffective disorder to schizophrenia. Differences between the subtypes of schizoaffective disorder suggest combining the subtypes of schizoaffective disorder may obscure a study's results and hamper efforts to understand the relationship between this disorder and schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.

5.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 183(6): 360-369, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578352

RESUMO

Schizophrenia shows a genetic correlation with both anxiety disorder and neuroticism, a trait strongly associated with anxiety. However, genetic correlations do not discern causality from genetic confounding. We therefore aimed to investigate whether anxiety-related phenotypes lie on the causal pathway to schizophrenia using Mendelian randomization (MR). Four MR methods, each with different assumptions regarding instrument validity, were used to investigate casual associations of anxiety and neuroticism related phenotypes on schizophrenia, and vice versa: inverse variance weighted (IVW), weighted median, weighted mode, and, when appropriate, MR Egger regression. MR provided evidence of a causal effect of neuroticism on schizophrenia (IVW odds ratio [OR]: 1.33, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12-1.59), but only weak evidence of a causal effect of anxiety on schizophrenia (IVW OR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.01-1.19). There was also evidence of a causal association from schizophrenia liability to anxiety disorder (IVW OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.18-1.39) and worry (IVW beta: 0.05, 95% CI: 0.03-0.07), but effect estimates from schizophrenia to neuroticism were inconsistent in the main analysis. The evidence of neuroticism increasing schizophrenia risk provided by our results supports future efforts to evaluate neuroticism- or anxiety-based therapies to prevent onset of psychotic disorders.

6.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398722

RESUMO

Substantial genetic liability is shared across psychiatric disorders but less is known about risk variants that are specific to a given disorder. We used multi-trait conditional and joint analysis (mtCOJO) to adjust GWAS summary statistics of one disorder for the effects of genetically correlated traits to identify putative disorder-specific SNP associations. We applied mtCOJO to summary statistics for five psychiatric disorders from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium-schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BIP), major depression (MD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism (AUT). Most genome-wide significant variants for these disorders had evidence of pleiotropy (i.e., impact on multiple psychiatric disorders) and hence have reduced mtCOJO conditional effect sizes. However, subsets of genome-wide significant variants had larger conditional effect sizes consistent with disorder-specific effects: 15 of 130 genome-wide significant variants for schizophrenia, 5 of 40 for major depression, 3 of 11 for ADHD and 1 of 2 for autism. We show that decreased expression of VPS29 in the brain may increase risk to SCZ only and increased expression of CSE1L is associated with SCZ and MD, but not with BIP. Likewise, decreased expression of PCDHA7 in the brain is linked to increased risk of MD but decreased risk of SCZ and BIP.

7.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366953

RESUMO

The majority of common risk alleles identified for neuropsychiatric disorders reside in noncoding regions of the genome and are therefore likely to impact gene regulation. However, the genes that are primarily affected and the nature and developmental timing of these effects remain unclear. Given the hypothesized role for early neurodevelopmental processes in these conditions, we here define genetic predictors of gene expression in the human fetal brain with which we perform transcriptome-wide association studies (TWASs) of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and schizophrenia. We identify prenatal cis-regulatory effects on 63 genes and 166 individual transcripts associated with genetic risk for these conditions. We observe pleiotropic effects of expression predictors for a number of genes and transcripts, including those of decreased DDHD2 expression in association with risk for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, increased expression of a ST3GAL3 transcript with risk for schizophrenia and ADHD, and increased expression of an XPNPEP3 transcript with risk for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression. For the protocadherin alpha cluster genes PCDHA7 and PCDHA8, we find that predictors of low expression are associated with risk for major depressive disorder while those of higher expression are associated with risk for schizophrenia. Our findings support a role for altered gene regulation in the prenatal brain in susceptibility to various neuropsychiatric disorders and prioritize potential risk genes for further neurobiological investigation.

