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1.
Behav Res Ther ; 123: 103503, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anxiety and depression are common, debilitating and costly. These disorders are influenced by multiple risk factors, from genes to psychological vulnerabilities and environmental stressors, but research is hampered by a lack of sufficiently large comprehensive studies. We are recruiting 40,000 individuals with lifetime depression or anxiety and broad assessment of risks to facilitate future research. METHODS: The Genetic Links to Anxiety and Depression (GLAD) Study (www.gladstudy.org.uk) recruits individuals with depression or anxiety into the NIHR Mental Health BioResource. Participants invited to join the study (via media campaigns) provide demographic, environmental and genetic data, and consent for medical record linkage and recontact. RESULTS: Online recruitment was effective; 42,531 participants consented and 27,776 completed the questionnaire by end of July 2019. Participants' questionnaire data identified very high rates of recurrent depression, severe anxiety, and comorbidity. Participants reported high rates of treatment receipt. The age profile of the sample is biased toward young adults, with higher recruitment of females and the more educated, especially at younger ages. DISCUSSION: This paper describes the study methodology and descriptive data for GLAD, which represents a large, recontactable resource that will enable future research into risks, outcomes, and treatment for anxiety and depression.

2.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691811

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is a complex highly heritable disorder. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple loci that influence the risk of developing schizophrenia, although the causal variants driving these associations and their impacts on specific genes are largely unknown. We identify a significant correlation between schizophrenia risk and expression at 89 genes in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (P ≤ 9.43x10-6), including 20 novel genes. Genes whose expression correlate with schizophrenia were enriched for those involved in abnormal CNS synaptic transmission (PFDR = 0.02) and antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class I (PFDR = 0.02). Within the CNS synaptic transmission set, we identify individual significant candidate genes to which we assign direction of expression changes in schizophrenia. The findings provide strong candidates for experimentally probing the molecular basis of synaptic pathology in schizophrenia.

3.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553412

RESUMO

Importance: Psychotic experiences, such as hallucinations and delusions, are reported by approximately 5% to 10% of the general population, although only a small proportion develop psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. Studying the genetic causes of psychotic experiences in the general population, and its association with the genetic causes of other disorders, may increase the understanding of their pathologic significance. Objectives: To determine whether genetic liability to psychotic experiences is shared with schizophrenia and/or other neuropsychiatric disorders and traits and to identify genetic loci associated with psychotic experiences. Design, Setting and Participants: Analyses of genetic correlation, polygenic risk scores, and copy number variation were performed using data from participants in the UK Biobank from April 1, 2018, to March 20, 2019, to assess whether genetic liability to psychotic experiences is shared with schizophrenia and/or other neuropsychiatric disorders and traits. Genome-wide association studies of psychotic experience phenotypes were conducted to identify novel genetic loci. Participants in the final analyses after exclusions included 6123 individuals reporting any psychotic experience, 2143 individuals reporting distressing psychotic experiences, and 3337 individuals reporting multiple occurrences of psychotic experiences. A total of 121 843 individuals who did not report a psychotic experience formed the comparator group. Individuals with a psychotic disorder were excluded from all analyses. Main Outcomes and Measures: Genetic associations with psychotic experience phenotypes. Results: The study included a total of 127 966 participants (56.0% women and 44.0% men; mean [SD] age, 64.0 [7.6] years). Psychotic experiences were genetically correlated with major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Analyses of polygenic risk scores identified associations between psychotic experiences and genetic liability for major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Individuals reporting psychotic experiences had an increased burden of copy number variations previously associated with schizophrenia (odds ratio [OR], 2.04; 95% CI, 1.39-2.98; P = 2.49 × 10-4) and neurodevelopmental disorders more widely (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.24-2.48; P = 1.41 × 10-3). Genome-wide association studies identified 4 significantly associated loci, including a locus in Ankyrin-3 (ANK3 [GenBank NM_020987]) (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.10-1.23; P = 3.06 × 10-8) with any psychotic experience, and a locus in cannabinoid receptor 2 gene (CNR2 [GenBank NM_001841]) (OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.56-0.78; P = 3.78 × 10-8) with distressing psychotic experiences. The genome-wide association study of any psychotic experience had a low single-nucleotide polymorphism-based heritability estimate (h2 = 1.71%; 95% CI, 1.02%-2.40%). Conclusions and Relevance: A large genetic association study of psychotic experiences from the population-based UK Biobank sample found support for a shared genetic liability between psychotic experiences and schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and neurodevelopmental disorders.