8.
Schizophr Res ; 220: 130-140, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249120

RESUMO

We investigated whether associations between area deprivation, urbanicity and elevated risk of severe mental illnesses (SMIs, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder) is accounted for by social drift or social causation. We extracted primary and secondary care electronic health records from 2004 to 2015 from a population of 3.9 million. We identified prevalent and incident individuals with SMIs and their level of deprivation and urbanicity using the Welsh Index of Multiple Deprivation (WIMD) and urban/rural indicator. The presence of social drift was determined by whether odds ratios (ORs) from logistic regression is greater than the incidence rate ratios (IRRs) from Poisson regression. Additionally, we performed longitudinal analysis to measure the proportion of change in deprivation level and rural/urban residence 10 years after an incident diagnosis of SMI and compared it to the general population using standardised rate ratios (SRRs). Prevalence and incidence of SMIs were significantly associated with deprivation and urbanicity (all ORs and IRRs significantly >1). ORs and IRRs were similar across all conditions and cohorts (ranging from 1.1 to 1.4). Results from the longitudinal analysis showed individuals with SMIs are more likely to move compared to the general population. However, they did not preferentially move to more deprived or urban areas. There was little evidence of downward social drift over a 10-year period. These findings have implications for the allocation of resources, service configuration and access to services in deprived communities, as well as, for broader public health interventions addressing poverty, and social and environmental contexts.

9.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015465

RESUMO

Schizophrenia occurs in about one in four individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS). The aim of this International Brain and Behavior 22q11.2DS Consortium (IBBC) study was to identify genetic factors that contribute to schizophrenia, in addition to the ~20-fold increased risk conveyed by the 22q11.2 deletion. Using whole-genome sequencing data from 519 unrelated individuals with 22q11.2DS, we conducted genome-wide comparisons of common and rare variants between those with schizophrenia and those with no psychotic disorder at age ≥25 years. Available microarray data enabled direct comparison of polygenic risk for schizophrenia between 22q11.2DS and independent population samples with no 22q11.2 deletion, with and without schizophrenia (total n = 35,182). Polygenic risk for schizophrenia within 22q11.2DS was significantly greater for those with schizophrenia (padj = 6.73 × 10-6). Novel reciprocal case-control comparisons between the 22q11.2DS and population-based cohorts showed that polygenic risk score was significantly greater in individuals with psychotic illness, regardless of the presence of the 22q11.2 deletion. Within the 22q11.2DS cohort, results of gene-set analyses showed some support for rare variants affecting synaptic genes. No common or rare variants within the 22q11.2 deletion region were significantly associated with schizophrenia. These findings suggest that in addition to the deletion conferring a greatly increased risk to schizophrenia, the risk is higher when the 22q11.2 deletion and common polygenic risk factors that contribute to schizophrenia in the general population are both present.

10.
Nat Neurosci ; 23(2): 179-184, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932766

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is a highly polygenic disorder with important contributions from both common and rare risk alleles. We analyzed exome sequencing data for de novo variants (DNVs) in a new sample of 613 schizophrenia trios and combined this with published data to give a total of 3,444 trios. In this new data, loss-of-function (LoF) DNVs were significantly enriched among 3,471 LoF-intolerant genes, which supports previous findings. In the full dataset, genes associated with neurodevelopmental disorders (n = 159) were significantly enriched for LoF DNVs. Within these neurodevelopmental disorder genes, SLC6A1, which encodes a γ-aminobutyric acid transporter, was associated with missense-damaging DNVs. In 1,122 trios for which genome-wide common variant data were available, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder polygenic risk were significantly overtransmitted to probands. Probands carrying LoF or deletion DNVs in LoF-intolerant or neurodevelopmental disorder genes had significantly less overtransmission of schizophrenia polygenic risk than did non-carriers, which provides a second robust line of evidence that these DNVs increase liability to schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de GABA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
11.
Hum Mol Genet ; 29(1): 159-167, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691811

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is a complex highly heritable disorder. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple loci that influence the risk of developing schizophrenia, although the causal variants driving these associations and their impacts on specific genes are largely unknown. We identify a significant correlation between schizophrenia risk and expression at 89 genes in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (P ≤ 9.43 × 10-6), including 20 novel genes. Genes whose expression correlate with schizophrenia were enriched for those involved in abnormal CNS synaptic transmission (PFDR = 0.02) and antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class I (PFDR = 0.02). Within the CNS synaptic transmission set, we identify individual significant candidate genes to which we assign direction of expression changes in schizophrenia. The findings provide strong candidates for experimentally probing the molecular basis of synaptic pathology in schizophrenia.

12.
Schizophr Bull ; 46(2): 336-344, 2020 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a clinically important feature of schizophrenia. Polygenic risk score (PRS) methods have demonstrated genetic overlap between schizophrenia, bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), educational attainment (EA), and IQ, but very few studies have examined associations between these PRS and cognitive phenotypes within schizophrenia cases. METHODS: We combined genetic and cognitive data in 3034 schizophrenia cases from 11 samples using the general intelligence factor g as the primary measure of cognition. We used linear regression to examine the association between cognition and PRS for EA, IQ, schizophrenia, BD, and MDD. The results were then meta-analyzed across all samples. A genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of cognition was conducted in schizophrenia cases. RESULTS: PRS for both population IQ (P = 4.39 × 10-28) and EA (P = 1.27 × 10-26) were positively correlated with cognition in those with schizophrenia. In contrast, there was no association between cognition in schizophrenia cases and PRS for schizophrenia (P = .39), BD (P = .51), or MDD (P = .49). No individual variant approached genome-wide significance in the GWAS. CONCLUSIONS: Cognition in schizophrenia cases is more strongly associated with PRS that index cognitive traits in the general population than PRS for neuropsychiatric disorders. This suggests the mechanisms of cognitive variation within schizophrenia are at least partly independent from those that predispose to schizophrenia diagnosis itself. Our findings indicate that this cognitive variation arises at least in part due to genetic factors shared with cognitive performance in populations and is not solely due to illness or treatment-related factors, although our findings are consistent with important contributions from these factors.

13.
Schizophr Bull ; 46(2): 345-353, 2020 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219602

RESUMO

The dysconnection hypothesis of schizophrenia (SZ) proposes that psychosis is best understood in terms of aberrant connectivity. Specifically, it suggests that dysconnectivity arises through aberrant synaptic modulation associated with deficits in GABAergic inhibition, excitation-inhibition balance and disturbances of high-frequency oscillations. Using a computational model combined with a graded-difficulty visual orientation discrimination paradigm, we demonstrate that, in SZ, perceptual performance is determined by the balance of excitation-inhibition in superficial cortical layers. Twenty-eight individuals with a DSM-IV diagnosis of SZ, and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy controls participated in a psychophysics orientation discrimination task, a visual grating magnetoencephalography (MEG) recording, and a magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) scan for GABA. Using a neurophysiologically informed model, we quantified group differences in GABA, gamma measures, and the predictive validity of model parameters for orientation discrimination in the SZ group. MEG visual gamma frequency was reduced in SZ, with lower peak frequency associated with more severe negative symptoms. Orientation discrimination performance was impaired in SZ. Dynamic causal modeling of the MEG data showed that local synaptic connections were reduced in SZ and local inhibition correlated negatively with the severity of negative symptoms. The effective connectivity between inhibitory interneurons and superficial pyramidal cells predicted orientation discrimination performance within the SZ group; consistent with graded, behaviorally relevant, disease-related changes in local GABAergic connections. Occipital GABA levels were significantly reduced in SZ but did not predict behavioral performance or oscillatory measures. These findings endorse the importance, and behavioral relevance, of GABAergic synaptic disconnection in schizophrenia that underwrites excitation-inhibition balance.