4.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 291: 34-41, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386983

RESUMO

One of the most statistically significant loci to result from large-scale GWAS of schizophrenia is 10q24.32. However, it is still unclear how this locus is involved in the pathoaetiology of schizophrenia. The hypothesis that presynaptic dopamine dysfunction underlies schizophrenia is one of the leading theories of the pathophysiology of the disorder. Supporting this, molecular imaging studies show evidence for elevated dopamine synthesis and release capacity. Thus, altered dopamine function could be a potential mechanism by which this genetic variant acts to increase the risk of schizophrenia. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the 10q24.32 region confers genetic risk for schizophrenia through an effect on striatal dopamine function. To this aim we investigated the in vivo relationship between a GWAS schizophrenia-associated SNP within this locus and dopamine synthesis capacity measured using [18F]-DOPA PET in healthy controls. 92 healthy volunteers underwent [18F]-DOPA PET scans to measure striatal dopamine synthesis capacity (indexed as Kicer) and were genotyped for the SNP rs7085104. We found a significant association between rs7085104 genotype and striatal Kicer. Our findings indicate that the mechanism mediating the 10q24.32 risk locus for schizophrenia could involve altered dopaminergic function. Future studies are needed to clarify the neurobiological pathway implicated in this association.

5.
Am J Psychiatry ; 176(8): 651-660, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: More than 90% of people who attempt suicide have a psychiatric diagnosis; however, twin and family studies suggest that the genetic etiology of suicide attempt is partially distinct from that of the psychiatric disorders themselves. The authors present the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) on suicide attempt, using cohorts of individuals with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. METHODS: The samples comprised 1,622 suicide attempters and 8,786 nonattempters with major depressive disorder; 3,264 attempters and 5,500 nonattempters with bipolar disorder; and 1,683 attempters and 2,946 nonattempters with schizophrenia. A GWAS on suicide attempt was performed by comparing attempters to nonattempters with each disorder, followed by a meta-analysis across disorders. Polygenic risk scoring was used to investigate the genetic relationship between suicide attempt and the psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: Three genome-wide significant loci for suicide attempt were found: one associated with suicide attempt in major depressive disorder, one associated with suicide attempt in bipolar disorder, and one in the meta-analysis of suicide attempt in mood disorders. These associations were not replicated in independent mood disorder cohorts from the UK Biobank and iPSYCH. No significant associations were found in the meta-analysis of all three disorders. Polygenic risk scores for major depression were significantly associated with suicide attempt in major depressive disorder (R2=0.25%), bipolar disorder (R2=0.24%), and schizophrenia (R2=0.40%). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new information on genetic associations and demonstrates that genetic liability for major depression increases risk for suicide attempt across psychiatric disorders. Further collaborative efforts to increase sample size may help to robustly identify genetic associations and provide biological insights into the etiology of suicide attempt.