14.
Br J Psychiatry ; 216(5): 259-266, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Around 30% of individuals with schizophrenia remain symptomatic and significantly impaired despite antipsychotic treatment and are considered to be treatment resistant. Clinicians are currently unable to predict which patients are at higher risk of treatment resistance. AIMS: To determine whether genetic liability for schizophrenia and/or clinical characteristics measurable at illness onset can prospectively indicate a higher risk of treatment-resistant psychosis (TRP). METHOD: In 1070 individuals with schizophrenia or related psychotic disorders, schizophrenia polygenic risk scores (PRS) and large copy number variations (CNVs) were assessed for enrichment in TRP. Regression and machine-learning approaches were used to investigate the association of phenotypes related to demographics, family history, premorbid factors and illness onset with TRP. RESULTS: Younger age at onset (odds ratio 0.94, P = 7.79 × 10-13) and poor premorbid social adjustment (odds ratio 1.64, P = 2.41 × 10-4) increased risk of TRP in univariate regression analyses. These factors remained associated in multivariate regression analyses, which also found lower premorbid IQ (odds ratio 0.98, P = 7.76 × 10-3), younger father's age at birth (odds ratio 0.97, P = 0.015) and cannabis use (odds ratio 1.60, P = 0.025) increased the risk of TRP. Machine-learning approaches found age at onset to be the most important predictor and also identified premorbid IQ and poor social adjustment as predictors of TRP, mirroring findings from regression analyses. Genetic liability for schizophrenia was not associated with TRP. CONCLUSIONS: People with an earlier age at onset of psychosis and poor premorbid functioning are more likely to be treatment resistant. The genetic architecture of susceptibility to schizophrenia may be distinct from that of treatment outcomes.

15.
Schizophr Res ; 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780348

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have proved to be a powerful approach for gene discovery in schizophrenia; their findings have important implications not just for our understanding of the genetic architecture of the disorder, but for the potential applications of personalised medicine through improved classification and targeted interventions. In this article we review the current status of the GWAS literature in schizophrenia including functional annotation methods and polygenic risk scoring, as well as the directions and challenges of future research. We consider recent findings in East Asian populations and the advancements from trans-ancestry analysis, as well as the insights gained from research looking across psychiatric disorders.

16.
Behav Res Ther ; 123: 103503, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anxiety and depression are common, debilitating and costly. These disorders are influenced by multiple risk factors, from genes to psychological vulnerabilities and environmental stressors, but research is hampered by a lack of sufficiently large comprehensive studies. We are recruiting 40,000 individuals with lifetime depression or anxiety and broad assessment of risks to facilitate future research. METHODS: The Genetic Links to Anxiety and Depression (GLAD) Study (www.gladstudy.org.uk) recruits individuals with depression or anxiety into the NIHR Mental Health BioResource. Participants invited to join the study (via media campaigns) provide demographic, environmental and genetic data, and consent for medical record linkage and recontact. RESULTS: Online recruitment was effective; 42,531 participants consented and 27,776 completed the questionnaire by end of July 2019. Participants' questionnaire data identified very high rates of recurrent depression, severe anxiety, and comorbidity. Participants reported high rates of treatment receipt. The age profile of the sample is biased toward young adults, with higher recruitment of females and the more educated, especially at younger ages. DISCUSSION: This paper describes the study methodology and descriptive data for GLAD, which represents a large, recontactable resource that will enable future research into risks, outcomes, and treatment for anxiety and depression.

17.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553412

RESUMO

Importance: Psychotic experiences, such as hallucinations and delusions, are reported by approximately 5% to 10% of the general population, although only a small proportion develop psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. Studying the genetic causes of psychotic experiences in the general population, and its association with the genetic causes of other disorders, may increase the understanding of their pathologic significance. Objectives: To determine whether genetic liability to psychotic experiences is shared with schizophrenia and/or other neuropsychiatric disorders and traits and to identify genetic loci associated with psychotic experiences. Design, Setting and Participants: Analyses of genetic correlation, polygenic risk scores, and copy number variation were performed using data from participants in the UK Biobank from April 1, 2018, to March 20, 2019, to assess whether genetic liability to psychotic experiences is shared with schizophrenia and/or other neuropsychiatric disorders and traits. Genome-wide association studies of psychotic experience phenotypes were conducted to identify novel genetic loci. Participants in the final analyses after exclusions included 6123 individuals reporting any psychotic experience, 2143 individuals reporting distressing psychotic experiences, and 3337 individuals reporting multiple occurrences of psychotic experiences. A total of 121 843 individuals who did not report a psychotic experience formed the comparator group. Individuals with a psychotic disorder were excluded from all analyses. Main Outcomes and Measures: Genetic associations with psychotic experience phenotypes. Results: The study included a total of 127 966 participants (56.0% women and 44.0% men; mean [SD] age, 64.0 [7.6] years). Psychotic experiences were genetically correlated with major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Analyses of polygenic risk scores identified associations between psychotic experiences and genetic liability for major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Individuals reporting psychotic experiences had an increased burden of copy number variations previously associated with schizophrenia (odds ratio [OR], 2.04; 95% CI, 1.39-2.98; P = 2.49 × 10-4) and neurodevelopmental disorders more widely (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.24-2.48; P = 1.41 × 10-3). Genome-wide association studies identified 4 significantly associated loci, including a locus in Ankyrin-3 (ANK3 [GenBank NM_020987]) (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.10-1.23; P = 3.06 × 10-8) with any psychotic experience, and a locus in cannabinoid receptor 2 gene (CNR2 [GenBank NM_001841]) (OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.56-0.78; P = 3.78 × 10-8) with distressing psychotic experiences. The genome-wide association study of any psychotic experience had a low single-nucleotide polymorphism-based heritability estimate (h2 = 1.71%; 95% CI, 1.02%-2.40%). Conclusions and Relevance: A large genetic association study of psychotic experiences from the population-based UK Biobank sample found support for a shared genetic liability between psychotic experiences and schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and neurodevelopmental disorders.