6.
Schizophr Bull ; 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a clinically important feature of schizophrenia. Polygenic risk score (PRS) methods have demonstrated genetic overlap between schizophrenia, bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), educational attainment (EA), and IQ, but very few studies have examined associations between these PRS and cognitive phenotypes within schizophrenia cases. METHODS: We combined genetic and cognitive data in 3034 schizophrenia cases from 11 samples using the general intelligence factor g as the primary measure of cognition. We used linear regression to examine the association between cognition and PRS for EA, IQ, schizophrenia, BD, and MDD. The results were then meta-analyzed across all samples. A genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of cognition was conducted in schizophrenia cases. RESULTS: PRS for both population IQ (P = 4.39 × 10-28) and EA (P = 1.27 × 10-26) were positively correlated with cognition in those with schizophrenia. In contrast, there was no association between cognition in schizophrenia cases and PRS for schizophrenia (P = .39), BD (P = .51), or MDD (P = .49). No individual variant approached genome-wide significance in the GWAS. CONCLUSIONS: Cognition in schizophrenia cases is more strongly associated with PRS that index cognitive traits in the general population than PRS for neuropsychiatric disorders. This suggests the mechanisms of cognitive variation within schizophrenia are at least partly independent from those that predispose to schizophrenia diagnosis itself. Our findings indicate that this cognitive variation arises at least in part due to genetic factors shared with cognitive performance in populations and is not solely due to illness or treatment-related factors, although our findings are consistent with important contributions from these factors.

7.
Schizophr Bull ; 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219602

RESUMO

The dysconnection hypothesis of schizophrenia (SZ) proposes that psychosis is best understood in terms of aberrant connectivity. Specifically, it suggests that dysconnectivity arises through aberrant synaptic modulation associated with deficits in GABAergic inhibition, excitation-inhibition balance and disturbances of high-frequency oscillations. Using a computational model combined with a graded-difficulty visual orientation discrimination paradigm, we demonstrate that, in SZ, perceptual performance is determined by the balance of excitation-inhibition in superficial cortical layers. Twenty-eight individuals with a DSM-IV diagnosis of SZ, and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy controls participated in a psychophysics orientation discrimination task, a visual grating magnetoencephalography (MEG) recording, and a magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) scan for GABA. Using a neurophysiologically informed model, we quantified group differences in GABA, gamma measures, and the predictive validity of model parameters for orientation discrimination in the SZ group. MEG visual gamma frequency was reduced in SZ, with lower peak frequency associated with more severe negative symptoms. Orientation discrimination performance was impaired in SZ. Dynamic causal modeling of the MEG data showed that local synaptic connections were reduced in SZ and local inhibition correlated negatively with the severity of negative symptoms. The effective connectivity between inhibitory interneurons and superficial pyramidal cells predicted orientation discrimination performance within the SZ group; consistent with graded, behaviorally relevant, disease-related changes in local GABAergic connections. Occipital GABA levels were significantly reduced in SZ but did not predict behavioral performance or oscillatory measures. These findings endorse the importance, and behavioral relevance, of GABAergic synaptic disconnection in schizophrenia that underwrites excitation-inhibition balance.

8.
Br J Psychiatry ; : 1-8, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Around 30% of individuals with schizophrenia remain symptomatic and significantly impaired despite antipsychotic treatment and are considered to be treatment resistant. Clinicians are currently unable to predict which patients are at higher risk of treatment resistance.AimsTo determine whether genetic liability for schizophrenia and/or clinical characteristics measurable at illness onset can prospectively indicate a higher risk of treatment-resistant psychosis (TRP). METHOD: In 1070 individuals with schizophrenia or related psychotic disorders, schizophrenia polygenic risk scores (PRS) and large copy number variations (CNVs) were assessed for enrichment in TRP. Regression and machine-learning approaches were used to investigate the association of phenotypes related to demographics, family history, premorbid factors and illness onset with TRP. RESULTS: Younger age at onset (odds ratio 0.94, P = 7.79 × 10-13) and poor premorbid social adjustment (odds ratio 1.64, P = 2.41 × 10-4) increased risk of TRP in univariate regression analyses. These factors remained associated in multivariate regression analyses, which also found lower premorbid IQ (odds ratio 0.98, P = 7.76 × 10-3), younger father's age at birth (odds ratio 0.97, P = 0.015) and cannabis use (odds ratio 1.60, P = 0.025) increased the risk of TRP. Machine-learning approaches found age at onset to be the most important predictor and also identified premorbid IQ and poor social adjustment as predictors of TRP, mirroring findings from regression analyses. Genetic liability for schizophrenia was not associated with TRP. CONCLUSIONS: People with an earlier age at onset of psychosis and poor premorbid functioning are more likely to be treatment resistant. The genetic architecture of susceptibility to schizophrenia may be distinct from that of treatment outcomes.Declaration of interestNone.

10.
Nat Genet ; 51(4): 659-674, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911161

RESUMO

Transcriptomic imputation approaches combine eQTL reference panels with large-scale genotype data in order to test associations between disease and gene expression. These genic associations could elucidate signals in complex genome-wide association study (GWAS) loci and may disentangle the role of different tissues in disease development. We used the largest eQTL reference panel for the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to create a set of gene expression predictors and demonstrate their utility. We applied DLPFC and 12 GTEx-brain predictors to 40,299 schizophrenia cases and 65,264 matched controls for a large transcriptomic imputation study of schizophrenia. We identified 413 genic associations across 13 brain regions. Stepwise conditioning identified 67 non-MHC genes, of which 14 did not fall within previous GWAS loci. We identified 36 significantly enriched pathways, including hexosaminidase-A deficiency, and multiple porphyric disorder pathways. We investigated developmental expression patterns among the 67 non-MHC genes and identified specific groups of pre- and postnatal expression.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Expressão Gênica/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Risco , Transcriptoma/genética
11.
Am J Psychiatry ; 176(6): 477-486, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922102

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Clozapine is the only effective medication for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but its worldwide use is still limited because of its complex titration protocols. While the discovery of pharmacogenomic variants of clozapine metabolism may improve clinical management, no robust findings have yet been reported. This study is the first to adopt the framework of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) to discover genetic markers of clozapine plasma concentrations in a large sample of patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. METHODS: The authors used mixed-model regression to combine data from multiple assays of clozapine metabolite plasma concentrations from a clozapine monitoring service and carried out a genome-wide analysis of clozapine, norclozapine, and their ratio on 10,353 assays from 2,989 individuals. These analyses were adjusted for demographic factors known to influence clozapine metabolism, although it was not possible to adjust for all potential mediators given the available data. GWAS results were used to pinpoint specific enzymes and metabolic pathways and compounds that might interact with clozapine pharmacokinetics. RESULTS: The authors identified four distinct genome-wide significant loci that harbor common variants affecting the metabolism of clozapine or its metabolites. Detailed examination pointed to coding and regulatory variants at several CYP* and UGT* genes as well as corroborative evidence for interactions between the metabolism of clozapine, coffee, and tobacco. Individual effects of single single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) fine-mapped from these loci were large, such as the minor allele of rs2472297, which was associated with a reduction in clozapine concentrations roughly equivalent to a decrease of 50 mg/day in clozapine dosage. On their own, these single SNPs explained from 1.15% to 9.48% of the variance in the plasma concentration data. CONCLUSIONS: Common genetic variants with large effects on clozapine metabolism exist and can be found via genome-wide approaches. Their identification opens the way for clinical studies assessing the use of pharmacogenomics in the clinical management of patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia.