18.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 291: 34-41, 2019 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386983

RESUMO

One of the most statistically significant loci to result from large-scale GWAS of schizophrenia is 10q24.32. However, it is still unclear how this locus is involved in the pathoaetiology of schizophrenia. The hypothesis that presynaptic dopamine dysfunction underlies schizophrenia is one of the leading theories of the pathophysiology of the disorder. Supporting this, molecular imaging studies show evidence for elevated dopamine synthesis and release capacity. Thus, altered dopamine function could be a potential mechanism by which this genetic variant acts to increase the risk of schizophrenia. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the 10q24.32 region confers genetic risk for schizophrenia through an effect on striatal dopamine function. To this aim we investigated the in vivo relationship between a GWAS schizophrenia-associated SNP within this locus and dopamine synthesis capacity measured using [18F]-DOPA PET in healthy controls. 92 healthy volunteers underwent [18F]-DOPA PET scans to measure striatal dopamine synthesis capacity (indexed as Kicer) and were genotyped for the SNP rs7085104. We found a significant association between rs7085104 genotype and striatal Kicer. Our findings indicate that the mechanism mediating the 10q24.32 risk locus for schizophrenia could involve altered dopaminergic function. Future studies are needed to clarify the neurobiological pathway implicated in this association.


Assuntos
Corpo Estriado/metabolismo , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Dopamina/metabolismo , Metiltransferases/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adulto , Cromossomos Humanos Par 10/genética , Di-Hidroxifenilalanina/análogos & derivados , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia
19.
Am J Psychiatry ; 176(8): 651-660, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: More than 90% of people who attempt suicide have a psychiatric diagnosis; however, twin and family studies suggest that the genetic etiology of suicide attempt is partially distinct from that of the psychiatric disorders themselves. The authors present the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) on suicide attempt, using cohorts of individuals with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. METHODS: The samples comprised 1,622 suicide attempters and 8,786 nonattempters with major depressive disorder; 3,264 attempters and 5,500 nonattempters with bipolar disorder; and 1,683 attempters and 2,946 nonattempters with schizophrenia. A GWAS on suicide attempt was performed by comparing attempters to nonattempters with each disorder, followed by a meta-analysis across disorders. Polygenic risk scoring was used to investigate the genetic relationship between suicide attempt and the psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: Three genome-wide significant loci for suicide attempt were found: one associated with suicide attempt in major depressive disorder, one associated with suicide attempt in bipolar disorder, and one in the meta-analysis of suicide attempt in mood disorders. These associations were not replicated in independent mood disorder cohorts from the UK Biobank and iPSYCH. No significant associations were found in the meta-analysis of all three disorders. Polygenic risk scores for major depression were significantly associated with suicide attempt in major depressive disorder (R2=0.25%), bipolar disorder (R2=0.24%), and schizophrenia (R2=0.40%). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new information on genetic associations and demonstrates that genetic liability for major depression increases risk for suicide attempt across psychiatric disorders. Further collaborative efforts to increase sample size may help to robustly identify genetic associations and provide biological insights into the etiology of suicide attempt.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Tentativa de Suicídio , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
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