12.
Br J Psychiatry ; 214(5): 297-304, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30767844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rare copy number variants (CNVs) are associated with risk of neurodevelopmental disorders characterised by varying degrees of cognitive impairment, including schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability. However, the effects of many individual CNVs in carriers without neurodevelopmental disorders are not yet fully understood, and little is known about the effects of reciprocal copy number changes of known pathogenic loci.AimsWe aimed to analyse the effect of CNV carrier status on cognitive performance and measures of occupational and social outcomes in unaffected individuals from the UK Biobank. METHOD: We called CNVs in the full UK Biobank sample and analysed data from 420 247 individuals who passed CNV quality control, reported White British or Irish ancestry and were not diagnosed with neurodevelopmental disorders. We analysed 33 pathogenic CNVs, including their reciprocal deletions/duplications, for association with seven cognitive tests and four general measures of functioning: academic qualifications, occupation, household income and Townsend Deprivation Index. RESULTS: Most CNVs (24 out of 33) were associated with reduced performance on at least one cognitive test or measure of functioning. The changes on the cognitive tests were modest (average reduction of 0.13 s.d.) but varied markedly between CNVs. All 12 schizophrenia-associated CNVs were associated with significant impairments on measures of functioning. CONCLUSIONS: CNVs implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders, including schizophrenia, are associated with cognitive deficits, even among unaffected individuals. These deficits may be subtle but CNV carriers have significant disadvantages in educational attainment and ability to earn income in adult life.Declaration of interestNone.

13.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 74, 2019 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718481

RESUMO

Common genetic variation contributes a substantial proportion of risk for both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Furthermore, there is evidence of significant, but not complete, overlap in genetic risk between the two disorders. It has been hypothesised that genetic variants conferring risk for these disorders do so by influencing brain development, leading to the later emergence of symptoms. The comparative profile of risk gene expression for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder across development over different brain regions however remains unclear. Using genotypes derived from genome-wide associations studies of the largest available cohorts of patients and control subjects, we investigated whether genes enriched for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder association show a bias for expression across any of 13 developmental stages in prefrontal cortical and subcortical brain regions. We show that genetic association with schizophrenia is positively correlated with expression in the prefrontal cortex during early midfetal development and early infancy, and negatively correlated with expression during late childhood, which stabilises in adolescence. In contrast, risk-associated genes for bipolar disorder did not exhibit a bias towards expression at any prenatal stage, although the pattern of postnatal expression was similar to that of schizophrenia. These results highlight the dynamic expression of genes harbouring risk for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder across prefrontal cortex development and support the hypothesis that prenatal neurodevelopmental events are more strongly associated with schizophrenia than bipolar disorder.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Transtorno Bipolar/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Expressão Gênica/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Córtex Pré-Frontal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Lactente , Adulto Jovem
14.
Mol Psychiatry ; 24(3): 328-337, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30647433

RESUMO

Individuals of African ancestry in the United States and Europe are at increased risk of developing schizophrenia and have poorer clinical outcomes. The antipsychotic clozapine, the only licensed medication for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, is under-prescribed and has high rates of discontinuation in individuals of African ancestry, due in part to increased rates of neutropenia. The genetic basis of lower neutrophil levels in those of African ancestry has not previously been investigated in the context of clozapine treatment. We sought to identify risk alleles in the first genome-wide association study of neutrophil levels during clozapine treatment, in 552 individuals with treatment-resistant schizophrenia and robustly inferred African genetic ancestry. Two genome-wide significant loci were associated with low neutrophil counts during clozapine treatment. The most significantly associated locus was driven by rs2814778 (ß = -0.9, P = 4.21 × 10-21), a known regulatory variant in the atypical chemokine receptor 1 (ACKR1) gene. Individuals homozygous for the C allele at rs2814778 were significantly more likely to develop neutropenia and have to stop clozapine treatment (OR = 20.4, P = 3.44 × 10-7). This genotype, also termed "Duffy-null", has previously been shown to be associated with lower neutrophil levels in those of African ancestry. Our results indicate the relevance of the rs2814778 genotype for those taking clozapine and its potential as a pharmacogenetic test, dependent on the outcome of additional safety studies, to assist decision making in the initiation and on-going management of clozapine treatment.

15.
Science ; 362(6420)2018 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30545854

RESUMO

To broaden our understanding of human neurodevelopment, we profiled transcriptomic and epigenomic landscapes across brain regions and/or cell types for the entire span of prenatal and postnatal development. Integrative analysis revealed temporal, regional, sex, and cell type-specific dynamics. We observed a global transcriptomic cup-shaped pattern, characterized by a late fetal transition associated with sharply decreased regional differences and changes in cellular composition and maturation, followed by a reversal in childhood-adolescence, and accompanied by epigenomic reorganizations. Analysis of gene coexpression modules revealed relationships with epigenomic regulation and neurodevelopmental processes. Genes with genetic associations to brain-based traits and neuropsychiatric disorders (including MEF2C, SATB2, SOX5, TCF4, and TSHZ3) converged in a small number of modules and distinct cell types, revealing insights into neurodevelopment and the genomic basis of neuropsychiatric risks.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/embriologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Neurogênese/genética , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Epigênese Genética , Epigenômica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Análise de Célula Única , Transcriptoma
16.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30420267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sequencing studies have pointed to the involvement in schizophrenia of rare coding variants in neuronally expressed genes, including activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (ARC) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) complexes; however, larger samples are required to reveal novel genes and specific biological mechanisms. METHODS: We sequenced 187 genes, selected for prior evidence of association with schizophrenia, in a new dataset of 5207 cases and 4991 controls. Included among these genes were members of ARC and NMDAR postsynaptic protein complexes, as well as voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels. We performed a rare variant meta-analysis with published sequencing data for a total of 11,319 cases, 15,854 controls, and 1136 trios. RESULTS: While no individual gene was significantly associated with schizophrenia after genome-wide correction for multiple testing, we strengthen the evidence that rare exonic variants in the ARC (p = 4.0 × 10-4) and NMDAR (p = 1.7 × 10-5) synaptic complexes are risk factors for schizophrenia. In addition, we found that loss-of-function variants and missense variants at paralog-conserved sites were enriched in voltage-gated sodium channels, particularly the alpha subunits (p = 8.6 × 10-4). CONCLUSIONS: In one of the largest sequencing studies of schizophrenia to date, we provide novel evidence that multiple voltage-gated sodium channels are involved in schizophrenia pathogenesis and confirm the involvement of ARC and NMDAR postsynaptic complexes.

17.
J Med Genet ; 2018 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30343275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genomic CNVs increase the risk for early-onset neurodevelopmental disorders, but their impact on medical outcomes in later life is still poorly understood. The UK Biobank allows us to study the medical consequences of CNVs in middle and old age in half a million well-phenotyped adults. METHODS: We analysed all Biobank participants for the presence of 54 CNVs associated with genomic disorders or clinical phenotypes, including their reciprocal deletions or duplications. After array quality control and exclusion of first-degree relatives, we compared 381 452 participants of white British or Irish origin who carried no CNVs with carriers of each of the 54 CNVs (ranging from 5 to 2843 persons). We used logistic regression analysis to estimate the risk of developing 58 common medical phenotypes (3132 comparisons). RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Many of the CNVs have profound effects on medical health and mortality, even in people who have largely escaped early neurodevelopmental outcomes. Forty-six CNV-phenotype associations were significant at a false discovery rate threshold of 0.1, all in the direction of increased risk. Known medical consequences of CNVs were confirmed, but most identified associations are novel. Deletions at 16p11.2 and 16p12.1 had the largest numbers of significantly associated phenotypes (seven each). Diabetes, hypertension, obesity and renal failure were affected by the highest numbers of CNVs. Our work should inform clinicians in planning and managing the medical care of CNV carriers.

18.
J Psychiatry Neurosci ; 43(4): 245-253, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29947606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairments are well-established features of schizophrenia, but there is ongoing debate about the nature and degree of cognitive impairment in patients with schizoaffective disorder and bipolar disorder. We hypothesized that there is a spectrum of increasing impairment from bipolar disorder to schizoaffective disorder bipolar type, to schizoaffective disorder depressive type and schizophrenia. METHODS: We compared performance on the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) Consensus Cognitive Battery between participants with schizophrenia (n = 558), schizoaffective disorder depressive type (n = 112), schizoaffective disorder type (n = 76), bipolar disorder (n = 78) and healthy participants (n = 103) using analysis of covariance with post hoc comparisons. We conducted an ordinal logistic regression to examine whether cognitive impairments followed the hypothesized spectrum from bipolar disorder (least severe) to schizophrenia (most severe). In addition to categorical diagnoses, we addressed the influence of symptom domains, examining the association between cognition and mania, depression and psychosis. RESULTS: Cognitive impairments increased in severity from bipolar disorder to schizoaffective disorder bipolar type, to schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder depressive type. Participants with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder depressive type showed equivalent performance (d = 0.07, p = 0.90). The results of the ordinal logistic regression were consistent with a spectrum of deficits from bipolar disorder to schizoaffective disorder bipolar type, to schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder depressive type (odds ratio = 1.98, p < 0.001). In analyses of the associations between symptom dimensions and cognition, higher scores on the psychosis dimension were associated with poorer performance (B = 0.015, standard error = 0.002, p < 0.001). LIMITATIONS: There were fewer participants with schizoaffective disorder and bipolar disorder than schizophrenia. Despite this, our analyses were robust to differences in group sizes, and we were able to detect differences between groups. CONCLUSION: Cognitive impairments represent a symptom dimension that cuts across traditional diagnostic boundaries.

19.
Nat Genet ; 50(6): 825-833, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29785013

RESUMO

With few exceptions, the marked advances in knowledge about the genetic basis of schizophrenia have not converged on findings that can be confidently used for precise experimental modeling. By applying knowledge of the cellular taxonomy of the brain from single-cell RNA sequencing, we evaluated whether the genomic loci implicated in schizophrenia map onto specific brain cell types. We found that the common-variant genomic results consistently mapped to pyramidal cells, medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and certain interneurons, but far less consistently to embryonic, progenitor or glial cells. These enrichments were due to sets of genes that were specifically expressed in each of these cell types. We also found that many of the diverse gene sets previously associated with schizophrenia (genes involved in synaptic function, those encoding mRNAs that interact with FMRP, antipsychotic targets, etc.) generally implicated the same brain cell types. Our results suggest a parsimonious explanation: the common-variant genetic results for schizophrenia point at a limited set of neurons, and the gene sets point to the same cells. The genetic risk associated with MSNs did not overlap with that of glutamatergic pyramidal cells and interneurons, suggesting that different cell types have biologically distinct roles in schizophrenia.

20.
Schizophr Res ; 199: 154-162, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29728293

RESUMO

Studies assessing premature mortality in people with severe mental illness (SMI) are usually based in one setting, hospital (secondary care inpatients and/or outpatients) or community (primary care). This may lead to ascertainment bias. This study aimed to estimate standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) for all-cause and cause-specific mortality in people with SMI drawn from linked primary and secondary care populations compared to the general population. SMRs were calculated using the indirect method for a United Kingdom population of almost four million between 2004 and 2013. The all-cause SMR was higher in the cohort identified from secondary care hospital admissions (SMR: 2.9; 95% CI: 2.8-3.0) than from primary care (SMR: 2.2; 95% CI: 2.1-2.3) when compared to the general population. The SMR for the combined cohort was 2.6 (95% CI: 2.5-2.6). Cause specific SMRs in the combined cohort were particularly elevated in those with SMI relative to the general population for ill-defined and unknown causes, suicide, substance abuse, Parkinson's disease, accidents, dementia, infections and respiratory disorders (particularly pneumonia), and Alzheimer's disease. Solely hospital admission based studies, which have dominated the literature hitherto, somewhat over-estimate premature mortality in those with SMI. People with SMI are more likely to die by ill-defined and unknown causes, suicide and other less common and often under-reported causes. Comprehensive characterisation of mortality is important to inform policy and practice and to discriminate settings to allow for proportionate interventions to address this health injustice.

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